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By Simone Downs, Tiffany Bartucci, Madie Farris.  Was Ruled by multiple princes with no solid rule  Notable rulers are St. Vladimir (980-1015) and later.

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Presentation on theme: "By Simone Downs, Tiffany Bartucci, Madie Farris.  Was Ruled by multiple princes with no solid rule  Notable rulers are St. Vladimir (980-1015) and later."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Simone Downs, Tiffany Bartucci, Madie Farris

2  Was Ruled by multiple princes with no solid rule  Notable rulers are St. Vladimir (980-1015) and later his son Yaroslav the Wise (1015- 1054) due to their reigns bringing great peace upon the land, including democratic forums established  Yaroslav created the first Russian written law with Yaroslav's Justice in Novgorod  Never consolidated power however  Upon Yaroslav’s death, he left his reign between he sons Nice.

3  Civil War engulfed the region leaving it vulnerable with the efforts of the Pechenegs and later the Polovtsy tribes

4  The Mongols arrived in Kievan Russia in 1219  Batu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan invaded Kiev after (1237)twenty years of peaceful negotiation between the Kievan Princes and the Mongols  The Fall of Kiev in 1240 signaled the complete domination of the Mongols though the principalities of Novgorod, Pskov, and Smolensk were not effected as badly

5  Mongolian Rule was unified in 1242  This foreign rule lasted for 200 years!  The Orthodox Church became a beacon of light  Moscow grew as an important center for the Church in 1322-adding to its growing power  Mongols rule almost completely destroyed the democratic ways in Russia *found in the veche*  Established an efficient census taking (1257) and the “yam”

6  Mongol’s established the Basqaqi that was later replaced by the Darugi  One Khan would rule over the multiple Russian princes  Mongol rule left an influence on the Russian Monarchy’s Bureaucracy  Princes’ occupation were to collect taxes and provide a source of local enforcement as police leaders  These more modern princes would lead the way to the Russian Dynasty

7  Before the Muscovite Dynasty, was one of the better Princes under the Mongols that ruled in 1252: 10 yrs. after the Mongol take over  THEN…  The Muscovite started to gain control and taking down rival princes to overcome the Mongols MONGOLS The Muscovite Princes

8  Son of Daniil Aleksandrovich, of the Rurik Dynasty  Ruled from 1328-1341 with major swagger (massive personal fortune)  He would loan to the other Princes pay the Mongols’ taxes  Grand collector of taxes in the Mongol domain *cooperated with the Mongols, gained land ascendancy*  Important: Pushed the movement for settlement in Moscow in 1327

9  Ruled from 1462-1502  Gained territories (Novgorod in 1478 and Tver in 1485)-mostly all around Moscow to gain more wealth for the Muscovy family  Fought off rival Prince  Became the Prince of Moscow was the first to call himself the “Tsar”  Fought with Lithuania in a war the ended in 1503 EXPANSION WEST!  First signs of Absolutism: Fought Mongols for Power  Felt like upholder of the Byzantine Empire

10  Became first tsar on the 16th of January, 1547.  Married a Romanov named Anastasia.  1550-1560 is considered the “good” part of Ivan’s reign.  Conquered Kazan and Astrakhan.  Ivan became paranoid and isolated himself.  Ravaged many of his own lands including Novgorod.  Lost wars with Sweden and Poland in 1582  In a fit of rage struck and killed his son, then abdicated his throne.  On March 18 th while playing chess, he fell over and died.

11  Relatives of the Tsar killed each other to take Ivan the Terrible’s Spot  Polish and Swedish invade to gain power  Cossacks, lead by Ivan Bolotnikov, wanted to gain the “true Tsar”  Revolt did not work and In 1613,Nobles elected Michael Romanov *Ivan’s grandnephew who was 16 yrs old* who brought peace  Founded the Final Dynasty of Russia  Succeeded by his son Alexis (1645-1676)

12  Often called the first emperor of Russia.  Modernized legislation, courts, finances, cities, church, army and social life.  Entered a war with Denmark as an ally, against Sweden.  In 1703 St. Petersburg, the new capitol, was created.  Created Saarskaya Myza which became the Tsarskoye Selo.

