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The Unit Persistent Issue: When is a nation justified in intervening in the affairs of another nation? Central Question: Should we celebrate or mourn the.

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Presentation on theme: "The Unit Persistent Issue: When is a nation justified in intervening in the affairs of another nation? Central Question: Should we celebrate or mourn the."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Unit Persistent Issue: When is a nation justified in intervening in the affairs of another nation? Central Question: Should we celebrate or mourn the arrival of Europeans in the Americas? Culminating Activity: World Court Hearing

2 Spanish Colonization: Hypothesis Formation Central Question: Should we celebrate or mourn the arrival of Europeans in the Americas? Lesson Focus Question: How did people in Spain and the Caribbean live at the time of initial contact?

3 Spanish Colonization: Hypothesis Formation Purpose: Provide the framing historical and cultural context for inquiry into primary accounts 1. Introduce cultures of Spain, the Caribbean, and Mesoamerica at the time of initial contact. 2.Introduce the historical problem of “how we know”: the perceptions of non-Western cultures of which we have no direct records. 3.Introduce Aztec encounters (for which we have better records) to give some sense of the indigenous peoples’ perspectives

4 Understanding the Worlds of 1492 Spain & The Taino

5 © PIH Network, 2008 The Spanish World in

6 © PIH Network, 2008 W. European Nation-States Arise 4 major states by late 1400's: –Portugal –Spain –France –England Strong central governments –Bureaucracy –Standing army –Need money to pay government employees

7 © PIH Network, 2008 European Religious Practices Roman Catholic faith across Medieval Europe Dissenters seen as threat to society –mobs burn accused heretics –1231: Pope creates Inquisition to bring order and legality to process Series of crusades to reclaim biblical Holy Land from Muslims ( )

8 © PIH Network, 2008 Motivations for Exploration Access to riches of East: Spices New sources of gold and silver Spread Christianity Renaissance spirit of adventure

9 © PIH Network, 2008 The Iberian Peninsula: 1400's Feudal Christian kingdoms in North Muslim Moors in South Precursor to Crusades: Pope calls for fight for "the Cross" in Spain Christian Kingdoms gradually re-take peninsula United Spanish state formed by marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella: 1469 Independence from the Moors

10 © PIH Network, 2008 Spanish Monarchs gain power Isabella's aims –Spanish unity –Universal Catholicism Firm alliance with Catholic Church –1478: Spanish Inquisition authorized Rivalry with Portugal for trade with East

11 © PIH Network, Fall of Granada, last Moorish city in Spain Jews offered choice of baptism or expulsion Columbus sent to find new trade route to East

12 © PIH Network, 2008 Who They Met: The Taino World

13 © PIH Network, 2008 Geography of The Taino World Originally from South America Territory more than 1,000 miles east to west Occupied the Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, Bahamas, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Cuba Rouse, Irving The Tainos. New Haven: Yale University Press. P. 6.

14 © PIH Network, 2008 Taino Pol/Soc Organization Confederation style gov’t –Tiered chiefdoms –Alliances of great chiefdoms –Hispaniola: 5 powerful chiefdoms

15 © PIH Network, 2008 Taino Political/Social Organization Village Life

16 © PIH Network, 2008 Taino Political/Social Organization

17 © PIH Network, 2008 Taino Political/Social Organization History (hypothesized) –Internal warfare alternating with periods of alliance and trade –Military stand-off of equal chiefdoms –By 1492, intermarriage among elite to create a pan-Taino ruling class

18 © PIH Network, 2008 Taino Political/Social Organization

19 © PIH Network, 2008 Taino Political/Social Organization Economy –Based on agriculture –Skilled use of sea for food & trade

20 © PIH Network, 2008 Taino Religious Practices

21 © PIH Network, 2008 Taino Religious Practices System of Gods: Zemis –Explained how universe was created –Role humans played in the universe –Moral blueprint to guide conduct –Afterlife where good people rewarded

22 © PIH Network, 2008 Taino Religious Practices

23 © PIH Network, 2008 Taino Religious Practices Two Supreme Deities –Lord of cassava and sea –Goddess of fresh water & human fertility

24 © PIH Network, 2008 Taino Religious Practices tainoimages/daily_zemifront.jpg

25 © PIH Network, 2008 Taino Religious Practices Representations made from remains of ancestors –Believed powerful spirits in these objects –Cannibalism: Drink made from ground, burned bones of ancestors passed spirit of person to living

26 © PIH Network, 2008 Taino Religious Practices

27 © PIH Network, 2008 Taino Religious Practices Religious agricultural feasts Shamans served as advisors to chiefs

28 © PIH Network, 2008 Taino Relations with Others Fought with Island-Caribs who had invaded territory Expanded influence to outward islands in Caribbean. Resources flowed back to dominant Taino chiefdoms.


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