Presentation on theme: "What, Why, and How? Identifying Topics, Main, Major and Minor Ideas Annotating Chunking Words Parts and Context Clues 1 1 CRITICAL READING While Reading."— Presentation transcript:
What, Why, and How? Identifying Topics, Main, Major and Minor Ideas Annotating Chunking Words Parts and Context Clues 1 1 CRITICAL READING While Reading Strategies
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TOPIC, MAIN IDEA AND THE MAJOR/MINOR IDEAS IN A TEXT?
WHY IDENTIFY THEM WHEN READING? - You can fully understand a text when you can identify all its elements. - It removes any confusion about the purpose of a text. - When you can clearly see the different parts of a text, you can make a more educated assessment of the text and directly respond with your own viewpoints. HOW DO I IDENTIFY THEM? Here is a 4-step process to identify these different elements in a text: (1) Note the topic as you’re reading. To figure out the topic, note what all the sentences in the text are centered on and use the guiding question: What specific topic does this text focus on? (2) Label the main idea when you find it. To locate it, use the guiding question: What is the main idea the author wants me to learn or wants to convince me of in this text? If the thesis is implied (not directly stated), examine the clues in the text and then write in your own words what you think the author’s main purpose or central argument is. (3) Label the major ideas when you read them (sometimes you can even number the reasons as you identify them). To locate them, use the guiding question: What reasons did the author use to convince me of his/her thesis? (4) Note the minor ideas when you read them. To locate them, use the guiding questions: What specific evidence (examples, data, etc) did the author use to illustrate the major ideas and did s/he add analysis or explanation to further convince me?
Using the second paragraph of Chapter VII in the excerpt from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, locate the topic and main idea as well as the major and minor ideas: My mistress was, as I have said, a kind and tender-hearted woman; and in the simplicity of her soul she commenced, when I first went to live with her, to treat me as she supposed one human being ought to treat another. In entering upon the duties of a slaveholder, she did not seem to perceive that I sustained to her the relation of a mere chattel, and that for her to treat me as a human being was not only wrong, but dangerously so. Slavery proved as injurious to her as it did to me. When I went there, she was a pious, warm, and tender-hearted woman. There was no sorrow or suffering for which she had not a tear. She had bread for the hungry, clothes for the naked, and comfort for every mourner that came within her reach. Slavery soon proved its ability to divest her of these heavenly qualities. Under its influence, the tender heart became stone, and the lamblike disposition gave way to one of tiger-like fierceness. The first step in her downward course was in her ceasing to instruct me. She now commenced to practise her husband's precepts. She finally became even more violent in her opposition than her husband himself. She was not satisfied with simply doing as well as he had commanded; she seemed anxious to do better. Nothing seemed to make her more angry than to see me with a newspaper. She seemed to think that here lay the danger. I have had her rush at me with a face made all up of fury, and snatch from me a newspaper, in a manner that fully revealed her apprehension. She was an apt woman; and a little experience soon demonstrated, to her satisfaction, that education and slavery were incompatible with each other. PRACTICE (Pause)
ANSWERS TOPIC: Influence of slavery (“slavery” for example, would be too general for this paragraph and “slaves learning to read” would be a more appropriate topic for all of Chapter VII) MAIN IDEA/THESIS: “Slavery proved as injurious to her as it did to me.” MAJOR IDEAS (REASONS) PROVING THE MAIN IDEA/THESIS: (1) “She was a pious, warm, and tender-hearted woman.” (2) “Under [slavery’s] influence, the tender heart became stone, and the lamblike disposition gave way to one of tiger-like fierceness.” MINOR IDEAS (EVIDENCE AND ANALYSIS) ILLUSTRATING THE MAJOR IDEAS: Supporting major idea #1: “She was a pious, warm, and tender-hearted woman.” (a) “There was no sorrow or suffering for which she had not a tear. “ (b) “She had bread for the hungry, clothes for the naked, and comfort for every mourner that came within her reach.” Supporting major idea #2: “Under [slavery’s] influence, the tender heart became stone, and the lamblike disposition gave way to one of tiger-like fierceness.” (a) “The first step in her downward course was in her ceasing to instruct me. She now commenced to practise her husband's precepts.” (b) “She finally became even more violent in her opposition than her husband himself. She was not satisfied with simply doing as well as he had commanded; she seemed anxious to do better.” (c) “Nothing seemed to make her more angry than to see me with a newspaper. She seemed to think that here lay the danger. I have had her rush at me with a face made all up of fury, and snatch from me a newspaper, in a manner that fully revealed her apprehension.” (d) “She was an apt woman; and a little experience soon demonstrated, to her satisfaction, that education and slavery were incompatible with each other.”