13  Started as maid named Martha in Latvia, but town was taken over by Russia during the Northern War.  Peter was visiting the house, met Martha and made her his mistress.  Catherine converted to Orthodoxy and in 1712 married Peter as his second wife (he forced his first to become a nun.)  When Peter died in 1725 she became empress, the first female ruler.  She only ruled for 2 years before she also died.

14  Peter was only male-line grandson of Peter I and his first wife.  Peter ruled until 1730 when he died of smallpox.  Anna was Peter’s first cousin once removed.  She ruled after the death of Peter.

15  Made emperor as an infant in 1740 by the last will of Anna.  Soon his mother declared herself empress  Within a year they were both overthrown bye Peter the Great’s daughter, Elizabeth.  Lived his whole life in prison until he died in an escape attempt.

16  One of the calmest times of Russia, even the 7 years war only lasted for 4 years in Russia, and was victorious for the Russians.  Continued to modernize Russia.  Did not meddle much in affairs, preferred to participate in fineries, balls, masquerades and concerts.  Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli built about 20 baroque palaces for Elizabeth.

17  First of the Romanov-Holstein-Gottorp line, that ruled until 1917.  Married Sophia Augusta Frederica of Anhalt- Zerbst (later Catherine the Great).  Only ruled for 6 months.  His wife led a palace coup, which dethroned and assassinated Peter.

18  After Catherine dethroned Peter, she took the throne and became empress.  Was likeable and had many loyal companions.  She had many victories in the Russo-Turkish Wars, defeated the Ottoman Empire, and gained access to the Black Sea shores.  Expanded the empire south and west.  Was considered an “enlightened despot” but in later years became more harsh towards certain authors and artists.  Died of a sudden stroke.

19  Only legitimate son of Catherine II, and should have become emperor after Peter III’s death.  Created reforms to try and heal Russia.  He fought embezzlement of state funds and attempted to reform serfdom.  Only reigned for 4 years.  Most nobility thought his reforms were just an annoyance.  A group of conspirators broke into Paul’s bedroom and strangled him, although another story of his death speaks of dying of a stroke.

20  Son of Paul I and Maria Feodorovna and grandson of Catherine the Great  Catherine believe Paul was an incapable ruler, so she took control of Alexander’s education  made sure he was brought up with an Enlightened education  The rivalry between Paul and Catherine divided Alexander  he turned into a chameleon (was secretive and cunning). Most not sure if this was good or bad.  Alexander was crowned in 1801 after his father’s murder.  Paul was murdered because he was extremely unpopular with the nobles (some speculate Alexander may have had a central role in the murder, which haunted Alexander the rest of his life).  Alexander was VERY popular because he remained true to his Enlightenment schooling.  Set out to reform the out-of-date government  passed several social reforms, including: -relaxing censorship, prohibiting torture, and allowing peasants to buy their freedom  Also appointed the Private Committee (made up of his liberal friends) to plan internal reforms for government administration, education, and Russia’s financial issues. He even wanted to set up a parliament and give Russia a constitution (which would have ultimately lead to a constitutional monarchy).

21  Alexander entered an anti-French alliance when Napoleon began to take over Europe  December 1805: Russia lost at Austerlitz  Russia continued to lose  Alexander became fed up, so he signed a peace treaty with France (did not last long)  On June 12, 1812 Napoleon began the invasion of Russia, which prompted “the Patriotic War” (as it is called in Russia). French driven out by December.  1814: Russian troops parade into Paris  Alexander hailed as a hero throughout Europe and became one of Europe’s most powerful monarchs  Alexander viewed himself as a liberator and peace-maker, so he created the Holy Alliance in 1815 (with Austria and Prussia). It countered any new revolutions and protected stability throughout Europe  the first international peacekeeping organization of its kind.  Alexander’s reforms were not popular with the nobles, so he withdrew many of his changes and reinforced police control and censorship. One of the most disastrous projects was “military settlements.” Villages had to combine military service and farming. They were not economically beneficial and caused frequent unrest.  As he grew old, Alexander became obsessed with God. He became very troubled and felt “crushed beneath the terrible burden of a crown.” In 1825 he died suddenly. Many spread rumors that Alexander had secretly abdicated to become a monk. As Alexander never married (but had several illegitimate children), his brother Nicholas inherited the throne.

