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Broken people in a broken world: Member care and suffering Dr Debbie Hawker InterHealth

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1 Broken people in a broken world: Member care and suffering Dr Debbie Hawker InterHealth

2 Member care and suffering What is there to say? What is there to say? Suffering happens Suffering happens Suffering happens everywhere, whether we stay or go Suffering happens everywhere, whether we stay or go I do not follow the ‘gospel of emotional prosperity’ (constant happiness) I do not follow the ‘gospel of emotional prosperity’ (constant happiness) Following Jesus means a willingness to sacrifice and to accept risk & suffering Following Jesus means a willingness to sacrifice and to accept risk & suffering

3 God does not promise to protect us from suffering Almost the opposite (‘you will suffer’) Almost the opposite (‘you will suffer’) But He promises that if we abide in Him, He will be with us while we suffer, and we will be with Him in eternity (with no more sorrow) But He promises that if we abide in Him, He will be with us while we suffer, and we will be with Him in eternity (with no more sorrow) ‘He will never leave you’ (Deut 31:6) ‘He will never leave you’ (Deut 31:6) ‘Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death … you are with me’ (Ps 23:4) ‘Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death … you are with me’ (Ps 23:4) ‘When you pass through the waters, I will be with you’ (Is 43.2). ‘When you pass through the waters, I will be with you’ (Is 43.2).

4 This is not a new issue Mission has always involved sacrifice, risk and suffering Mission has always involved sacrifice, risk and suffering In the past, some mission personnel were advised to pack their belongings in a coffin, and assume they would not return alive In the past, some mission personnel were advised to pack their belongings in a coffin, and assume they would not return alive The suffering may have been different (e.g. more died through topical illnesses) The suffering may have been different (e.g. more died through topical illnesses) Some were martyred then. More are martyred now. Some were martyred then. More are martyred now.

5 Current trends There are approximately 3 times as many lethal natural disasters during any given year than there were 25 years ago (due to more people living in disaster prone areas, and increase in hurricanes, floods, droughts etc) There are approximately 3 times as many lethal natural disasters during any given year than there were 25 years ago (due to more people living in disaster prone areas, and increase in hurricanes, floods, droughts etc)

6 Current trends Kidnapping of humanitarian workers has increased by 350% over the last 3 years Kidnapping of humanitarian workers has increased by 350% over the last 3 years In 2008, 260 humanitarian aid workers were killed, kidnapped or seriously injured in violent attacks, representing a 12-year high In 2008, 260 humanitarian aid workers were killed, kidnapped or seriously injured in violent attacks, representing a 12-year high

7 Christians at risk Targeted because of their faith or nationality Targeted because of their faith or nationality But more are killed in traffic accidents But more are killed in traffic accidents

8 The need is for more than just a good psychologist/ counsellor These people don’t need me to just offer a good ‘treatment’ (for trauma, depression or whatever) – although that can be very important These people don’t need me to just offer a good ‘treatment’ (for trauma, depression or whatever) – although that can be very important A psychologist or counsellor may be able to offer some help, but what really matters is for them to know God sustaining them A psychologist or counsellor may be able to offer some help, but what really matters is for them to know God sustaining them There is more to member care than good counselling There is more to member care than good counselling Our ultimate goal is not to remove all problems or suffering or to make everyone happy Our ultimate goal is not to remove all problems or suffering or to make everyone happy

9 What is member care? Some people believe it is ‘just counselling’ or even ‘coddling’ (‘wrapping missionaries in cotton wool’) Some people believe it is ‘just counselling’ or even ‘coddling’ (‘wrapping missionaries in cotton wool’) Some see it as preventing, reducing or removing risk and suffering Some see it as preventing, reducing or removing risk and suffering Some see it only as reactive – if there is a problem, member carers come in to help solve it Some see it only as reactive – if there is a problem, member carers come in to help solve it

10 What is member care? What is member care? In fact, it aims to prevent as well as tackle problems In fact, it aims to prevent as well as tackle problems But IT IS MORE THAN THIS But IT IS MORE THAN THIS 20 years ago, there was much less member care 20 years ago, there was much less member care Few people were debriefed; now debriefing is commonly accepted and expected Few people were debriefed; now debriefing is commonly accepted and expected