WHAT IS ANNOTATING? Annotating is an organized method to take notes as you read and involves marking up a text as you read it. It usually involves adding your own thoughts, questions and observations in the margins, circling unknown terms and vocabulary, underlining or highlighting main points and good quotes, and coding (briefly summing up passages in a few key words). WHY IS ANNOTATING IMPORTANT? - It turns you into an active reader engaging closely with the text. - Being an active reader improves comprehension and retention of what you read. - You can use your notes to select material to include in a more formal paper. - It can help you better understand complex texts through breaking them down. - You can circle unknown terms and then look them all up after you are finished reading (looking them up as you read will disrupt your understanding and enjoyment of the text) - You can navigate a well-marked text quickly to find quotes and evidence for papers and open book exams. - You can refresh your memory of the text easily by re-reading your notes and what you have highlighted without having to re-read the entire text.
There are different methods for marking a text. Often you will use a variety of the following methods AS YOU READ: HOW DO I ANNOTATE? - In the text margins, write your own questions and comments that come up. - Underline and/or highlight the main points and good quotes (don’t over highlight—be selective). - Circle unknown vocabulary and after you read, look up the words and write in the definitions. - Code as you read which means to write a one-to-three word description that captures the essence of large chunks or paragraphs of text. This will create an easy to follow summary in the margins. - If the thesis (main argument or purpose of the text) is stated, write “thesis” next to it or if it is implied (not stated) use the clues from the text to figure it out and then write out the thesis in your own words.
PRACTICE PRACTICE ANNOTATING YOUR TEXT: Read the text below carefully. As you read, do the following: (1) In the left margin, write your own QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS, adding your own reactions, observations and queries as you read. (2) Throughout the text, UNDERLINE OR HIGHLIGHT the main points and good quotes. (3) Throughout the text, CIRCLE unknown vocabulary and after you read, look up the words and write in the definitions. (4) In the right margin, CODE, meaning write a one-to-three word description that captures the essence of large chunks of text. This will create an easy to read summary in the right margin. (5) After reading the entire text, go back and see if you can locate and LABEL THE THESIS. If it is not directly stated, write out the thesis in your own words.
PRACTICE PRACTICE ANNOTATING: excerpt from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
PRACTICE PRACTICE ANNOTATING: excerpt from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass page 1 (Pause)
PRACTICE PRACTICE ANNOTATING: excerpt from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass page 2 (Pause)
PRACTICE PRACTICE ANNOTATING: excerpt from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass page 3 (Pause)
EXAMPLE ANNOTATING: excerpt from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
EXAMPLE ANNOTATING: excerpt from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass page 1
EXAMPLE ANNOTATING: excerpt from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass page 2
EXAMPLE ANNOTATING: excerpt from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass page 3
Chunking is visually grouping interrelated words as you read as opposed to reading one word at a time. You want to make meaningful groups of words and the point of fixation should be in the middle of the unit of words. WHAT IS CHUNKING? WHY IS CHUNKING IMPORTANT? - Chunking speeds up your reading rate. - Chunking enables you to process whole ideas rather than laboring word by word. - Chunking improves comprehension by letting you get a “bigger picture” of the text. HOW DO I DO IT? Through practice, you can train your eye and your brain to focus on groups of words instead of individual words. Look at the following examples to see what this type of grouping looks and feels like as you read and then try applying the technique.
