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Chapter 21 The North  Union Strategy 1. Suffocate the south = Blockade 2. Liberate the slaves 3. Cut the confederacy in ½ = Mississippi River 4. Chop.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 The North  Union Strategy 1. Suffocate the south = Blockade 2. Liberate the slaves 3. Cut the confederacy in ½ = Mississippi River 4. Chop."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 21

3 The North  Union Strategy 1. Suffocate the south = Blockade 2. Liberate the slaves 3. Cut the confederacy in ½ = Mississippi River 4. Chop Confederacy to piece by sending troops through Georgia and Carolinas 5. Capture Richmond 6. Grind into submission

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5 Bull Run  July 21, 1861  First bloodshed  30 miles from Washington D.C.  Confederates  General Thomas J. Jackson  “Stonewall Jackson”  First Southern Victory  Many thought the war was over  Deserted

6 McClellan / North Lincoln stepped up enlistments General George McClellan = lead forces Began fight for Mississippi River Overcautious Peninsula Campaign Inched toward Confederate Capital Lincoln – Chased Jackson Lee launches counter attacks 7 Day Battles June 26 – July 2 Drove McClellan back Union abandoned Peninsula Campaign McClellan removed

7 War for Capitals Confederacy ▫ Robert E. Lee  Went beyond military textbooks in tactics  Wanted to save Confederate capital  Richmond  Moved his troops against Washington McClellan found a copy of Lee’s orders ▫ Wrapped around some cigars  Showed that Lee and Stonewall Jackson’s armies were separated for some time  2 nd Battle of Bull Run = Aug. 1862

8 Battle at Antietam  September 17, 1862  McClellan orders his men to pursue Lee  Battle broke out at Creek = Antietam  Bloodiest single day battle in American history  Casualties = 26,000  Instead of pursuing the battered Confederate army --- McClellan did nothing  Lincoln removed him from command  Emancipation

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10 Emancipation  January 1, 1863 = Emancipation Proclamation  Moral cause  “Where he could he would not, and where he would not he could”  Desertion increased

11 Blacks Battle Bondage  180,000 African Americans fought for the Union  10% of the Union army  Suffered discrimination  38,000 died  Confederacy  Did not enlist until end of war  Thousand used for labor battalions  “Stomach of the Confederacy”  Revolts

12 Lee’s last Lunge  1862  Lee  Defeated Union Army (Burnside, Hooker) = Fredericksburg (VA) and then again in Chancellorsville (VA)  May 2  Stonewall Jackson accidentally shot  Left arm amputated  Caught pneumonia  Died on May 10  Lee = “He has lost his left arm but I have lost my right”

13 Gettysburg  July 1 = Lee pushes North  Gettysburg – Southern Pennsylvania  90,000 Union troops = General George Meade  75,000 Confederates = General Lee / Pickett  2 nd day = Confederates drove Union troops from Gettysburg  Union troops held high ground on Cemetery Ridge  Lee attacked  Union held their ground

14 Gettysburg  July 3  Lee ordered an artillery barrage  2 hours = fired at one another  Lee thought he had silenced the Union guns  Ordered troops to charge the lines  North then renewed its barrage  South staggered back  Lee gave up any hope of invading the North  Led army back to Virginia  Huge losses  23,000 Union men  28,000 Confederate men  Total casualties more than 30%

15 Gettysburg Address  November 19, 1863  Dedicate a cemetery in Gettysburg  2 minute speech  “Remade America”  “Not just a collection of individual states – it was a unified nation”

16 Union Cont David G. Farragut Commander of a Union fleet 40 ships Seized New Orleans Confederacy’s largest city / busiest port Took control of much of the lower Mississippi

17 Vicksburg  Ulysses S. Grant  Took northern Tennessee  Captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson  Kentucky  Opened gateway = Georgia  Fought to take Vicksburg  Confederate strongholds on the Mississippi  Rested on the bluffs above the river  Guns could control all water traffic  1862 – 1863  Tried several approaches - nothing worked

18 Grant  Spring 1863  Needed to weaken Confederates  Sent a Calvary through the heart of Mississippi  Destroying all rail lines  Distracted Confederates  Grant moves troops South of Vicksburg  Sent his men in search of Confederate troops  In 18 days Union troops sacked Jackson Mississippi

19 Grant  Grant rushed his troops to Vicksburg  Ordered 2 frontal attacks  Neither worked  May 1863  Set up a barrage of artillery  From both the river and the land = Several hours a day  Food supplies ran low for  Eating dogs and mules  City fell on July 4  Port Hudson, Louisiana – Last confederate holdout  Union had now cut the Confederacy in two

20 Confederacy Weakens  Confederacy  Gettysburg and Vicksburg cost the South much of its manpower  Low on food, shoes, uniforms, funds, and ammunition  Moral was weakening  Many soldiers had deserted  Many southerners began to call openly for peace

21 Grant / Sherman March 1864  Lincoln appoints Grant commander of Union armies  Grant appoints = William Tecumseh Sherman  Division of the Mississippi  These 2 appointments changed the course of the war  Both believed in waging = Total war  Grant wanted to decimate Lee’s army in Virginia  Sherman raided Georgia

22 Sherman’s March  Spring  March southeast  Created path of destruction  Burned houses, destroyed livestock  Wanted to make southerners “so sick of war that generations would pass away before they would again appeal to it”  By November = burned most of Atlanta  Sherman turned north to help Grant = “Wipe out Lee”

23 Election of 1864  Lincoln faced heavy opposition from Democrats  Copperheads = Against Lincoln  McClellan  Congressional Committee on the Conduct of War  Many Northerners were not happy at the length of the war  Union Party = joined with Northern War Democrats  Support Lincoln / Johnson  Republican party fades during election  Lincoln did not think he would win  “I am going to be beaten and unless some great change takes place, badly beaten”  News of Sherman’s victories inspired the North  Helped Lincoln win re-election

24 Grant Outlast Lee  Wilderness Campaign  May – June 1864  Casualties high  “Grant the Butcher”  Trench warfare  North could afford casualties = South could not

25 Surrender at Appomattox  April 3, 1865  Union troops conquered Richmond --- the Confederate capital  Southerners had abandoned the city the day before  April 9, 1865  Appomattox Court House – Virginia  Lee and Grant met at a private home to arrange a Confederate surrender

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27 Cont.  Lincoln very generous  Paroled Lee’s soldiers  Sent them home with their possessions  3 days rations  Officers could keep side arms  Within 1 month resistance collapses  4 years Civil War was over

28 Nation Changes  360,000 Union solders died  260,000 Confederates died  Increased federal governments power and authority  Income tax  Conscription  Gave more control over individual citizens  No state ever threatened secession again  $15 Billion = Total cost of war

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30 Revolution in Warfare  Rifle  Mini ball  Soft lead bullet  Hand grenades  Land mines  Ironclad ships --- replace wooden ships  Ramming wooden ships  Resist cannon fire and burning

31 War Changes Lives  13 Amendment  Ratified at the end of 1865  Abolishing Slavery  Lincolns Assassinated  April 14, 1865  5 days after surrender  Lincoln and his wife = Ford’s theatre  John Wilkes Booth  Shot the president in the back of his head  Lincoln never regained consciousness  Died April 15

32 Lincoln  Booth caught 12 days later  Shot to death  Lincoln taken from Washington to Springfield Illinois  14 days  7 million Americans turned out to mourn.  1/3 of the Unions population


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