11 What is member care? What is member care? 20 years ago, few evangelical Christians went on retreats or had spiritual directors or mentors 20 years ago, few evangelical Christians went on retreats or had spiritual directors or mentors Now, these are becoming more accepted. I’m encouraged that by the ‘spirituality track’at this EMCC, and the sessions on retreats, spiritual formation etc. Now, these are becoming more accepted. I’m encouraged that by the ‘spirituality track’at this EMCC, and the sessions on retreats, spiritual formation etc. I believe spiritual growth is the next major area to move to in member care I believe spiritual growth is the next major area to move to in member care Many mission partners now have less ‘grounding’ in the Bible than in previous generations Many mission partners now have less ‘grounding’ in the Bible than in previous generations Assisting spiritual growth and discipleship is key Assisting spiritual growth and discipleship is key

12 So, what can we do, as member care providers? Pray – for those who are suffering, and for wisdom Pray – for those who are suffering, and for wisdom Help people work out what is ‘wise risk’ and what is unnecessary risk (especially where children/ vulnerable people are involved) Help people work out what is ‘wise risk’ and what is unnecessary risk (especially where children/ vulnerable people are involved) Help people cope with difficulties and remain close to God and glorify Him Help people cope with difficulties and remain close to God and glorify Him

13 Before people go Wise selection of people & placements Wise selection of people & placements

14 Good preparation (foster resilience) Emotional: Humour; expectations; talking/ journaling Emotional: Humour; expectations; talking/ journaling Spiritual: * theology of suffering/ risk Spiritual: * theology of suffering/ risk * consideration of ‘call’ and purpose * consideration of ‘call’ and purpose * on-going spiritual growth * on-going spiritual growth * attitude of gratitude * attitude of gratitude * forgiveness * forgiveness * eternal perspective * eternal perspective Relationships: A healthy support network; teams Relationships: A healthy support network; teams Physical: Maintaining healthy life-style (including exercise, rest, etc) Physical: Maintaining healthy life-style (including exercise, rest, etc) Thought processes; problem-solving; sense of purpose Thought processes; problem-solving; sense of purpose

15 While people are away Maintaining good links/ communication Maintaining good links/ communication Dealing with problems early (including conflict) Dealing with problems early (including conflict) On-going support On-going support Mentor/ spiritual director/ retreats/ help with spiritual growth Mentor/ spiritual director/ retreats/ help with spiritual growth Also support for extended family Also support for extended family Intervention if there are difficulties (conflict, crises etc) Intervention if there are difficulties (conflict, crises etc) Discussion about the future/ prep for ‘what’s next’ Discussion about the future/ prep for ‘what’s next’

16 At times of crisis Additional support Additional support May involve helping them decide whether to stay or leave May involve helping them decide whether to stay or leave Don’t assume that leaving is always best (e.g. MCS – better to stay with peer group) Don’t assume that leaving is always best (e.g. MCS – better to stay with peer group) Risk/ benefit analysis (children ‘at home’ face risks – bullying/ no faith/ self-harm/ drugs/ depression etc) Risk/ benefit analysis (children ‘at home’ face risks – bullying/ no faith/ self-harm/ drugs/ depression etc)

17 When people return ‘home’ Welcome, affirmation Welcome, affirmation Good debriefing Good debriefing On-going care and support On-going care and support Where there has been post-traumatic stress, don’t just treat that, but help to foster post- traumatic growth including spiritual growth Where there has been post-traumatic stress, don’t just treat that, but help to foster post- traumatic growth including spiritual growth

18 Guidelines for good practice in member care (UK) New value is under discussion New value is under discussion ‘Serving Christ involves risk and suffering; our aim is not to remove all difficulties, but to help personnel cope with them in a way which glorifies God’ ‘Serving Christ involves risk and suffering; our aim is not to remove all difficulties, but to help personnel cope with them in a way which glorifies God’ Member care is not an end in itself. The aim is to help equip personnel for effective and sustainable ministry. Holiness is more important than happiness. Member care is not an end in itself. The aim is to help equip personnel for effective and sustainable ministry. Holiness is more important than happiness.