WHAT ARE WORD PARTS? Each word parts serves to build meaning, so learning word parts can dramatically expand your vocabulary because if you know part of an unknown word, you can make a quick and educated guess as to its meaning without having to consult a dictionary. WHY FOCUS ON WORD PARTS? - Learning word parts (rather than memorizing lists of vocabulary words) is more efficient for expanding your vocabulary because learning one word part can potentially help you figure out hundreds of words that contain that word part. - Knowing word parts helps you quickly identify the function of a word in a sentence (i.e. if the word is a noun, a person, an action, an adjective). - Having a broader vocabulary builds reading speed and comprehension. HOW DO I USE WORD PARTS? The first step is memorizing a series of word parts and applying that knowledge so that what you learn stays in your long-term memory. You can then apply this knowledge of word parts whenever you’re reading to figure out unfamiliar words quickly.
WHAT ARE CONTEXT CLUES? Knowing word parts is one way to figure out the meaning of an unknown word. Another approach you can employ is using context clues. You can often unlock the meaning of a new word by analyzing the context of the sentence and paragraph in which it is used. The context is the part of a text or statement that surrounds a particular word or passage and determines its meaning. WHY USE CONTEXT CLUES? - Your reading isn’t slowed down by having to look words up in the dictionary. - Paying more attention to context clues means you are reading on a more active and engaged level which will improve comprehension and retention of what you read. - Your reading confidence increases as you can figure out complex language on your own.
HOW DO I USE CONTEXT CLUES? Use different types of clues to help unlock the meaning of new words: Definition: The unknown word is defined within the sentence or paragraph. For example, the hungry campers started to devour the pizzas after having been in the wilderness for the past week, eagerly eating every crumb. Elaborating Details: Descriptive details suggest the meaning of the unknown word. For example, the young man in the photo had a striking and gaunt appearance. His clothes hung loosely on his thin body, as if he had not eaten in weeks. Elaborating Examples: An anecdote or example before or after the word suggests the meaning. For example, after three days at sea, the fishermen were famished. They said they could eat an entire whale if catching one were still allowed. Comparison: A similar situation suggests the meaning of the unknown word. For example, before being offered a generous five-year contract, the quarterback underwent more scrutiny than a fugitive being investigated by the FBI. Contrast: An opposite situation suggests the meaning of the unknown word. For example, even though she appears indefatigable during the workday, she is generally exhausted by 6pm. Also use word parts: Prefixes: An affix placed at the beginning of a word which changes its meaning. Roots: The base of a word (with all affixes removed) that contains the core meaning of the word. The roots that we use in English are derived primarily from Latin and Greek. Suffixes: An affix placed at the end of a word and indicates the form of the word (i.e. noun, verb, adjective).
