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Pronunciation: Incorporating It Into The Language Learning Process From Day One Diane Boardman, M.A., CCC-SLP Diane Boardman, M.A.,

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Presentation on theme: "Pronunciation: Incorporating It Into The Language Learning Process From Day One Diane Boardman, M.A., CCC-SLP Diane Boardman, M.A.,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pronunciation: Incorporating It Into The Language Learning Process From Day One Diane Boardman, M.A., CCC-SLP Diane Boardman, M.A., CCC-SLP

2 WHY THIS TOPIC?

3 Background Concepts and Information How is Speech Produced?

4 Background Concepts and Information What is a Speech Sound?

5 Background Concepts and Information Letters vs. Speech Sounds g Phonetic transcription to denote speech sounds as opposed to letters. Y Some letters pronounced > 1 way: Ex.: “c” in “cat” pronounced as /k/; and “face” pronounced as /s/ Y Some sounds are assigned > 1 letter: Ex.: Sound / s / uses letters “c“ and “s” as in “cease” Y Vowel letters > 1 pronunciation: Ex.: Letter “a” pronounced as /ae/ “cat”, /a/ “father”, or /ei/ “late” Letters vs. Speech Sounds g Phonetic transcription to denote speech sounds as opposed to letters. Y Some letters pronounced > 1 way: Ex.: “c” in “cat” pronounced as /k/; and “face” pronounced as /s/ Y Some sounds are assigned > 1 letter: Ex.: Sound / s / uses letters “c“ and “s” as in “cease” Y Vowel letters > 1 pronunciation: Ex.: Letter “a” pronounced as /ae/ “cat”, /a/ “father”, or /ei/ “late”

6 Background Concepts and Information VThree parameters for distinguishing one speech sound from another: TMechanical placement of oral structures TAirflow TVoicing

7 Subjects to be covered T Intonation: T Questions T 2-Syllable Nouns and Verbs, including Heteronyms T Can vs. Can’t T “th” and use of this in the most frequently used words T Intonation: T Questions T 2-Syllable Nouns and Verbs, including Heteronyms T Can vs. Can’t T “th” and use of this in the most frequently used words

8 Intonation YWhat is this? Rhythmic quality of the language.  English: Is a stress-timed language. USyllables may last different amounts of time. UEx: “about” - The stressed syllable is “bout”.  Compared to “a”, it takes longer to say and the pitch rises UFrench: Is a syllable-timed language. USyllables all take approximately the same amount of time.

9 Intonation YAlso includes pitch changes, what words to stress in a sentence, and types of links or liaisons in connecting sounds within and between words. YBoth English and French use linking (yay!!). IT’S THE MELODY OF THE LANGUAGE YAlso includes pitch changes, what words to stress in a sentence, and types of links or liaisons in connecting sounds within and between words. YBoth English and French use linking (yay!!). IT’S THE MELODY OF THE LANGUAGE

10 Intonation in Use YQuestions YRule: Pitch drops at the end of a question sentence. Ex: Would you like coffee or tea? YExceptions: WYes/no questions: Ex: Would you like some coffee? UHighly emotional questions: Ex: Why don‘t you pay attention to me?

11 Intonation in Use Y2- Syllable Nouns and Verbs U For 2- Syllable Nouns in general, stress is on the first syllable: U Ex: baby, finger, journey, soldier, dinner, bottle, paper, sorrow, elbow, shadow U For 2-Syllable Verbs in general, stress is on the second (last syllable):  Ex: repair, attack, approach, invite, rely, annoy, forget Y2- Syllable Nouns and Verbs U For 2- Syllable Nouns in general, stress is on the first syllable: U Ex: baby, finger, journey, soldier, dinner, bottle, paper, sorrow, elbow, shadow U For 2-Syllable Verbs in general, stress is on the second (last syllable):  Ex: repair, attack, approach, invite, rely, annoy, forget

12 Intonation in Use Y2- Syllable Nouns and Verbs (cont.)  Heteronyms T When a 2-syllable word can be used either as a noun or verb, the same rules apply. Examples: T contract T “I signed a contract.” OR T “I will contract that disease if I’m not careful.” T permit T “I need a permit to set up a march.” OR T “Permit me to pay for this meal.” T Other examples: content, record, subject, present, convict, object, contrast, project, defect. Y2- Syllable Nouns and Verbs (cont.)  Heteronyms T When a 2-syllable word can be used either as a noun or verb, the same rules apply. Examples: T contract T “I signed a contract.” OR T “I will contract that disease if I’m not careful.” T permit T “I need a permit to set up a march.” OR T “Permit me to pay for this meal.” T Other examples: content, record, subject, present, convict, object, contrast, project, defect.