19 Our aim Whilst member care often reduces difficulties and increases wellbeing, a more important aim is to help personnel cope with difficulties, so that they can be more effective in ministry. Whilst member care often reduces difficulties and increases wellbeing, a more important aim is to help personnel cope with difficulties, so that they can be more effective in ministry. We do what we can to help, and trust the rest to God. We do what we can to help, and trust the rest to God.

20 Literature on suffering What matters is not the cause or the extent of the suffering, but the meaning we make of it and how we respond to it. Suffering can make us or break us. Suffering can make us or break us. We are damaged, or we recover, or we grow through it We are damaged, or we recover, or we grow through it

21 Suffering is an opportunity If we don’t suffer, how can we identify with the suffering people we minister to? (2 Cor 1:3-4 ‘Praise God … who comforts us … so that we can comfort others’). If we don’t suffer, how can we identify with the suffering people we minister to? (2 Cor 1:3-4 ‘Praise God … who comforts us … so that we can comfort others’). Through suffering, we grow to maturity Through suffering, we grow to maturity God is glorified when we suffer and continue to trust Him God is glorified when we suffer and continue to trust Him Simon Guillebaud speaks powerfully of embracing risk and expecting suffering Simon Guillebaud speaks powerfully of embracing risk and expecting suffering

22 Before my first mission trip 20 years ago I read book with 4 chapters Ch. 1: Prepare to be misunderstood Ch. 1: Prepare to be misunderstood Ch. 2: Prepare to be persecuted Ch. 2: Prepare to be persecuted Ch. 3: What we can learn from the Peace Corps Ch. 3: What we can learn from the Peace Corps Ch. 4: Prepare for culture shock Ch. 4: Prepare for culture shock (‘Don’t go overseas until you’ve read this book’ by Neil Gallagher) Do we still prepare people for suffering? (Brother Yun does…)

23 From suffering to work-life balance We should talk about suffering We should talk about suffering And also about rest and looking after oneself And also about rest and looking after oneself It’s not one or the other; both have a place It’s not one or the other; both have a place Jesus wept and Jesus went to parties Jesus wept and Jesus went to parties

24 Posttraumatic growth There is now a lot of literature on this There is now a lot of literature on this Spirituality can lead to posttraumatic growth, or be a source of struggle when trauma occurs (faith is shattered as the trauma does not fit in with our beliefs about God) Spirituality can lead to posttraumatic growth, or be a source of struggle when trauma occurs (faith is shattered as the trauma does not fit in with our beliefs about God)

25 Phil 4:12-13 ‘I have learned the secret of being content in any and every situation, whether well fed or hungry, whether living in plenty or in want. I can do everything through him who gives me strength’ ‘I have learned the secret of being content in any and every situation, whether well fed or hungry, whether living in plenty or in want. I can do everything through him who gives me strength’

26 Quote from Philip Yancey Christians in affluent countries tend to pray, ‘Lord take this trial away from us’. I have heard prisoners, persecuted Christians, and some who live in very poor countries, pray instead, ‘Lord, give us the strength to bear this trial’. (Reaching for the invisible God, 2000)

27 So much depends on attitude I come from a culture which wants to avoid risk, and promises instant gratification I come from a culture which wants to avoid risk, and promises instant gratification A culture of ‘rights’, and complaints A culture of ‘rights’, and complaints

28 Complaints written by those visiting the Bridger Wilderness (one of the wonders of USA) (A magnificent, unspoilt region of over 400 acres, with mountains & glaciers, forests, lakes & wildlife) (A magnificent, unspoilt region of over 400 acres, with mountains & glaciers, forests, lakes & wildlife) ‘Trails need to be wider, so people can walk while holding hands’ ‘Trails need to be wider, so people can walk while holding hands’ ‘Please avoid building trails that go up hill’ ‘Please avoid building trails that go up hill’ ‘Too many bugs and leeches and spiders webs. Please spray the wilderness to rid the areas of these pests’ ‘Too many bugs and leeches and spiders webs. Please spray the wilderness to rid the areas of these pests’

29 Complaints written by those visiting the Bridger Wilderness Escalators would help on steep uphill sections’ Escalators would help on steep uphill sections’ ‘Chair-lifts need to be in some places so that we can get to wonderful views without having to hike them’ ‘Chair-lifts need to be in some places so that we can get to wonderful views without having to hike them’ A McDonalds would be nice at the trailhead’ A McDonalds would be nice at the trailhead’