22  As Paul I and Maria Feodorovna had two sons (Alexander and Constantine) before Nicholas was born, Nicholas was not raised as a future tsar. He did not receive an Enlightened education (or anything comparable), was frequently beaten, and was never motivated. Interestingly, his favorite areas of study were engineering and military planning. His interest in the military prepared him in becoming a staunch conservative.  In 1819, Constantine renounced his place in the line of succession, making Nicholas the heir apparent. Nicholas was shocked and realized he was not adequately prepared to rule. He did not, however, take any steps in changing his lifestyle to become a better future ruler. He continued to avoid state affairs and his military career was still lackluster. Soldiers hated him because he was ruthless and critical.  When Alexander died in 1825, the country was thrown into turmoil for twenty days. The army swore allegiance to Constantine, but he refused to accept the crown. Nicholas felt pushed to accept the throne, even though he truly did not want to become tsar.  On the day of the oath of allegiance, a group of about 3,000 army officers protested Nicholas’s ascension to the throne. Nicholas, though thrown off guard, was able to crush the revolt by using deadly force. This is better known as the Decembrist Revolt.  Fighting revolution and dissent became Nicholas’s obsession. In the 1830s he crushed a Polish rebellion (and made Poland a Russian province) and in 1848 sent troops to suppress a Hungarian nationalist uprising.  Under Nicholas, Russia was feared and hated by Western liberals, and Nicholas was called the police-force of Europe.

23  Nicholas attempted to reform Russia’s code of laws and financial and educational systems. He dreamt of creating an ideal society in which all the people show complete loyalty to the Tsar. His motto was “autocracy, Orthodoxy and nationality.” He wanted to promote traditional Russian values and culture while suppressing all non-Russian nationalities and all religions other than Orthodox Christianity.  “Westernizers” believed Russia continued to remain backward. They supported European values (a.k.a. liberalism), while the “Slavophiles” enthusiastically preferred Slavic culture. They believed Russia should progress independently from the rest of Europe.  Nicholas viewed his role as tsar as a divine mission and eagerly oversaw every aspect of the government. He did not care about diplomacy and skills, but favored strict discipline and swift execution of orders. Civil institutions (like the bureaucracy) were even remodeled according to military tradition. Russia’s cultural/spiritual life was strictly controlled by new secret police forces.  Under Nicholas, Russia reached its largest size. Nicholas was able to expand into the Far East and pushed Russian borders all the way to the Pacific Rim. He attempted to take on the Ottoman Empire in the south-east in order to establish a protectorate over the Orthodox people of the Balkans. This led to the Crimean War of 1853-56, which Nicolas would not see the end of. Russia was defeated by the combined forces of Britain, France, and Turkey, who feared Russian supremacy. The war proved Russia’s backward economy was unable to compete with Western European powers.  Nicholas died in 1855 while the war was still raging. He left behind the legacy of an obsessed, militant, and reactionary ruler. His love of drills and beatings in the army earned him the nickname Nicholas Palkin, from the Russian word for stick.  Nicholas was married to Alexandra Feodorovna (Charlotte of Prussia). They had seven children, including the next tsar Alexander II.