13 Intonation in Use T Can vs. Can’t T 1a.Can When “can” is used with another verb, we do not stress it. We stress the verb that follows. Our pronunciation becomes “cn” (/kn/), as if the vowel didn’t exist. Examples: I can (/kn/) do it. Can(/kn/) you lend me $5.00? I can (/kn/) go later. Those Can-Can girls can (/kn/) sure dance. T 1b.Can However, when “can” finishes a sentence, there is heightened emotion, or you are contradicting someone, it is said completely (full vowel). Examples: I can! Speaker#1: You can’t swim. Speaker #2: I can swim. I do it every day T Can vs. Can’t T 1a.Can When “can” is used with another verb, we do not stress it. We stress the verb that follows. Our pronunciation becomes “cn” (/kn/), as if the vowel didn’t exist. Examples: I can (/kn/) do it. Can(/kn/) you lend me $5.00? I can (/kn/) go later. Those Can-Can girls can (/kn/) sure dance. T 1b.Can However, when “can” finishes a sentence, there is heightened emotion, or you are contradicting someone, it is said completely (full vowel). Examples: I can! Speaker#1: You can’t swim. Speaker #2: I can swim. I do it every day

14 Intonation in Use T Can vs. Can’t (cont.) T 2.Can’t : T We stress this word: The vowel is said fully, the pitch rises and it takes longer to say. Examples: You can’t do it. You can’t go to the movies. If I can’t go, you can go. (Compare with: If I can go, you can go.) Examples of Both Can and Can’t: Can he come if you can’t? I can see that he can’t handle the job. T Can vs. Can’t (cont.) T 2.Can’t : T We stress this word: The vowel is said fully, the pitch rises and it takes longer to say. Examples: You can’t do it. You can’t go to the movies. If I can’t go, you can go. (Compare with: If I can go, you can go.) Examples of Both Can and Can’t: Can he come if you can’t? I can see that he can’t handle the job.

15 “TH” / θ / /ð/ T How produced: T Oral structures: Tongue touches the back of the upper teeth. T Air Flow: Fricative. Air is pushed through a narrow passage and sounds like a hiss. T Voicing: Can be either voiced or voiceless. Examples: Voiceless: think, theater Voiced: brother, that T How produced: T Oral structures: Tongue touches the back of the upper teeth. T Air Flow: Fricative. Air is pushed through a narrow passage and sounds like a hiss. T Voicing: Can be either voiced or voiceless. Examples: Voiceless: think, theater Voiced: brother, that

16 “TH”/ θ / /ð/ T The, this, that, these, those, there, with “the”: Most used word in English language “that”: Number 7 “with”: Number 17 “this”: Number 23 “there”: Number 35 T Emphasize the difference between “this and “these”. T Why? - Difficulty with which is singular/which plural. - Difficulty with pronouncing them differently even when they know the differences in the meanings: - Native English speaker will think they don’t know their grammar: “This are mine.” T The, this, that, these, those, there, with “the”: Most used word in English language “that”: Number 7 “with”: Number 17 “this”: Number 23 “there”: Number 35 T Emphasize the difference between “this and “these”. T Why? - Difficulty with which is singular/which plural. - Difficulty with pronouncing them differently even when they know the differences in the meanings: - Native English speaker will think they don’t know their grammar: “This are mine.”

17 “TH”/ θ / /ð/ T Pronouncing “this” vs. “these”: T Similarity: T Both begin with voiced “th” T Differences: T Vowel: / I / in “this” and /i/ in “these” T Final Sound: Voiceless /s/ in “this” Voiced /z/ in “these” (they need to feel the “buzz” in their necks) T Pronouncing “this” vs. “these”: T Similarity: T Both begin with voiced “th” T Differences: T Vowel: / I / in “this” and /i/ in “these” T Final Sound: Voiceless /s/ in “this” Voiced /z/ in “these” (they need to feel the “buzz” in their necks)

18 Pronunciation: Incorporating it Into the Language Learning Process from Day One FINAL QUESTIONS? Diane Boardman, M.A., CCC-SLP FINAL QUESTIONS? Diane Boardman, M.A., CCC-SLP


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