30 Feedback from short-term mission trips Is sometimes rather similar (e.g. ‘we were told about the lovely beaches, but hardly got any time to spend on them’) Is sometimes rather similar (e.g. ‘we were told about the lovely beaches, but hardly got any time to spend on them’)

31 Factors increasing resilience among African missionaries Strong sense of community and family Strong sense of community and family Not expecting to get everything they would like (no ‘it’s my right’ attitude) – i.e. acceptance Not expecting to get everything they would like (no ‘it’s my right’ attitude) – i.e. acceptance A tendency to forgive mistakes A tendency to forgive mistakes An expectation that life will be difficult An expectation that life will be difficult High value placed on hospitality & generosity (giving to others who have less) High value placed on hospitality & generosity (giving to others who have less) (Carr, 2006) (Carr, 2006) Also add: Also add: Gratitude for what we have; eternal perspective; joy; praise Gratitude for what we have; eternal perspective; joy; praise

32 Can we help build these resilience factors, among Europeans also?

33 When something bad happens Do I complain? Do I complain? Or thank God it wasn’t worse, and pray for anyone who might have done it to me? Or thank God it wasn’t worse, and pray for anyone who might have done it to me?

34 And foster LOVE Love can help us endure much pain (‘social support’/ knowing we are loved) Love can help us endure much pain (‘social support’/ knowing we are loved) Love can help teams/ co-workers accept each other despite differences Love can help teams/ co-workers accept each other despite differences Love can provide a sense of meaning which helps us keep going despite difficulties (loving those we minister to) Love can provide a sense of meaning which helps us keep going despite difficulties (loving those we minister to) Love for God, our neighbours, our family … and ourselves Love for God, our neighbours, our family … and ourselves

35 There is suffering which we can’t change But there is also suffering which we CAN change. But there is also suffering which we CAN change. Sometimes our actions can help PREVENT suffering. It might be as simple as advising mission personnel to take more care in what we put on Facebook/ internet. Or to go on security courses (simulation training). Or to address problems early… Sometimes our actions can help PREVENT suffering. It might be as simple as advising mission personnel to take more care in what we put on Facebook/ internet. Or to go on security courses (simulation training). Or to address problems early…

36 What’s the worst part of mission? Mission workers often report coping well with traumatic experiences (they are prepared for them; they are one-off and soon over; they are not aimed at them personally). They struggle more with on-going stresses of life in a ‘difficult’ culture, and relationship problems (more personal), & over-work.

37 ‘What was the worst part of your mission experience?’ % Cultural frustrations 21 Relationship problems18 Dissatisfaction with work/ agency17 Missing home/ problems at home12 Traumatic incidents 8 Living conditions/ health 6 Isolation 5 Returning home 5 Everything/ no response 8

38 Can busyness cause suffering?

39 Quote from Anthony de Mello ‘the great tragedy of life lies not in how much we suffer, but in how much we miss’ ‘the great tragedy of life lies not in how much we suffer, but in how much we miss’

40 What can we do about the suffering which arises due to busyness? The MKs I come across rarely complain about the traumatic events they experienced The MKs I come across rarely complain about the traumatic events they experienced More complain about not having enough time with their parents (‘they cared more about ministry than about me’). More complain about not having enough time with their parents (‘they cared more about ministry than about me’).

41 During war in Nepal & Darfur Missionaries told me that over-work caused them more stress than the war Missionaries told me that over-work caused them more stress than the war

42 Obstacles to growth survey ( ) Data from over 20,000 Christians in 139 countries found that 40% of Christians around the world said they ‘often’ or ‘always’ rush from task to task. About 60% said it’s ‘often’ or ‘always’ true that ‘the busyness of life gets in the way of developing my relationship with God’.