24  As a boy, Alexander received an extensive education. He was tutored in everything from arts to science, and was trained rigorously in military discipline. Alexander toured Russia and the rest of Europe when he was 19, when he met his future wife Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. When they married in 1841, Marie was christened Maria Alexandrovna.  When Nicholas I died in 1855, Alexander inherited the Crimean War fiasco. As Alexander was 36 at the time, he was already an experience statesman and began peace talks the next year. Alexander realized the serf-based economy was not strong enough to support the war effort, let alone compete with Western Europeans. At the Treat of Paris, the Crimean War officially ended. Russia, however, lost the dominance in the Balkans Nicholas I worked so hard to achieve.  Alexander realized Russia was in much need of real reforms. He relaxed censorship, introduced changes to the educational system, and allowed independent press to grow. Alexander also knew Russia would need to make huge changes to remain an important power, as it obviously was not a great military or industrial presence. He decided he would abolish serfdom!!!  In 1861, Russia became one of the last countries to end medieval serfdom. The Emancipation Manifesto proclaimed that while the serfs were now free, they could not become owners of the land they were tied to. Rather, they were forced to buy or rent land from their old owners.  Of course the nobles were highly against the move, but the peasants themselves were equally upset. Their former owners priced the land much higher than its real value, so millions were unable to buy any land to make a living. Even those who bought land soon descended into poverty and debt.  The emancipation of serfs was not a total failure, as educational and judicial reforms soon followed. Large towns and rural districts were also allowed local self-government. Railroad construction increased, more banks and factories were established, and the economy was beginning to gather strength. Russia was not “safe,” however, as nationalist movements sprang up, including the1862 “January Uprising” in Poland. After the movement was put down, thousands of Poles were executed or sent to Siberia, and tighter control over Poland began.

25  Alexander dreamt of restoring Russia’s status lost after the Crimean War, and decided he would restructure the army along European standards. Alexander soon had the chance to prove the army was now a real force when an 1876 Bulgarian revolt was harshly handled by the Ottoman Turks. A public outcry erupted throughout Russia, but Alexander was not willing to confront the Turks. He began to view himself as a champion to oppressed Bulgarian Orthodox Christians and declared war in 1877. Russia was able to win in only a single year. Bulgaria still considers Alexander II the “Liberator Tsar” and names him one of their founders.  Most European rulers, especially Britain and Austria-Hungary could not handle Russian expansion and called for another treaty to be signed. Alexander was too weak to demand anything, so he was forced to see Russia defeated diplomatically.  The crushing defeat in the Crimean War left Alexander exhausted. He withdrew from active politics and began an affair with Princess Catherine Dolgorukova in 1866. In1880, less than a month after Maria’s death, Alexander married Catherine (considered a morganatic union). Catherine had already given birth to our children and the marriage was short-lived.  The reforms were criticized on all sides. Some thought the measures were too much, others thought they were far too little. Serious murder plots were frequent. In the 1860s, a populist organization lead by the Land and Liberty party gathered strength. A faction called People’s Will swore they would kill Alexander. They tried many times but did not succeed until March 1881.  In 1880 Alexander announced he was considering writing a constitution. A year later, as he was driving through St. Petersburg, Alexander’s carriage was bombed. He was not injured by the explosion, however, and wanted to check on the Cossacks that accompanied him. As he was going to help, another bomb was thrown. Alexander died within an hour and his death was largely considered a national tragedy.

26  As the second son of Alexander II and Maria Alexandrovna, Alexander was not raised as a future tsar. Rather, he was educated as a Grand Prince, and as such was intended to spend the rest of his life in the military.  In 1865, Nicholas suddenly died and Alexander was immediately chosen as the new heir apparent. As he was dying, Nicholas asked his brother to marry his fiancé Princess Dagmar of Schleswig- Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Alexander agreed and the pair married in 1866. Princess Dagmar became Maria Fyodorovna after her conversion to Orthodox Christianity, but was always called “Minnie” by Alexander. They had six children.  Alexander was crowned in 1883 following his father’s assassination in 1881. Even though Alexander loved his father very much, he believed his father’s assassination was the official end to “the Liberator’s” reforms. He declared he would bring back the “absolute autocracy” used by his grandfather Nicholas I to thwart the growing revolutionary groups.  His first move was to execute every person involved in the assassination as well as the leaders of all terrorist groups. He then increased the overall police presence and tightened censorship.  He refused to pass any liberal measures and staunchly believed Russia was destined to develop independently from the rest of Europe. As such, he rejected Western reforms. He did, however, encourage trade and industry (including the development of the Trans-Siberian Express) and worked to recover Russia’s economy. He used honed skills to deal with state finances and decreased the budget deficit.  Alexander was not like his father in that he was very careful in his foreign affairs. He worked endlessly to increase Russia’s military power, but skillfully avoided armed conflict because he feared “they would only exacerbate class conflicts and lead to revolution.”

