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The Tudors: Kings & Queens of England

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1 The Tudors: Kings & Queens of England


3 The Tudors ruled on the English throne for over a hundred years
The Tudors ruled on the English throne for over a hundred years. What followed was a lavish and bloody dynasty characterized by absolute power and greatness. Henry VIII Mary I Edward VI Elizabeth I Henry VII Click on the Tudor Monarch for an interactive history of their reign and persona.

4 HENRY VII: The Facts Born: January 28th, 1457, son of Edward Tudor and Margaret Beaufort Reign: Wife: Elizabeth of York, daughter of King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, 1486. Children: 8, 4 survived infancy Died: April 21st, 1509, Richmond, Surrey.

5 Henry VII: Policies & Reign
Henry VII called parliament only 7 times in his reign. Henry VII regulated the government, promoted foreign trade, increased financial efficiency, and negotiated peace throughout the country. By the end of his reign, the royal revenue had risen from £52,000 to £142,000 a year. 1485: Henry defeats Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. 1486: Henry marries Elizabeth of York, solidifying his claim to the throne. 1487: Henry recreates the old Court of the Star Chamber, giving him the power to try and convict nobility. 1487: Henry crushes a rebellion by the Earl of Lincoln 1492: Perkin Warbeck, a pretender to the throne is defeated and put to death. 1492: America is discovered by Christopher Columbus. 1503: Henry’s eldest heir, Arthur dies. 1507: Henry VII dies at Richmond.

6 Henry VII: A Closer Look
To unify the houses that had been at war, Henry VII combined the red Lancaster rose and the white rose of York to make a new one: the Tudor rose. Tall and athletic, with blue eyes and dark hair, Henry was considered handsome for his time. Henry’s union with Elizabeth of York was very happy, and considered by some to be a love match. Because of his upbringing and early poverty, Henry VII was sometimes considered a miser, accumulating money and spending very little of it. In contrast to this allegation, Henry donated money to the church and those in need throughout his life.

7 Henry VIII: The Facts Born: June 28th, 1491, second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Reign: Wives: Catherine of Aragon, 1509 (1 child), Anne Boleyn, 1533 (1 child), Jane Seymour, 1536 (1 child), Anne of Cleves, 1540, Katherine Howard, 1540, and Catherine Parr, 1543. Children: 3 Died: January 28th, 1547, at Whitehall

8 Henry VIII: Policies & Reign
1509: Henry VIII marries Catherine of Aragon, his brother Arthur’s widow. 1516: Catherine gives birth to Mary, later Mary I. 1517: Martin Luther publishes his 95 theses. 1520: At the Field of the Cloth of Gold Henry meets for peace with Francis I of France. 1533: Henry has his marriage to Catherine of Aragon annulled. 1533: Henry marries Anne Boleyn and Elizabeth, later Elizabeth I is born. 1533: Henry is excommunicated by the Pope. 1534: Henry passes the Act of Supremacy, forming the Church of England and making himself the head of it 1536: Anne is executed and Henry marries Jane Seymour. 1536: Henry orders the dissolution of the monasteries. 1537: Edward, later Edward VI is born and Jane Seymour dies. 1540: Henry marries and divorces Anne of Cleves in one year. 1540: Henry marries Katherine Howard. 1542: Katherine is executed for adultery. 1543: Henry marries Catherine Parr. 1547: Henry VIII dies, leaving the country divided and deeply in debt.

9 Henry VIII: A Closer Look
When he was young, Henry was athletic and handsome. Henry instituted laws which allowed him to put to death people on the slightest provocation, including speaking against him. “He spoke several languages, played musical instruments and was adept at dancing, hunting, womanizing and sport.” In spite of his flaws, through Henry VIII the Protestant Reformation came about, forever changing religion. Henry was a capable administrator but preferred to leave most of the work in the hands of his Chancellors and advisors. As Henry grew older, he grew incredibly overweight and diseased, with a waistline of about 50 inches. He had to be lifted by contraptions between the floors of houses and onto his horse. In addition to becoming obese, Henry became cruel and tyrannical. “By the time of his death, some 50,000 families” had cause to mourn “at least one member whom Henry had put to death.” By the time of his death in addition to being hated, Henry left England divided by religion, politically unstable, and hundreds of thousands of pounds in debt.

10 Edward VI: The Facts Born: October 12th, 1537, son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour. Reign: Wife: None. Children: None. Died: July 6th, 1553 at Greenwich.

11 Edward VI: Policies & Reign
Edward was staunchly Protestant and solidified Henry VIII’s Reformation by essentially making Catholicism illegal through the First Act of Uniformity. Edward VI was heavily influenced by his favorites, Edward Seymour and later John Dudley in his life, most likely due to his young age. Edward made Lady Jane Grey his heir in an attempt to secure a Protestant succession, an act which proved unsuccessful after his Catholic sister Mary took London and later had Jane Grey executed, who had been Queen for only 9 days. 1547: Edward takes the throne on his father’s death at the age of 9. 1547: Edward Seymour, Edward VI’s uncle, is named Lord Protector of England. 1549: The Roman Catholic mass is made illegal through the First Act of Uniformity. 1549: Services are changed from Latin to English. 1549: The “First Book of Common Prayer” is issued. 1550: John Dudley, Earl of Warwick becomes Lord Protector of England. 1553: Edward VI names the Protestant Lady Jane Grey heir to the throne. 1553: Edward VI dies of an unknown illness at the age of 15.

12 Edward VI: A Closer Look
Edward VI is often portrayed as a weak boy, often ill in his childhood. However, this has yet to be proved. Edward was exceptionally intelligent, having received a great education from a young age and being surrounded by scholars his entire life. Edward was known to be “tolerant and kind-hearted,” yet “precocious” and “stubborn” (like his father). History will never be sure what Edward VI died of, some however, speculate that it was possibly tuberculosis.