43 What can we do to reduce over- busyness? In our lives, and to help others? In our lives, and to help others?

44 Those who have been close to death Often learn to value every moment Often learn to value every moment But many of us are too busy to do that, and we become depressed not because of major traumas, but because of ongoing, cumulative stress But many of us are too busy to do that, and we become depressed not because of major traumas, but because of ongoing, cumulative stress

45 Searching for treasure On 1 st Jan 2008, a Dad & his 7-year old son agreed to spend at least 15 minutes daily searching for treasure together On 1 st Jan 2008, a Dad & his 7-year old son agreed to spend at least 15 minutes daily searching for treasure together They found coins, golf balls, recyclable bottles & other items worth E720 in the year, & enjoyed hours of fun together They found coins, golf balls, recyclable bottles & other items worth E720 in the year, & enjoyed hours of fun together What do we invest 15 minutes a day in? Time with God? Family? What do we invest 15 minutes a day in? Time with God? Family?

46 What can member care providers offer? Allow people, including leaders, to express their ‘doubts’, differences, and questions (e.g. will this person who committed suicide go to hell?’ or even ‘does God send anyone to eternal torment?’) Allow people, including leaders, to express their ‘doubts’, differences, and questions (e.g. will this person who committed suicide go to hell?’ or even ‘does God send anyone to eternal torment?’) This can lead to growth, and protect from disaster This can lead to growth, and protect from disaster Don’t be judgemental Don’t be judgemental Be humble, and willing to admit ‘I don’t know’. Be humble, and willing to admit ‘I don’t know’.

47 What can member care providers offer? What can member care providers offer? Let God be judge, not us. Let God be judge, not us. ‘For your thoughts are not my thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, declares the Lord’ (Is 55: 8). ‘For your thoughts are not my thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, declares the Lord’ (Is 55: 8).

48 What if you feel broken? And what about broken people who apply to be mission personnel?

49 God chooses and uses people who have been broken God chooses and uses people who have been broken Look at the Bible (Moses, David, Rahab, Peter, Saul/Paul etc) Look at the Bible (Moses, David, Rahab, Peter, Saul/Paul etc) I would probably not pass most standard missionary selection procedures I would probably not pass most standard missionary selection procedures Marjory Foyle (who has been working in missions since 1949) received a reference from her pastor saying she should ‘never be sent to India because she was a very nervous person’! Marjory Foyle (who has been working in missions since 1949) received a reference from her pastor saying she should ‘never be sent to India because she was a very nervous person’!

50 Strength from weakness ‘My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness’ (2 Cor 12:9) ‘My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness’ (2 Cor 12:9) Those ‘whose weakness was turned to strength’ (Hebrews 11: 34) Those ‘whose weakness was turned to strength’ (Hebrews 11: 34)

51 Don’t write people off Sometimes, those who have been ‘broken’ become our most effective mission workers. E.g. those who have recovered from depression, and learned how to look after themselves and become more resilient Sometimes, those who have been ‘broken’ become our most effective mission workers. E.g. those who have recovered from depression, and learned how to look after themselves and become more resilient

52 Do we avoid risks? Do we avoid risks? Christian Aid’s ‘Platform 2’ project aims to recruit the disadvantaged (‘risky’), who cannot afford to go overseas. Other agencies also seek the disabled & disadvantaged Christian Aid’s ‘Platform 2’ project aims to recruit the disadvantaged (‘risky’), who cannot afford to go overseas. Other agencies also seek the disabled & disadvantaged An aim is to help boost their resilience (confidence, skills etc) through service An aim is to help boost their resilience (confidence, skills etc) through service Some short-term teams allow someone who is not yet a committed Christian to join the team Some short-term teams allow someone who is not yet a committed Christian to join the team

53 Do we avoid risks? Do we avoid risks? My first short-term team included a new Christian who had recently left jail My first short-term team included a new Christian who had recently left jail Most mission personnel are the ‘advantaged’ (those with wealth, health, education) Most mission personnel are the ‘advantaged’ (those with wealth, health, education)

54 Brokenness Try not to label people as ‘broken’ or ‘victims’. It can become our identity and we can get stuck in the label, and not be willing to try things God wants us to try, as we feel unable.

55 Victims or survivors? Communities in East Timor who were told they were traumatized victims sat listlessly and explained they were overwhelmed and unable to help children. Communities in East Timor who were told they were traumatized victims sat listlessly and explained they were overwhelmed and unable to help children. Through empowerment-focussed activities, most demonstrated significant well-being and organized activities to support children. The change came through thinking of themselves as survivors, not victims (Wessells, 2009). Through empowerment-focussed activities, most demonstrated significant well-being and organized activities to support children. The change came through thinking of themselves as survivors, not victims (Wessells, 2009).

