HISTORY The Romantic Age 1798—1832 -- Industrial Revolution + 1789 French Revolution -- 1798 the publication of Wordsworth & Coleridge’s Lyrical Ballads -- Byron’s death (1824) -- to Sir Walter Scott’s death (1832) & the passage of the first Reform Bill in the parliament. The Victorian Age 1832 (– 1838-1870)-1901 The early period (1832-1848): a time of social unrest The middle period (1848-1870): a period of economic prosperity & religious controversy; The last period (1870-1901): a period of decay of Victorian values. Workers’ Strike – 1811’s - 1818 The Romantics (2005) & The Victorians (2009) --Opening
1. MODERNITY (from medievalism, feudalism and agriculturalism to) A Society dominated by Industrialism + Science Capitalism Secularization Rationalization Building of Nation-State Phases 16 th -18 th centuries: early modernity 19 th century: classical modernity 1901-1950’s – late modernity
QUEST AND ANTI-QUEST Romantic Quest for love, self-identity, poetic beauty, natural supernaturalism, and individual freedom/heroism Victorian Anti-Quest frustration and transformation of quest Done through some extreme measures or vicariously Instead of the holy grail, the objective is usually to reach beyond human limits.
WOMEN’S POSITIONS AS OBJECT OR SUBJECT OF QUEST Jane Eyre Social critique (e.g. the religious hypocrisy of charity institutions) and a woman’s quest? Alice in Wonderland A girl’s quest?
ROMANTICISM QUEST FOR INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM AND POETIC IDEALS
NEOCLASSICISM (MS. WEN-LING SU) The Grand Manner (Joshua Reynolds) Reason // clarity // order // restraint Goodness // virtue // truth Moral Simple // austere // monumental Balanced // symmetric // geometric
THE ROMANTICS –(1) LIBERTY (BBC) 19:02 Joshua Reynold vs. William Blake “London” Blake the other radicals (e.g. Brissot) 34:42 Wordsworth –Annette and their child –The Great Terror (killings of the supporters of the King) 43:30 – Wordsworth, a wanderer in Nature 47:30 – Wordsworth and Coleridge’s friendship and cooperation. 51:00 – The Lyrical Ballads (poetry of and for individuals)
THE ROMANTICS –(2) NATURE (BBC) Opening 1:30 – Age of industrialization; Man’s relation with Nature in an increasingly mechanized world 3:40 – vision of Blake as a child – Child’s imagination vs. “Chimney Sweeper”
THE ROMANTICS--FEATURES Against Industrialism/Materialism Idealistic, Revolutionary, Iconoclastic, [first generation] Sympathetic with Peasants Quest for -- poetic imagination -- being one with Nature or -- some supernatural vision (the sublime).
ROMANTICISM (1) Subjectivism : poetry as “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings ” which expresses the poet’s mind. Emphasis on imagination. (2) Spontaneity : This emphasis on spontaneity is opposed to the “rules” and “regulations” imposed on the poets by neo-classic writers (3) Singularity : love for the remote, the unusual, the strange, the supernatural, the mysterious, the splendid, the picturesque, & the illogical. (source: teaching notes) (4) Nature : As a source of spiritual replenishment and guidance.
an English writer, poet, and illustrator of the Romantic period; Had visions of angels as a child; 1787 the technique of "illuminated writing," or relief-etching. Songs of Innocence (1789) 1797 – Songs of Innocence and of Experience ("the two Contrary States of the Human Soul." ) Image source: http://members.aol.com/lshaus er2/wmblake.html http://members.aol.com/lshaus er2/wmblake.html
SONGS OF INNOCENCE AND OF EXPERIENCE (1794) "Innocence" -- the state of the unfallen man; "Experience" -- man's state after the Fall. e.g. the two "Chimney Sweepers," the two "Nurse's Songs, “ the two "Holy Thursdays"; Infant Joy" vs. "Infant Sorrow," "Infant Joy" vs. "Infant Sorrow," "The Divine Image" vs. "A Divine Image. “ "The Lamb" vs. "The Tyger"
"INFANT JOY" (1789) 1.Who are the speakers of this poem? What do they talk about? Can a baby be talking to its mother? 2.What are the functions of repetition in this poem?
