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Part IV The Renaissance 郧阳师专英语系英美文学精品课程. Introduction to 16th century 1. Renaissance (pp91--94) 1. Renaissance (pp91--94) The Renaissance Center, Detroit,

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Presentation on theme: "Part IV The Renaissance 郧阳师专英语系英美文学精品课程. Introduction to 16th century 1. Renaissance (pp91--94) 1. Renaissance (pp91--94) The Renaissance Center, Detroit,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Part IV The Renaissance 郧阳师专英语系英美文学精品课程

2 Introduction to 16th century 1. Renaissance (pp91--94) 1. Renaissance (pp91--94) The Renaissance Center, Detroit, along the Detroit River The Renaissance Center, Detroit, along the Detroit River Detroit 底特律, 美国密歇 根 (Michigan) 州东南部的 大城市, 位于底特律河流 上 Detroit 底特律, 美国密歇 根 (Michigan) 州东南部的 大城市, 位于底特律河流 上

3 Renaissance Literature in England 1.poetry 1.poetry 2.drama 2.drama 3. prose 3. prose

4 Sir Philip Sidney His life and works His life and works

5 Edmund Spenser (1552--1599) English poet whose long allegorical poem The Faerie Queene is one of the greatest in the English language. It was written in what came to be called the Spenserian stanza. English poet whose long allegorical poem The Faerie Queene is one of the greatest in the English language. It was written in what came to be called the Spenserian stanza. Spenserian stanza Spenserian stanza

6 English poet known chiefly for his allegorical epic romance The Faerie Queene (1590-1596). His other works include the pastoral Shepeardes Calendar (1579) and the lyrical marriage poem Epithalamion (1595). English poet known chiefly for his allegorical epic romance The Faerie Queene (1590-1596). His other works include the pastoral Shepeardes Calendar (1579) and the lyrical marriage poem Epithalamion (1595). 斯宾塞,埃德蒙: (1552?-1599) 英国诗人,主要 以其寓言性浪漫史诗《仙后》 ( 1590-1596 年) 而闻名。他的其他作品包括牧歌 《牧羊人的日历》 ( 1579 年),以及抒情婚姻诗 《祝婚歌》 ( 1595 年) 斯宾塞,埃德蒙: (1552?-1599) 英国诗人,主要 以其寓言性浪漫史诗《仙后》 ( 1590-1596 年) 而闻名。他的其他作品包括牧歌 《牧羊人的日历》 ( 1579 年),以及抒情婚姻诗 《祝婚歌》 ( 1595 年)

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8 Spenserian stanza verse form that consists of eight iambic pentameter lines followed by a ninth line of six iambic feet (an alexandrine); the rhyme scheme is ababbcbcc. The first eight lines produce an effect of formal unity, while the hexameter completes the thought of the stanza. Invented by Edmund Spenser for his poem The Faerie Queene (1590 – 1609), the Spenserian stanza has origins in the Old French ballade (eight-line stanzas, rhyming ababbcbc), the Italian ottava rima (eight iambic pentameter lines with a rhyme scheme of abababcc), and the stanza form used by Chaucer in his “ Monk's Tale ” (eight lines rhyming ababbcbc). A revolutionary innovation in its day, the Spenserian stanza fell into general disuse during the 17th and 18th centuries. It was revived in the 19th century by the Romantic poets — e.g., Byron in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Keats in “ The Eve of St. Agnes, ” and Shelley in “ Adonais. ” verse form that consists of eight iambic pentameter lines followed by a ninth line of six iambic feet (an alexandrine); the rhyme scheme is ababbcbcc. The first eight lines produce an effect of formal unity, while the hexameter completes the thought of the stanza. Invented by Edmund Spenser for his poem The Faerie Queene (1590 – 1609), the Spenserian stanza has origins in the Old French ballade (eight-line stanzas, rhyming ababbcbc), the Italian ottava rima (eight iambic pentameter lines with a rhyme scheme of abababcc), and the stanza form used by Chaucer in his “ Monk's Tale ” (eight lines rhyming ababbcbc). A revolutionary innovation in its day, the Spenserian stanza fell into general disuse during the 17th and 18th centuries. It was revived in the 19th century by the Romantic poets — e.g., Byron in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Keats in “ The Eve of St. Agnes, ” and Shelley in “ Adonais. ”

9 William Shakespeare

10 Life and Times of William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (1564 — 1616) is one of the most remarkable playwrights and poets the world has ever known. William Shakespeare (1564 — 1616) is one of the most remarkable playwrights and poets the world has ever known. Likely the most influential writer in all of English literature and certainly the most important playwright of the English Renaissance, William Shakespeare was born in 1564 in the town of Stratford-upon-Avon in Warwickshire, England. The son of a successful middle- class glove-maker, Shakespeare attended grammar school, but his formal education proceeded no further. In 1582, he married an older woman, Anne Hathaway, and had three children with her. Likely the most influential writer in all of English literature and certainly the most important playwright of the English Renaissance, William Shakespeare was born in 1564 in the town of Stratford-upon-Avon in Warwickshire, England. The son of a successful middle- class glove-maker, Shakespeare attended grammar school, but his formal education proceeded no further. In 1582, he married an older woman, Anne Hathaway, and had three children with her.

11 This is the birthplace of William Shakespeare in Stratford-on-Avon. This is the birthplace of William Shakespeare in Stratford-on-Avon.

12 The museum in Stratford In Stratford there is a museum on William Shakespeare where there are plenty of things about Shakespeare. Every year visitors from all over the world come to visit and worship the great writer.