56 In our own strength we can do nothing, but… ‘I can do all things, through Christ who strengthens me’ (Phil 4:13) ‘The battle belongs to the Lord’ (1 Sam 17:47) God multiplies the little loaves and fish we offer See also 2 Cor 6:3-10.

57 Broken people in a broken world or… PEOPLE WITH POTENTIAL, IN A WORLD FULL OF POTENTIAL

58 What is broken may be restored Even when it looks impossible Even when it looks impossible In this life In this life Or in eternity Or in eternity

59 The cracks may still show A set of 17 th century porcelain vases were smashed in a museum when a visitor tripped over his shoelaces A set of 17 th century porcelain vases were smashed in a museum when a visitor tripped over his shoelaces 25 trays were filled with fragments 25 trays were filled with fragments A huge process of restoration took place A huge process of restoration took place It’s possible to cover up cracks, so why were the cracks left visible? It’s possible to cover up cracks, so why were the cracks left visible?

60 An expert restorer replied: ‘This is an antique, it tells a story, and the cracks are part of the story’. Like an antique, our brokenness is part of our story. We don’t have to hide it. Like an antique, our brokenness is part of our story. We don’t have to hide it. We have this treasure in jars of clay (2 Cor 4:7). We become stronger at the places where we were broken and then restored. We have this treasure in jars of clay (2 Cor 4:7). We become stronger at the places where we were broken and then restored.

61 ‘Broken people’ Are still used by God (as they were in Bible) Are still used by God (as they were in Bible) Our selection processes should not mean we exclude everyone who has been ‘broken’ (through previous depression etc) Our selection processes should not mean we exclude everyone who has been ‘broken’ (through previous depression etc) See how they are coping NOW See how they are coping NOW Some of those who have been ‘broken’ are the most resilient, most effective people of God Some of those who have been ‘broken’ are the most resilient, most effective people of God

62 ‘Broken people in a broken world’ Which do I address, the individuals or the ‘broken world’? Which do I address, the individuals or the ‘broken world’? The Bible has a LOT to say about issues of injustice and poverty – what am I doing to address these issues? And to support those who are tackling them? The Bible has a LOT to say about issues of injustice and poverty – what am I doing to address these issues? And to support those who are tackling them?

63 Broken world This world is broken by wars, violence, starvation, disasters, poverty, disease, climate change … suffering of every kind. This world is broken by wars, violence, starvation, disasters, poverty, disease, climate change … suffering of every kind. What are we doing about the WORLD? We care for individuals, but we are also people God calls to do something about injustice, poverty, environmental issues. What am I doing about the broken world? What are we doing about the WORLD? We care for individuals, but we are also people God calls to do something about injustice, poverty, environmental issues. What am I doing about the broken world?

64 A semi-summary We are people of potential in a world of potential We are people of potential in a world of potential As member-care providers, we should act responsibly to help prevent unnecessary suffering (including suffering through over-work & relationship problems, and through attitude of expecting no difficulties) As member-care providers, we should act responsibly to help prevent unnecessary suffering (including suffering through over-work & relationship problems, and through attitude of expecting no difficulties) We can offer support & counselling when required We can offer support & counselling when required To go deeper, help people grow closer to God so that they can endure difficult times To go deeper, help people grow closer to God so that they can endure difficult times Foster LOVE Foster LOVE Don’t ignore our part in the bigger picture Don’t ignore our part in the bigger picture

65 Member care in the balance 1. Be a ‘repairer of broken walls’ (Is 58:12). ‘Bind up the broken-hearted’ (Is. 61:1). ‘Bind up the broken-hearted’ (Is. 61:1). 2. Remember ‘For me to live is Christ, to die is gain’ (Phil 1.21). True restoration occurs in eternity. Keep an eternal perspective. 3. God’s ways are greater than our ways. Trust in His mercy and grace – we don’t know all the answers.

