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City of Alexandria, Virginia Youth Concerns including Gangs & Human Trafficking Downtown Baptist Church, April 27, 2014 Mike Mackey Gang Prevention & Intervention.

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Presentation on theme: "City of Alexandria, Virginia Youth Concerns including Gangs & Human Trafficking Downtown Baptist Church, April 27, 2014 Mike Mackey Gang Prevention & Intervention."— Presentation transcript:

1 City of Alexandria, Virginia Youth Concerns including Gangs & Human Trafficking Downtown Baptist Church, April 27, 2014 Mike Mackey Gang Prevention & Intervention Coordinator Northern Virginia Regional Gang Task Force City of Alexandria

2 1.Read through the materials 2.Report any graffiti to non-emergency police number 3.Watch “The Big Lie” and “Trafficked” online 4.Consider volunteering for 1 hour a week as a mentor or tutor ( 5.Accept my sincere thanks for your interest in these critical issues in our community 6.Pass the word, please. Recommendations

3 1.Hope 2.Significant Adults 3.Acquired Skills 4.Locus of Control (Voice) 5.Altruism Components of Resiliency

4 City of Alexandria, Virginia 1996 1996

5 80% (4 out of 5) of kids involved in gangs indicated that they would leave if offered the right help. 5

6 Human Trafficking Defined Fraud Coercion Force

7 Force, Fraud, Coercion Force Fraud Coercion Physical restraint, bodily harm (physical or sexual), or confinement Deceitful employment offers or work conditions, false promises, or withholding wages Threats of serious or bodily harm against any person, abuse of legal process, withholding legal documents, climate of fear

8 Scope of Human Trafficking  $32 billion industry  As large as weapons trafficking  12 million victims worldwide  43% Sex; 32% Labor  80% women; 50% children .4 percent of victims have been identified  The ratio of convicted offenders to victims identified is 8.5 to 100. The U.S. Department of State’s 2010 “Trafficking in Persons Report”

9 Is this truly a national trend? 9 July, 2013 FBI - more than 150 arrests have been made in Operation Cross Country, rescuing more than 100 children nationwide.

10 Is this truly a national trend? 10

11 Is this truly a national trend? 11 Authorities free 16 juveniles and 54 women, and arrest more than 45 alleged pimps and their helpers.

12 Societal Permission-Giving Beliefs “My behavior is normal, acceptable, common and doesn’t hurt anyone.” Sex is a commodity Sex is recreation Sex is a male entitlement All men use prostitutes All people want sex with all people all the time Women really enjoy violent and degrading sex Children enjoy sex with adults It’s a victimless crime It’s between consenting adults It’s a job They love sex & make money doing it (Dr. Mary Ann Layden—University of PA)

13 Why Commercial Sex? Sex Trafficking Investment: Minimal recruiting cost 1 night: $1,000; 1 month: $15,000 1 year: $180,000 Profit Note: Relies on fewer people, thus less risky; less expensive; girls rescued  girls replaced * Renewable Resource Narcotics Trafficking  Investment: $32,000 in initial capital (1 Kilo)  Sell: $64,000 (1 Kilo broken down)  Profit: $32,000  Note: Relies on more people to cut and distribute; more expensive; narcotics seized  narcotics lost.  *Finite Resource

14 Grooming  Target runaways (offer housing)  House parties  Sedation with drugs and alcohol  Demos/Try-outs  Gang rape  Gang indoctrination

15 Recruiting: Social Media Impersonal Ability to gather intelligence Numbers game Plausible deniability  Why social media?  How do they use it? Fake accounts Mass messages Intelligence gathering

16 Recruiting: Social Media Why social media?How do they use it?  Impersonal  Ability to gather intelligence  Numbers game  Plausible deniability  Fake accounts  Mass messages  Intelligence gathering 16

17 Recruiting: Other Methods 17 Bus Stops Parties Skip Parties School Neighborhood Other girls Girl friends of gang members

18 Advertising  Word of mouth  Business cards  Backpage  Craigslist  Dating websites 18

19 Brenda Paz Phenomenon 19  Murder in 2003  Used as a form of power and control  Availability of media coverage  Misperceptions

20 Brenda Paz

21 The Operation  Not “traditional” clothing  Neighborhood-centric  Trusted clientele  Limit movements  Counter-surveillance 21