13 Mary I: The Facts Born: February 18th, 1516, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Reign: Husband: Philip of Spain, 1554. Children: None. Died: November 17th, 1558, St. James, London.

14 Mary I: Policies & Reign
1553: After deposing Jane Grey, Mary is crowned Queen of England at the age of 37. 1554: Sir Thomas Wyatt leads a rebellion with the intent of putting Elizabeth on the throne. 1554: Wyatt, Lady Jane Grey (Queen of 9 days), and her husband Lord Guilford Dudley are executed. 1554: Mary marries the Catholic Philip of Spain, marking the beginning of the persecution of the Protestants. 1554:The heresy laws are restored and England becomes Catholic once more. 1556: Philip leaves Mary to become King of Spain. 1557: England declares war on France. 1558: Mary I dies, bitter and alone. Mary’s steadfast Catholicism and marriage to the foreigner Philip of Spain made her vastly unpopular with the people. In 1554 Mary rescinded all anti-Catholic laws made by Edward VI and reconciled with the Pope. In 1558 the English port in France, Calais, was captured by the French— a loss Mary considered one of her biggest failures.

15 Mary I: A Closer Look Mary was humiliated in her childhood, made a bastard, excluded from court, and forced to watch her mother die unhappily and slowly from what was most likely cancer. Mary was unattractive and unhealthy, often suffering headaches (among other things). She also had poor eyesight, which made her squint unbecomingly. Mary I earned the nickname “Bloody Mary” because over a period of 3 years she had around 300 Protestants burned at the stake. Mary was in love with Philip of Spain, although he was not in love with her, and she endured two or more devastating false pregnancies. Mary was raised and continued to be a very fervent Catholic throughout her life. Her main aim in her reign was to restore the country to what she deemed was the “true faith.” Mary died miserably from what modern historians conjecture was most likely ovarian cancer.

16 Elizabeth I: The Facts Born: September 7th, 1533, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Reign: Husband: None. Children: None. Died: March 24th, 1603, at Richmond, Surrey.

17 Elizabeth I: Policies & Reign
1558: Elizabeth takes the throne after the death of her sister, Mary I. 1559: Elizabeth passes the Act of Supremacy, making her the head of the Church of England. 1562: During the French Wars of Religion Elizabeth gives help to the Protestant Huguenots. 1563/4: The Plague causes the death of 17,000 people in London. 1568: Elizabeth has Mary Queen of Scots imprisoned. : Francis Drake makes a voyage around the world. 1587: After being sent to trial, Mary Queen of Scots is executed by an unwilling Elizabeth. 1588: The English defeat a Spanish Armada of 130 ships off the English coast. 1595/6: Sir Walter Raleigh sails to South America. 1601: A favorite of the Queen, the Earl of Essex, leads a revolt and is executed. 1601: A relief rate for the poor is introduced when the “Poor Law” is passed. 1603: Elizabeth I dies at the age of 69.

18 Elizabeth I: A Closer Look
Elizabeth was imprisoned more than once by her sister Mary I because of the threat she posed. After seeing the extreme Protestantism of Edward VI’s reign and the extreme Catholicism of Mary’s, Elizabeth, although Protestant, tried to strike a tolerant balance between the two during her reign. Elizabeth I’s reign is often referred to as the Golden age of England. During her 45 year reign England experienced peace and a great flourishing of the arts and sciences. An exceptionally intelligent woman, Elizabeth knew 6 languages fluently and read 2 hours a day most of her life. A brilliant woman, Elizabeth used her foreign suitors to maintain peace with other countries without entering into marriage. Elizabeth was known to have favorites: one of her most favored courtiers was a man named Robert Dudley, who many believe she was in love with. She was devastated by his death in 1588. Elizabeth once said: “I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and a king of England too.” After a bout of illness and depression, Elizabeth I died in She is considered the last absolute monarch of England. Elizabeth began wearing thick makeup and wigs after she was scarred and lost much of her hair from smallpox in

19 Assignment Using this PowerPoint, the resources and sites listed, and other academic resources, research your favorite Tudor monarch and make a Wikispace about them. Your Wikispace should have: A neat index at the left side. A home page which introduces the monarch. Detailed, organized information on the monarch. Pictures and multimedia. Feel free to add relevant videos, music, and other multimedia. List of resources cited using MLA format. Have fun! Include interesting facts or quotes. On the day it is due, we will be sharing our Wikispaces in class.

20 Core Standards Grades 6-12 Social Studies: World Civilizations
Standard 4: Students will understand the influence of revolution and social change in the transition from early modern to contemporary societies. Objective 1: Assess the importance of intellectual and cultural change on early modern society. D. Examine the roles and conditions of men, women, and children in European monarchies.

21 Fun Videos about the Tudors
David Starkey discusses Elizabeth I in this dramatic reproduction of Tudor life. starkey.html David Starkey on the Six Wives of Henry VIII. For other PBS programs on Henry VIII and the Tudors. ml

22 Sites to Visit Here are some good websites about the Tudors:
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23 Resources Websites: Books:
Hanson, M. (n.d.). Tudor Monarchs: Henry VII, Henry VIII, The Six Wives of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Jane Grey, Mary I, Elizabeth I. Retrieved December 14, 2011, from Eakins, L. E. (n.d.). Retrieved December 14, 2011, from Books: Forty, S. (2009). British Kings & Queens. New York: Fall River Press. Ashley, M. (2007). A Brief History of British Kings & Queens. Philadelphia, London: Running Press. (Original work published 1998) Fry, P. S. (2001). Kings & Queens: A Royal History of England & Scotland. London, New York, Sydney, Moscow: DK. (Original work published 1990)

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