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Processes of emotion in the workplace Chapter 11.

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1 Processes of emotion in the workplace Chapter 11

2 QUIZ 1. Stressors are considered elements of the environment that create a strain which can lead to negative outcomes. 2. Organizational burnout refers to a chronic condition that is the wearing out from pressures at work. 3. Emotional exhaustion is not a contributing factor to burnout.

3 QUIZ 4. Stressors outside of the workplace can also contribute to burnout. 5. According to some, some individuals see the workplace as a refuge from life’s daily stressors. 6. All stress is bad. 7. Research indicates that all individuals are predisposed to stress in the same manner.

4 QUIZ 8. Hardiness refers to the tendency to see negative events as challenges to be overcome. 9. Inadequate communication during socialization can cause role conflict and role ambiguity. 10. Emotional labor refers to individuals that don’t do any physical work. 11. An example of an emotional display rule is too always share your true feelings.

5 Emotion in the workplace Part of the job-Hot emotion vs. cool logic Bounded rationality-decisions limited by cognitive and situational factors (Learning Organizations) Emotion (affective content) = A mental state that arises spontaneously rather than through conscious effort and is often accompanied by physiological changes; a feeling: the emotions of joy, sorrow, reverence, hate, and love. Bounded emotionality-emotional quotient

6 Emotional Labor Emotional labor: jobs in which workers are expected to display certain feelings to satisfy organizational role expectations (Hochschild) Genuine (deep acting) vs. Managed emotion (surface acting)-Emotional Dissonance EXAMPLES???? Research –Front-line service workers-EL is way to increase profits –Emotion should be controlled-Mask your bad day w/ smile! –QUESTION? What a/b spontaneous expressions of genuine emotions?

7 Emotion in the Workplace Work relationships create the potential for intense emotion in organizations (such as anger, frustration, elation, excitement, boredom) –Tension between public and private in work relationships Friend becomes boss –Relational networks and emotional “buzzing” Moods & attitudes spread –Conflicting allegiances Personal vs. organizational –Emotional rights and obligations at work Disruption of moral expectations

8 Emotional Display Rules (p. 246) Express in a professional manner Express to improve situations Express to the right people Express to help individuals Don’t manage for personal benefit to the detriment of others Expression of certain emotions is always inappropriate

9 Emotional Intelligence EQ Emotions dynamically affect our thoughts, behaviors, decisions, and communication Skill (IP Competencies) in effectively appraising, understanding, regulating, expressing, & managing emotions in oneself & others Use of feelings/attitude to motivate, plan, & achieve in one’s life

10 Emotional Intelligence EQ Ability to know what you’re feeling, manage your moods, optimistically function even while faced w/ challenges, & restrain negative feelings Self awareness, self control, & situational awareness Skill that can be developed through training Critique-”marketable product” that masks authentic feelings

11 Stress Aspects of environment (stressors) that create strain (BO) which can lead to negative psychological, physiological, and organizational outcomes Roots in physical arousal back to stone age (flight or fight) Only recently (last 30 years) human stress connected to health factors

12 Stress (cont.) 70-80% of all disease and illness is stress related The tension or force placed on an object to bend or break it (physics) Absence of inner peace (Eastern) A loss of control (Western) Any change experienced by an individual (King) A state of anxiety produced when events and responsibilities exceed one’s coping abilities (Lazurus – psychological)

13 Stress (cont.) The rate of wear and tear on the body (physiology) The nonspecific response of the body to any demand placed upon it to adapt, whether that demand produces pleasure or pain (Selye) The inability to cope with a perceived (real or imagined) threat to one’s mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual well being which results in a series of physiological responses and adaptations (holistic) Stress is not the event but the reaction to the event

14 Burnout (BO) Chronic condition Wearing out from pressures at work –Emotional exhaustion –Lack of personal accomplishment –De-personalization Workplace stressors –Workload –Role conflict –Role ambiguity –Stressors outside of workplace

15 Burnout (BO) Individual predisposition to BO –Stress Inventories (class homepage/links) –Type A –Hardiness –Internal locus of control Outcomes of BO on satisfaction, commitment, loyalty, productivity –Physiological –Attitudinal –Behavioral

16 Work-Life Balance Defined –Coexisting success and enjoyment in both one’s personal and professional life –Development, implementation, and facilitation of programs, practices and initiatives that enable employees to balance their work and personal lives –How you juggle the demands of your job and of your personal commitments and how they affect one another –Achievement and enjoyment in private and personal life Time Squeeze- the idea that individuals will try to squeeze more than 24 hours out of a day, or more than the available waking hours out of the day to accomplish extra tasks (Schor).

17 Work-Life Imbalance Life –Peer pressure, Spousal pressure, Family pressure, Associate pressure, Major Life Events Work –Rituals & ceremonies –Boss –High performance & expectations –Peers –Others EFFECTS –Burnout –Stress/strain –Turnover/unsatisfied workers/lower production

18 Communication & BurnOut Communication interactions –Communication load –Role conflict & ambiguity –Communication networks “Emotional labor” & communication –Degree of emotional content –Workers are expected to display certain faces to satisfy org. roles & expectations –Workers at risk

19 Communication & BurnOut “Emotional labor” & communication –FR of emotional displays –Attentiveness to required display rules –Variety of expressed emotions –Emotional dissonance Empathy, communication, and BO –Human service workers –Empathy Emotional contagion-feeling w/ another Empathic concern-feeling for another Communicative responsiveness w/ Empathic Concern experiences less BO and more commitment (detached concern)

20 Techniques for dealing w/ org. stress Problem-focused coping- dealing directly with the causes of burnout Appraisal-focused coping- changing the way one thinks about the stressful situation Emotional-focused coping- dealing with the negative outcomes of burnout

21 Techniques cont. Coping using Participation in Decision Making –Reduces the workplace stressors of role conflict and role ambiguity –Employees feel more valued Functions of social support –Emotional support –Informational support –Instrumental support Sources of support –Supervisors –Co-workers (peers) –Family and friends

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