22  20 cases, 36 defendants, at least 28 victims (all but two are juveniles)  8 of the cases involved gang-controlled sex trafficking with 12 total defendants and at least 20 juvenile victims  10 of the cases involved some form of sex trafficking or interstate prostitution  6 of the cases involved trafficking "related" prosecutions where sex trafficking was not directly charged but the conduct had a demonstrated or plausible connection to commercial sex (usually involving adults)  6 active investigations (18 th Street, MS-13, South Side Locos, Latin Kings) 22 The past year in the Eastern District alone …

23 The Victims: Traditional Ideologies Runaway Problem-child Unreceptive to services Sexually promiscuous Homeless street youth Consenting participants Drug-user Gang members / Associates 23 VictimOffender


25  Human trafficking is about VULNERABILITY  Cuts across: ethnicity, race, class, gender, etc  Men or Women  Adults or Children  Foreign Nationals or US Citizens  Undocumented or Documented  Educated or Uneducated  Individuals, families, or groups  Anyone Victim Background

26 The Victims: Who are they really? Vulnerable Young Girls  Situational needs  Runaways  Lack of interpersonal relationships  Lack of support structure  Seeking identity  Mental health concerns (low self-esteem, depression, substance abuse, etc) 26 who are looking for FAMILY

27 27

28 Psychological/Emotional Impact of CSEC Disruption of healthy psychological development  Self-concept, intimacy, beliefs and goals Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)  Impulse to revisit traumatic events, intrusive emotions & memories, flashbacks, hyper arousal, exaggerated startle reaction, panic symptoms Self-injurious and suicidal behavior Dissociative disorders Anxiety Paranoia Clinical depression Explosive outbursts Sleep disturbance & nightmares Bond with perpetrators Hyper-sexualization Emotional Impact of CSEC Anger and rage Deep emotional pain/grieving Feelings of humiliation/shame Stigma of exploitation Self-blame/Self-loathing Loss of sexual desire, feelings, or response Sad, Sorry, Lost, Hurt, Scared, Hateful, Lonely, Lovesick, Shy, Annoyed, Irritated, Cautious, Shame, Helpless, Exhausted, Negative, Miserable, Disappointed, Suspicious, Grumpy, Numb, Depressed, Judged, Excluded, Reckless, Paranoid, Isolated, Shocked, Regretful, Withdrawn, Frustrated, Paranoid Social Impact of CSEC Isolation from peer group Disconnection from community Isolation from mainstream society Homelessness Incarceration/Criminal record as obstacle Disempowerment Lack of life skills Trust issues/Difficulty maintaining relationships Obstacles to vocation  Lack of access to legal economies, lack of job experience/skills Educational deprivation  Missed school, disconnection with school system Spiritual Impact of CSEC Despair Hopelessness Lack of belief in humanity Lack of faith in spiritual power Physical Impact of CSEC Continuous physical abuse Rape & gang rape STDs & STIs HIV & AIDS Loss of bowel control Pregnancy (wanted and unwanted) Sterility Facial/dental reconstruction Tattoos & branding Brain damage Substance abuse/addiction Self-cutting Suicide/Death Beatings Stabbed Shot at Courtesy of The Home for Little Wanderers

29 Warning Signs of CSE  Frequent runaway  Returns with bruises/unusual markings  Parents report change in attitude mood/personality for no apparent reason  Older male boyfriend possibly referred to as “daddy”  Submissive during questioning and/or answers appear to be rehearsed  Possession of new clothes, shoes, jewelry, etc., from an unknown source  Change in peer group  Isolation from the family  Mental Health issues

30  Youth with histories of abuse  41% of minors arrested for prostitution in Las Vegas from 2004 to 2006 had been victims of sexual assault;  21% had been victims of familial molestation. 6  78% of children in prostitution had runaway 4 or more time in the past year. 7  WestCare Nevada treated 46 minors involved in prostitution from 2004-2005; 45 of them had a history of physical and/or sexual abuse. Who are especially vulnerable to domestic minor sex trafficking? Las Vegas Metro Police S.T.O.P. Program, Las Vegas. 2007 Te Dallas Police Department

31  Homeless, runaway or “throwaway” youth  In the U.S., 30% of shelter youth and 70% of street youth are victims of commercial sexual exploitation.  As many as 2.8 million kids living on the street.  Youth within the foster care system & child protective services Over 700,000 children in the U.S. currently reside in some form of foster care. Who are especially vulnerable to domestic minor sex trafficking? 9 Estes, R. & Weiner, N. 10 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