27  Because he ensured Russia stayed out of any wars, Alexander was dubbed “the Peacemaker,” despite his initial use of harsh tactics to crush dissent and promote conservatism.  Although Russia had lost its place as a world power a short time before, Russia now exercised real influence over the rest of Europe.  Although Alexander was technically German by ancestry, he was considered “the most Russian” of all the recent tsars and cared about preserving Russian individuality. He was also deeply religious, and was very involved in making necessary changes for the benefit of the Orthodox Church.  When Alexander died in1894, his work was largely unfinished and Nicholas, the heir to the throne, was not adequately prepared to take the crown. Alexander was respected around the world, and Emile Flourens, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, expressed her feelings towards his short-lived reign by saying “Alexander III was a true Russian Tsar, one of a kind that Russia has never seen before. Of course, all the Romanovs were devoted to the interests and the greatness of their people, but spurred by the desire to give their nation a Western European culture, they sought ideals outside of Russia… Emperor Alexander III wanted Russia to be Russia, so that it could, above all, be Russian and he then set the examples best himself.”  When Nicholas was crowned, Russia was perfectly peaceful, exactly the opposite of what it had been when Alexander became tsar.

28  From birth, Nicholas was prepared to become the future tsar. His teachers were some of Russia’s most prestigious scholars, and he was soon proficient in several languages, history, and military science. Because his father was deeply religious, religion was the major component of Nicholas’s entire education.  When Alexander died in 1894, Nicholas knew he was not ready to become tsar. He lacked proper training and talent, and generally had no desire to rule. He did, however, believe his destiny, as ordained by God, was to be the tsar. A short time later, Nicholas married Princess Alix Victoria Helena Louise Beatrice of Hesse and by Rhine, whose name was changed to Alexandra Feodorovna. They reportedly married “for love” and Nicholas remained devoted to Alexandra. Unlike many consorts, she actually was able to influence Nicholas’s role in the government. She firmly believed autocracy was a necessary part of Russian culture and made sure Nicholas worked to preserve it.  Following a year of mourning, the couple was crowned in1896. To celebrate the ceremony, a huge group of citizens gathered in a nearby park. The park was soon overcrowded, and a stampede killed hundreds. Instead of postponing the coronation ball to mourn the tragedy, the new tsar and his wife proceeded with the ball. This event would later be used against the couple, as Nicholas was dubbed “Bloody Nicholas” and Alexandra “the German Woman”  Although Nicholas vowed to be a strong autocrat like his father, he lacked his father’s iron will and simply continued the work of his predecessors. He succeeded industrially, as Russian industry grew at an unprecedented rate.  Alexandra was not accepted by the Russian upper class and did not try to gain their trust. She disliked them highly and shielded her children. Her distrust of the nobility and disconnect with the Russian people was fundamental in the fall of the monarchy.

29  Alexandra and Nicholas had five children together. The four oldest children—Olga, Tatyana, Maria, and Anastasia— were all girls and could not inherit the throne. Their final child—Alexei—was born with Hemophilia B (which was passed on from Alexandra, who inherited it from her grandmother Queen Victoria of Great Britain). The disease does not allow the victim’s blood to clot properly, and so Alexei was a sickly boy his entire life. Even a minor injury was enough to kill him. Terrified Alexei would suffer the same fate as her brother and uncle, Alexandra made sure the Russian people never discovered truth. She was not, however, strong enough to avoid being taken advantage of.  During one of Alexei’s early attacks, Alexandra was introduced to “holy man” Grigory Rasputin, who was able to cure Alexei of his bleeding and pain. Widely regarded as a fraud, Rasputin was most likely able to hypnotize both Alexei and Alexandra, to the point that Alexandra began to trust all of Rasputin’s advice. As no one knew about Alexei’s condition, they became increasingly suspicious of Alexandra and why she allowed a man with such a reputation to be around her children so frequently. Alexandra was driving herself further and further down a path of no return, as most Russian people simply did not trust her.

