Presentation on theme: "Pronunciation - There was no single form of national received pronunciation in his day - Regional accents were much more individual than they are now that."— Presentation transcript:
Pronunciation - There was no single form of national received pronunciation in his day - Regional accents were much more individual than they are now that we have had 500 years of orthographic and phonetic standardization; Very perceptible differences from today but not as great since the Great Vowel Shift - Shakespeare came from an oral society primarily the nasal a (pronounced like the "ah" in apple): father, i want to wash i' the water with margaret gardener. art thou walkin' and talkin' with arthur and martha martin? the o sound (pronounced "uh" as in shove): mother, brother doth want another brother verily much; but with such a brother, heaven above, give us not another! the ow and oo blend (pronounced "owoo" as in owl): how now, brown cow? a lousey mouse now i' the house doth be down with the sow by the plow. thou sour cow! the uh and ee blend (pronounced "uhee" like spice): my, thy fly doth fly high, cy. by and by my fly shall be thy fly. i sigh and be like to die o' delight! the fly is thine. the short a and e blend (pronounced "eh" like said): make the baker bake a cake that i might take. hast thou ate? long a and long e blend (pronounce "ea" like the a in day): see, she doth be belove'd o' lee stream. she seems please'd. he seizes secret delights. she leaps under freely. pronouncing "ed" (pronounce it as an extra full syllable): he turne'd, stoppe'd, and aske'd "art thou angere'd?" the "zh" sound (pronounce "sure" as "zhure"): a measure o' pleasure doth be an earthly treasure. leisure doth be another measure o' pleasure. special words: *surely* (ssurely, not shurely), *william* (willam) drake's father shall *ne'er* (drop the v) have the *patience* (pa-c-ience) or *affection* (a-ffect-c-ion) to take pleasure i' bein' *married* (marr-i-ed) now. sin' he doth be *perfection* (per-fect-c-ion), i *assure* (a-ssure, not a-shure) the oo sound (pronounced like a cross b/t "ooom" and "um"...sort of swallow the sound in the back of your throat): take comfort and come from thy dumb sorrow. thou hast a bumpy lump on thy hump good hunchback. come! but nay! come, cousin! Sonnet 145: (http://www.youtube. com/watch?v=im3cX ZPenzQ)http://www.youtube. com/watch?v=im3cX ZPenzQ John Barton reads from Henry V: (from “Language and Character” in Playing Shakespeare) Chorus: Now entertain conjecture of a time When creeping murmur and the poring dark Fills the wide vessel of the universe. From camp to camp through the foul womb of night The hum of either army stilly sounds, That the fixed sentinels almost receive The secret whispers of each other's watch: Those lips that Love's own hand did make Breathed forth the sound that said "I hate" To me that languished for her sake; But when she saw my woeful state, Straight in her heart did mercy come, Chiding that tongue that ever sweet Was used in giving gentle doom, And taught it thus anew to greet: "I hate" she altered with an end, That followed it as gentle day Doth follow night, who like a fiend From heaven to hell is flown away. "I hate" from hate away she threw, And saved my life, saying "not you."
William Shakespeare&The English Language Presented by: Dave Mitchell Historical Context Print accelerating standardization and conventions becoming fixed – printing since Caxton Push for English as a Prestige language during the Renaissance -competition with Latin-competition with French-growing middle class -growing nationalism (across Europe)-printing and books-Reformation 5 – 7 Million native English speakers at the end of the 16th century (today it is used by at least 750 million, perhaps 1 billion – about half as their mother tongue) London had become a large city of between 150,000 and 200,000 Renaissance added 10,000 – 12,000 new words to the lexicon - Following considerable influx of French words in Middle English, and then Latin - Borrowings from Latin reached its climax during Shakespeare’s career and leveled off somewhat afterwards Inkhorn Controversy – “pretentiously learned” - objection to excessive, obscurantist, overly erudite Latin borrowing, especially when English equivalents were available – compromise eventually reached - Increased study of, and commentary on, the English language Shakespeare’s Roots - Born 1564 in Stratford; Went to grammar school - Would have spoken a kind of Midlands English, Stratford lay at the crossroads of the three great regional speech areas of England – he could use them all and loved to experiment with words - Basically everything that was happened in the language was also going on in his writing Movements in the Language: SPELLINGGRAMMARSTYLEPUNNINGMULT. NEGATIVES PREPOSITIONS“DOST & DOTH“THOU/THEE/YE/YOU”“ADO”BORROWING Shakespeare’s Role - his prestige may have inadvertently produced a certain amount of fixing - Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary in the mid 18th century got half of its quotations from Shakespeare, Dryden, Milton,Addison, Bacon, Pope, and the Bible and saw these as the English language authorities The Age of Bibles- Tyndale: 1525- Coverdale: 1535- Mathew: 1537 - The Great Bible: 1539- Geneva: 1560- Bishops’: 1568 - Douay/Rheims: 1582, 1609- King James: 1611
Word Formation Shakespeare is the single greatest inventor of the English language - contributions range from 800 to more than 3000 Coining - Inventing totally new words Functional Shifts - Distinctive function of the English language – virtually any word type can be shifted to any other, Shakespeare uses very wide range of shifts: Compounds - Combining two or more free morphemes Hybrids & Affixation - not like Old English where no part of the 2 words in a compound were lost (borrowing from French made this more difficult) - Prefixes: be-, dis-, en-, im-, in-, mis-, o’er-, pre-, re-, un-, under-,up- - Suffixes: -able, -age, -al, -ance, -ant, -ed, -er, -est, -idity, -ified, -ing, -ish, -ism, -ist, -ity, -ive, -ize, -less, -ly, -ment, -ness, -ous, -rist, -ry, -ure, -y, Latinate Loans - He is careful to place borrowed Latin words within a line where they coincide with heavy stress and achieve maximum emphasis - Often accompanied by synonyms or clues to meaning of new words Idioms Problems of Attribution -“First recorded usage”; Mixing senses or meanings of words; Lexemes; Functional shifts; Archaisms; Conservative fig. of word contribution: 800- 1,700