"INFANT JOY" (1789) name "I have no name, two days old I am but two days old." call thee What shall I call thee? "I happy am, Joy is my name Joy is my name." thee Sweet joy befall thee! Pretty joy! two days old Sweet joy, but two days old. call thee Sweet joy I call thee Thou dost smile, I sing the while-- Sweet joy befall thee Sweet joy befall thee.
"INFANT JOY" (1789) 1.the speakers — the mother and her baby (imagined to be speaking) 2.About its namelessness, and how it is named after its joy. 3.Repetition – a. How the mother is attentive and caring; b. The interchange (beyond words) between the baby and the mother.
INFANT SORROW 1. Who is the speaker, considering his/her usage of the words 'groaning,' 'weeping' and 'fiend.' What is his tone like? 2. Again, pay attention to the sound effects. What do we make of the end rhymes? 3. Why does the infant 'sulk' but not 'suck' upon the mother's breast? Are there any words with the same effects? 4. Main idea: Is this infant seeking freedom, or just food, in all its struggling and striving and sulking?
INFANT SORROW wept Ileapt loud a fiendcloud hands swaddling bands best sulkbreast My mother groaned, my father wept; Into the dangerous world I leapt, Helpless, naked, piping loud, Like a fiend hid in a cloud. Struggling in my father's hands, Striving against my swaddling bands, Bound and weary, I thought best To sulk upon my mother's breast.
INFANT SORROW 1. The speaker – an adult, who knows the parents ’ hardship and what they think about a kid. contraries 2. the end rhymes – shows the contraries of the father ’ s weeping and the infant ’ s leaping, the latter ’ s loudness and its being in a cloud; struggling in the first two lines vs. ‘ sulking ’ in the third and fourth. 3. 'sulk ‘ -- 'suck ‘ ; ’ best ’– breast; 4. Main idea: 1) Poverty dooms the family; 2) this infant seeks freedom against the constraints imposed on it.
1. Please try to compare the two poems both in terms of their line and sound patterns. 2. Is an infant ‘ joyful ’ by birth? Why is the infant in “ Infant Sorrow ” not 'sorrowful'? 3. Are there other ways of reading them? Can there be causes for sorrow in "Infant Joy" and spaces for joy in "Infant Sorrow"?
THE SICK ROSE O Rose, thou art sick! The invisible worm That flies in the night, In the howling storm, Has found out thy bed Of crimson joy, And his dark secret love Does thy life destroy.
TYGER Tyger! Tyger! burning bright, In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Could frame thy fearful symmetry? In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare sieze the fire? And what shoulder, & what art, Could twist the sinews of thy heart?
TYGER (2) What the hammer? what the chain? In what furnace was thy brain? What the anvil? what dread grasp Dare its deadly terrors clasp? When the stars threw down their spears, And water'd heaven with their tears, Did he smile his work to see? Did he who made the Lamb make thee? Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?
Review/Quiz: Blake’s Poems Your discussion: Wordsworth’s Short Poems My Role: “Tinturn Abbey” and “Immortality Ode” NEXT WEEK
REF (1) THE ROMANTICS –(1) LIBERTY (BBC) Opening 19:02 Joshua Reynold vs. William Blake “London” Blake the other radicals (e.g. Brissot) 34:42 Wordsworth –Annette and their child –The Great Terror (killings of the supporters of the King) 43:30 – Wordsworth, a wanderer in Nature 47:30 – Wordsworth and Coleridge’s friendship and cooperation. 51:00 – The Lyrical Ballads (poetry of and for individuals) 54:00 --”The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”
REF (2) THE ROMANTICS –(2) NATURE (BBC) Opening 1:30 – Age of industrialization; Man’s relation with Nature in an increasingly mechanized world 3:40 – vision of Blake as a child – Child’s imagination vs. “Chimney Sweeper” 51:00 -- Mary Shelley and Frankenstein