30  Japan and Russia had been fighting for dominance in Manchuria and Korea since the late 1890s and early 1900s. The war began in early 1904 and the war lasted only a year. Most assumed Russia would win only because European powers had never before lost a war to a foreign power. Humiliated, Russia lost all respect throughout Europe and at home. The nobles and peasants alike agreed the tsar was weak, foolish, and just plain incapable.  In 1905, an unarmed crowd gathered near the tsar’s Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. The protestors demanded the king pass reforms to relieve their continuous suffering, but in no way did they wish to harm the tsar (in fact, they actually proclaimed “God Save the Tsar” as usual). The crowds were shot at and run down by the tsar’s army. More riots and strikes ensued across Russia, until Nicholas was finally driven to sign the October Manifesto in an attempt to appease the people. This created Russia’s first representative parliament (the Duma).  Sound familiar? The manifesto and demonstrations similar to Bloody Sunday are mentioned in Chapter 2: A Girl from a Different World in Dr. Zhivago

31  In August 1914, Russia officially entered World War I in an attempt to prevent German invasion of all of Europe. Russia’s losses continued to mount throughout the war, as millions of soldiers were lost and nearly everyone was left starving.  Of course Alexandra had to prove she, being a German princess, was not an enemy to Russia. She and her two older daughters became trained nurses to prove they were “truly Russian.”  In 1915, Nicholas foolishly believed he should take full command of the army himself. Alexandra was left to control the government, which meant Rasputin now had direct influence over Russian politics. The people became restless and were even more suspicious the monarchy. Indeed, the monarchy was blamed for everything wrong in society, especially the mounting death rates and food shortages. Disgusted by Rasputin’s place in the royal family, two of Nicholas’s relatives murdered Rasputin in December 1916.  In March 1917, the people revolted again. No longer respectful of the monarchy, the riots became increasingly violent. Nicholas gave up and abdicated that month. The Duma established the Provisional Government, which would only last for about 8 months before Lenin and the Bolsheviks took over. As we all know, they removed Russia from being involved in World War I.  This is also mention in Dr. Zhivago, when Yuri is working on the front and mentions the Tsar was commanding the troops stationed there.

32  Before the Bolsheviks assumed total control, Nicholas and the rest of the family were arrested and held captive at Alexander Palace. After the Bolsheviks took control, they exiled the family in Tobolsk to ensure the family was not able to flee the country. The family was then moved to Yekaterinburg to the Ipatiev House. In the middle of the night on July 17, the former royal family was order to dress and go to the basement, under false pretenses. Eleven executioners murdered Nicholas, his wife, and all the children.  Maria Fyodorovna was able to escape Russia, but many other Romanovs were not. In total, 19 Romanovs were murdered by the Bolsheviks.  Rumors quickly circulated that Anastasia and Alexei had escaped the executioners and were alive and well in Europe. Several women claiming to be Anastasia, most famously Anna Anderson, were finally disproved when bones were discovered in 2007 that prove the youngest Romanovs did in fact die on July 17, 1918.  The family was laid to rest in St. Petersburg’s Cathedral of Peter and Paul. The former location of Ipatiev House is not the Church on Blood in Honor of All Saints Resplendent in the Russian Land. The final tsar and his family are, as of 2000, Passion Bearers for the Russian Orthodox Church.

33 Fun Facts! The first and last women of the Russian monarchy were both named Anastasia. The soldiers who were given the job of assassinating the last of the monarchy had trouble shooting the women because they had armor made of jewels. A very large amount of the Russian Monarchy had hemophilia. Czar Nicholas II wasn’t technically the last Czar of Russia because when he abdicated the throne he gave it to his brother, who abdicated it a few days later.

34     War  To be a Princess by Hugh Brewster and Laurie Coulter  The Royal Diaries, Anastasia The Last Grand Duchess by Carolyn Meyer

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