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Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 5 Early Society in East Asia.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 5 Early Society in East Asia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 5 Early Society in East Asia

2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 2 The Yellow River 3000 Miles: Tibet to the Yellow Sea Deposits fertile, light colored soil Periodic flooding: “China’s sorrow”

3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 3 Prehistoric Society: Yangshao BCE Banpo Village Painted pottery Bone tools

4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 4 The Earliest Dynasties Xia  C BCE  Organized through village network  Hereditary monarchy  Flood control Shang  BCE Zhou  BCE

5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 5 Shang Dynasty Bronze metallurgy from 1200 BCE  State monopoly Horse-drawn chariots, other wheeled vehicles Large armies Political organization: network of fortified cities, loyal to center  1000 cities  Capital moved six times Impressive architecture at Ao, Yin Other regional kingdoms coexist: Sanxingdui

6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 6 Shang Dynasty Burial Practices Hierarchical social structure Live burials alongside deceased member of ruling class  Sacrificial victims, mostly slaves  Wives, servants, friends, hunting companions  Later replaced by statuary, often monumental

7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 7 Zhou Dynasty, BCE No law codes: rule by decree  “Mandate of Heaven” Aggregation of villages opposed to Shang leadership  Decentralization of authority Development of cheap iron weaponry ends Shang monopoly on Bronze Early money economy

8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 8 Decline of the Zhou Dynasty Decentralized leadership style allows for building of regional powers  Increasing local independence, refusal to pay Zhou taxes Iron metallurgy allows for widespread creation of weaponry Northern invaders weaken Zhou dynasty, beginning 8 th c BCE Internal dissention: the Period of the Warring States ( BCE)

9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 9 Period of the Warring States ( BCE)

10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 10 Social Order Ruling classes great advantage  Palatial compounds, luxurious lifestyle  Supported by agricultural surplus, tax revenues  Defended by monopoly on bronze weaponry  Hereditary privilege Support class of artisans, craftsmen Evidence of long-distance trade, merchant class Large class of semi servile peasants Slave class

11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 11 Family and Patriarchy devotion to family, ancestor veneration connection of spirit world to physical world  Ritual sacrifices Father ritual head of family rites Earlier prominence of individual female leaders fades in later Shang, Zhou dynasties

12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 12 Oracle Bones and Early Chinese Writing Used for communicating with spirit world, determining future  Question written on animal bones, turtle shells  Then heated over fire, cracks examined for omens Early archaeological evidence of Chinese writing Evolution of Chinese script  Pictograph to ideograph

13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 13 Oracle Bone from Shang Dynasty

14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 14 Zhou Literature Confucius (discussed in chapter 8) Book of Changes  Manual for divination Book of History Book of Etiquette (Book of Rites) Book of Songs Little survived  Often written on perishable bamboo strips  Many destroyed by Emperor of Qin dynasty in 221 BCE

15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 15 Nomadic Peoples of Central Asia Steppe nomads  Poor lands for cultivation, extensive herding activities  Horses domesticated c BCE, bronze metallurgy in 2900 BCE Extensive trade with sedentary cultures in China Tensions: frequent raiding

16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 16 Southern Expansion of Chinese Society Yangzi Valley  Yangzi river: Chang Jiang, “long river”  Excellent for rice cultivation  Irrigation system developed The State of Chu  Autonomous, challenged Zhou dynasty  Culture heavily influenced by Chinese


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