32 Individual  Prior delinquency  Desire for group rewards such as status, identity, self-esteem, companionship and protection  Anti-social attitudes  Aggression  Alcohol and drug use  Early sexual activity  Victimization School  Poor school performance  Low educational aspirations  Negative labeling by teachers  High levels of antisocial behavior  Few teacher role models  Learning difficulties Family  Family disorganization, including broken homes and parental drug and/or alcohol abuse  Family violence, neglect and drug addiction  Family members in a gang  Lack of adult and parental role models, parental criminality, parents with violent attitudes, siblings with anti-social behaviors  Extreme economic deprivation Community  Social disorganization, including high poverty and residential mobility  High crime neighborhood  Presence of gangs  Availability or perceived access to drugs in the neighborhood  Availability of firearms  Feeling unsafe in neighborhood VICTIM PROFILE

33 Identifying Victims: Warning Signs  Purchasing or expressing a desire to buy or wear clothing of all one color or style  Changing appearance with special haircuts, eyebrow markings and/or tattoos  Using hand signs  Developing a negative attitude towards family, school and/or authorities (General mood changes)  Staying out later than usual  Carrying weapons  Substance abuse / additional mental health concerns 33  Withdrawing from family activities  Changing in friends and/or spending time with undesirable people  Having unknown money and/or materialistic possessions  Running away from home  Placing of gang graffiti on folders, desks, walls, and/or buildings  Obsession with gangs  Purchasing or expressing a desire to buy or wear clothing of all one color or style  Unexplained injuries

34 What to consider….  Often times the individual does not identify as a victim or being “trafficked.”  Do not use the word “Prostitution”  Understand the power and control dynamics these individuals faces  Be aware that often times the individuals are conditioned to speak and act a certain way in an interview/assessment  Code of the Streets: “Do not trust law enforcement/outsiders.”

35  Frequent runners  Truant  History of abuse (physical, sexual, emotional)  Parental alcohol and drug use  Economic need/poverty  Exhibits bruises or other signs of physical trauma, withdrawn behavior, depression, anxiety, or fear  Has coached/rehearsed responses to questions  Demonstrates a sudden change in attire, personal hygiene, relationships, or material possessions  Acts uncharacteristically promiscuous and/or makes references to sexual situations or terminology that are beyond age-specific norms  Bruises/tattoos/markings/branding 35 What to look for..

36 What to be aware of….  When you are interacting with someone who has been sexually exploited the first thing you have to do is:  Get the client to tell their story  Allow them to explore where they need healing.  Victims tend to rationalize or minimize the exploitation, often times pretending that whatever happened was not that bad.  Exploitation has totally put them in a state of non trust of the world.  Must help them learn to trust and learn that this world is and can be a safe place for them.  Must help victim grieve, mourn, and express anger

37 City of Alexandria, Virginia Human Trafficking – Who do I call? National Human Trafficking Hotline (Polaris Project) 888 373-7888 to call or text BEFREE. Or call the Alexandria Police, please – 703-746-4444.

38 38 Resources To Stop Human Trafficking Video produced by Fairfax County Public Schools –Tricked: Inside the World of Teen Sex Trafficking – as well as resource guides and links to associated websites are available online. The video can be viewed in segments of 6-13 minutes or the full 60 minutes.Tricked: Inside the World of Teen Sex Trafficking online

39 1. – Alexandria DCHS Website, select Center for Children and Families – ACAP’s – SAPCA’s - Alexandria’s Gang Prevention – Mental health resources, Mental Health Info – Anti-stigma Mental Health HOPE Campaign– Youth led advocacy - MADD and Nationwide Insurance site that gives parents of high school students the communication tools they need to stop teen alcohol - What parents can do to prevent teens from abusing prescription - The Partnership at motivates and equips parents to prevent their children from using drugs and alcohol and to intervene and find help for those with kids in - Tools for parents from Planned – Parent Sex Ed Center from Advocates for - Northern VA Regional Gang Task 39 Helpful Websites

40 Mike Mackey City of Alexandria, Virginia Gang Prevention & Intervention Coordinator Northern Virginia Regional Gang Task Force 703.746.4144 40 Northern Virginia Regional Gang Task Force, USA

41 41 Additional Information Lisette Torres Alexandria Campaign on Adolescent Pregnancy (ACAP) 703.746.3130 Noraine Buttar Substance Abuse Prevention Coalition of Alexandria (SAPCA) 703.746.3670 Shelly Morgan Parent, Substance Abuse Prevention Coalition of Alexandria (703).519.6160 Mike Mackey Gang Prevention 703.746.4144

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