66 Don’t let’s end the conference on a negative note There are stories from around the world of God working in wonderful ways There are stories from around the world of God working in wonderful ways God promises to ‘restore what the locust has eaten’ (Joel 2:25) God promises to ‘restore what the locust has eaten’ (Joel 2:25) ‘In this world you will have trouble… I have overcome the world’ (John 16:33) ‘In this world you will have trouble… I have overcome the world’ (John 16:33) Keep our eyes fixed on eternity … there is suffering in this world, but no tears or sorrow in heaven. Keep our eyes fixed on eternity … there is suffering in this world, but no tears or sorrow in heaven. ‘Mercy triumphs over judgement’ (James 2:13). ‘Mercy triumphs over judgement’ (James 2:13).

67 A prayer: Col 1:11-12 ‘We pray that you’ll have the strength to stick it out over the long haul – not the grim strength of gritting your teeth but the glory-strength God gives. It is strength that endures the unendurable and spills over into joy, thanking the Father who makes us strong enough to take part in everything … that he has for us’ (The Message) ‘We pray that you’ll have the strength to stick it out over the long haul – not the grim strength of gritting your teeth but the glory-strength God gives. It is strength that endures the unendurable and spills over into joy, thanking the Father who makes us strong enough to take part in everything … that he has for us’ (The Message)

68 Can we declare together: ‘I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed … the Spirit helps us in our weakness. We do not know what we ought to pray, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groans that words cannot express’ (Romans 8:18; 26) ‘I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed … the Spirit helps us in our weakness. We do not know what we ought to pray, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groans that words cannot express’ (Romans 8:18; 26)

69 In twos or threes What, if anything, will you act on from this talk? What, if anything, will you act on from this talk? Pray Pray

70 Further reading Calhoun, LG & Tedeschi, RG (2006). Handbook of posttraumatic growth: research and practice. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum. Calhoun, LG & Tedeschi, RG (2006). Handbook of posttraumatic growth: research and practice. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum. Carr, KF (2006). The Mobile Member Care Team as a means of responding to crises: West Africa. In L. Barbanel & RJ Sternberg (Eds) Psychological Interventions in Times of Crisis. New York: Baywood. Carr, KF (2006). The Mobile Member Care Team as a means of responding to crises: West Africa. In L. Barbanel & RJ Sternberg (Eds) Psychological Interventions in Times of Crisis. New York: Baywood.

71 Further reading Further reading Horsfall, T. (2008). Mentoring for spiritual growth. Abingdon: BFR. Horsfall, T. (2008). Mentoring for spiritual growth. Abingdon: BFR. Horsfall, T. (2009). Working from a place of rest. Abingdon: BRF. Horsfall, T. (2009). Working from a place of rest. Abingdon: BRF. Lovell-Hawker, D. (2009). Supporting staff responding to disasters: recruitment, briefing and on-going care. London: People In Aid. Lovell-Hawker, D. (2009). Supporting staff responding to disasters: recruitment, briefing and on-going care. London: People In Aid.

72 Further reading Lovell-Hawker, D. (2010). Debriefing aid workers and missionaries: A comprehensive manual. London: People In Aid. Lovell-Hawker, D. (2010). Debriefing aid workers and missionaries: A comprehensive manual. London: People In Aid. Neenan, M. (2009). Developing resilience. London: Routledge. Neenan, M. (2009). Developing resilience. London: Routledge. Wessells, M.G. (2009). Do no harm: Toward contextually appropriate psychosocial support in international emergencies. American Psychologist, Nov, Wessells, M.G. (2009). Do no harm: Toward contextually appropriate psychosocial support in international emergencies. American Psychologist, Nov,

73 Theology of suffering Walker, E. (2007). Reflections from the scorched earth. Oxford: Monarch. Walker, E. (2007). Reflections from the scorched earth. Oxford: Monarch. Yancey, P. (1990). Where is God when it hurts? Grand Rapids: Zondervan. Yancey, P. (1990). Where is God when it hurts? Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

74 Theology of suffering 1. From Ken Williams (written): 1. From Ken Williams (written): Toward%20a%20Theology%20of%20Sufferin g.pdf Toward%20a%20Theology%20of%20Sufferin g.pdf 2. ‘Sovereignty, suffering and the work of missions’ by Steve Saint, and other talks (audio): 2. ‘Sovereignty, suffering and the work of missions’ by Steve Saint, and other talks (audio): nferenceMessages/ByConference/1/ nferenceMessages/ByConference/1/


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