Figuring Out Words in Context: Prefixes—Set One Read the paragraph below which contains prefixes from “Prefixes—Set One.” Afterwards, without using a dictionary give the definition of the italicized words using the context clues. Also give the definition of the prefix used. Once there was a ruler of a country who was asked to abdicate her position because she had become unpopular with the people. A group of nobles interceded on her behalf arguing that she was a very beneficent ruler and that the reasons given by those asking for her removal were illogical and violated the sacred traditions of the country. They also argued that if she were removed, then anarchy would sweep the land. Those who demanded that she step down congregated in the main square of the capital and decided that if she would not willingly abdicate, then they would need to seek expel her but they knew this would be very difficult because the country’s laws on the issue of abdication were ambiguous and could therefore be manipulated by those sympathetic to the ruler. The people felt that not only did they want to remove the ruler herself but also the dichotomous system of government that gave only the ruler and the nobles any power or decision- making. They proposed more of a synthesis of power between the upper as well as lower classes. PRACTICE (Pause)
Figuring Out Words in Context: Prefixes—Set Two Read the paragraph below which contains prefixes from “Prefixes—Set Two.” Afterwards, without using a dictionary give the definition of the italicized words using the context clues. Also give the definition of the prefix used. Maria and Anthony tried for many years to have children. With her perennial courage, Maria endured many corrective surgeries and treatments but to no avail. Finally, she tried fertility drugs even though she knew a woman who had done the same and her child came out malformed. Maria told Anthony that she wished she were omnipotent so that she could fix her difficulties without the use of medication. Maria had many negative preconceptions about the use of fertility drugs, but Anthony helped her learn the actual risks and benefits. Therefore, she began treatment and they became pregnant. They were both overjoyed. In Maria’s second trimester, the doctor told her that she was carrying quadruplets. The doctor explained about polyembryony and how this was a common occurrence for women who use fertility drugs. At first, Maria did not tell Anthony, and she felt very subversive and guilty about it. A few weeks passed, and she finally told him the news and to her surprise he was overjoyed as he had always wanted a very large family. With his support and her strength, she delivered all the babies and they were all healthy. She suffered a small amount of postpartum depression, but once she began the full-time job of taking care of all her beautiful children when she looked in retrospect at her choices, she was very pleased. PRACTICE (Pause)
Figuring Out Words in Context: Roots—Set One Read the paragraph below which contains prefixes from “Roots—Set One.” Afterwards, without using a dictionary give the definition of the italicized words using the context clues. Also give the definition of the prefix used. When Jeannine began college, she was convinced that she wanted to become a gynecologist because she was from a family of doctors. However, in class one day as they were looking at a biopsy of infected cells, she felt nauseous. Besides, she never liked her genetics class, so she could now drop this course which was bringing down her G.P.A.. When she told her mother she was changing her major, her mother supported her but warned her not to make such drastic changes habitual. Her mother recommended that she consider instead dermatology because her uncle George who had his own practice enjoyed a good income and complete autonomy. Jeannine, however, said she was done with all medically related fields. She considered the classes she had taken and liked so far. She considered becoming an ethnographer but was not sure if she wanted to take all the required Anthropology classes for that field of work. She had also enjoyed her Marine Biology class but decided it was not for her as she was not very aquatic. Her mother deduced Jeannine’s indecision from her troubled expression and told her not to worry so much because choosing a major much less a career was a very gradual process and that she still had lots of time. PRACTICE (Pause)
Figuring Out Words in Context: Roots—Set Two Read the paragraph below which contains prefixes from “Roots—Set Two.” Afterwards, without using a dictionary give the definition of the italicized words using the context clues. Also give the definition of the prefix used. Off in a small, remote village lived a little old inventor. He lived at the edge of town all by himself and had no children, but he was very paternal. He suffered from agoraphobia so instead of going out, he would invite the children of the town into his workshop and teach them about his inventions. One of the children’s favorite inventions was a polyphonic instrument that when contorted could be heard throughout the village. Another favorite was a machine that would record a speaker’s soliloquy and transcribe what he or she said. The inventor even had a painting that changed colors when tactilely triggered and a lamp that produced pyrotechnics when someone sneezed. The adults of the town thought that the inventor was very unorthodox and perhaps a little pathetic for his hermit-like ways, but they respected him…from a distance. PRACTICE (Pause)
Figuring Out Words in Context: Suffixes Now that you have practiced figuring out words in context, let’s practice creating words in context. In other words, it’s time to put your expanded vocabulary to use and create your own paragraph. Create words using the following suffixes: PRACTICE Now, create a paragraph (it can be a story, an explanation, a how to, an argument, a description) using the 10 words you created above. The paragraph must make sense as a whole. (Pause)
that concludes 1 1 CRITICAL READING While Reading Strategies