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14 Around 1590 he left his family behind and traveled to London to work as an actor and playwright. Public and critical success quickly followed, and Shakespeare eventually became the most popular playwright in England and part owner of the Globe Theater. His career bridged the reigns of Elizabeth I (ruled 1558-1603) and James I (ruled 1603-1625); he was a favorite of both monarchs. Indeed, James granted Shakespeare's company the greatest possible compliment by endowing them with the status of king's players. Wealthy and renowned, Shakespeare retired to Stratford, and died in 1616 at the age of fifty-two. At the time of Shakespeare's death, such luminaries as Ben Johnson hailed him as the apogee of Renaissance theatre. Around 1590 he left his family behind and traveled to London to work as an actor and playwright. Public and critical success quickly followed, and Shakespeare eventually became the most popular playwright in England and part owner of the Globe Theater. His career bridged the reigns of Elizabeth I (ruled 1558-1603) and James I (ruled 1603-1625); he was a favorite of both monarchs. Indeed, James granted Shakespeare's company the greatest possible compliment by endowing them with the status of king's players. Wealthy and renowned, Shakespeare retired to Stratford, and died in 1616 at the age of fifty-two. At the time of Shakespeare's death, such luminaries as Ben Johnson hailed him as the apogee of Renaissance theatre.

15 Shakespeare's works were collected and printed in various editions in the century following his death, and by the early eighteenth century his reputation as the greatest poet ever to write in English was well established. The unprecedented admiration garnered by his works led to a fierce curiosity about Shakespeare's life; but the paucity of surviving biographical information has left many details of Shakespeare's personal history shrouded in mystery. Some people have concluded from this fact that Shakespeare's plays in reality were written by someone else--Francis Bacon and the Earl of Oxford are the two most popular candidates--but the evidence for this claim is overwhelmingly circumstantial, and the theory is not taken seriously by many scholars. Shakespeare's works were collected and printed in various editions in the century following his death, and by the early eighteenth century his reputation as the greatest poet ever to write in English was well established. The unprecedented admiration garnered by his works led to a fierce curiosity about Shakespeare's life; but the paucity of surviving biographical information has left many details of Shakespeare's personal history shrouded in mystery. Some people have concluded from this fact that Shakespeare's plays in reality were written by someone else--Francis Bacon and the Earl of Oxford are the two most popular candidates--but the evidence for this claim is overwhelmingly circumstantial, and the theory is not taken seriously by many scholars.

16 In the absence of definitive proof to the contrary, Shakespeare must be viewed as the author of the 37 plays and 154 sonnets that bear his name. The legacy of this body of work is immense. A number of Shakespeare's plays seem to have transcended even the category of brilliance, becoming so influential as to affect profoundly the course of Western literature and culture ever after. In the absence of definitive proof to the contrary, Shakespeare must be viewed as the author of the 37 plays and 154 sonnets that bear his name. The legacy of this body of work is immense. A number of Shakespeare's plays seem to have transcended even the category of brilliance, becoming so influential as to affect profoundly the course of Western literature and culture ever after.

17 In his plays he does not hesitate to describe the cruelty and anti-natural character of the civil wars, but he did not go all the way against the feudal rule. In his dramatic creation, esp. in his histories or tragedies, he affirms the importance of the feudal system in order to uphold social order. Shakespeare is against religious persecution and racial discrimination, against social inequality and the corrupting influence of gold and money. In his plays he does not hesitate to describe the cruelty and anti-natural character of the civil wars, but he did not go all the way against the feudal rule. In his dramatic creation, esp. in his histories or tragedies, he affirms the importance of the feudal system in order to uphold social order. Shakespeare is against religious persecution and racial discrimination, against social inequality and the corrupting influence of gold and money. He has accepted the Renaissance views on literature. He holds that literature should be a combination of beauty, kindness and truth, and should reflect nature and reality. Shakespeare’s major characters are neither merely individual ones nor type ones; they are individuals representing certain types. He has accepted the Renaissance views on literature. He holds that literature should be a combination of beauty, kindness and truth, and should reflect nature and reality. Shakespeare’s major characters are neither merely individual ones nor type ones; they are individuals representing certain types.

18 Shakespeare William Shakespeare (1564—1616) is one of the most remarkable playwrights and poets the world has ever known. William Shakespeare (1564—1616) is one of the most remarkable playwrights and poets the world has ever known. The surf on the line can show how enormous the information we can get about Shakespeare via two websites: baidu.com and google.com. The surf on the line can show how enormous the information we can get about Shakespeare via two websites: baidu.com and google.com.

19 A collection of William Shakespeare's poems, printed in 1640, included a picture of the author.

20 His works With his 38 plays, 154 sonnets and 2 long poems, he has established his giant position in world literature. With his 38 plays, 154 sonnets and 2 long poems, he has established his giant position in world literature. The first period: The first period: 5 history plays: Henry VI, parts I, II, III Richard III, Titus Andronicus 5 history plays: Henry VI, parts I, II, III Richard III, Titus Andronicus 4 comedies: The Comedy of Errors, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Taming of the Shrew and Love ’ s Labor ’ s Lost 4 comedies: The Comedy of Errors, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Taming of the Shrew and Love ’ s Labor ’ s Lost The second period: The second period: 2 histories: Richard II, King John, Henry IV, Parts I and II, and Henry V 2 histories: Richard II, King John, Henry IV, Parts I and II, and Henry V 6 comedies: A Midsummer Night ’ s Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It, Twelfth Night, and The Merry Wives of Windsor 6 comedies: A Midsummer Night ’ s Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It, Twelfth Night, and The Merry Wives of Windsor 2 tragedies: Romeo and Juliet and Julius Caesar 2 tragedies: Romeo and Juliet and Julius Caesar

21 His Works The third period: The third period: Tragedies: Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra, Troilus and Cressida, and Coriolanus Tragedies: Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra, Troilus and Cressida, and Coriolanus Comedies: All ’ s Well That Ends Well and Measure for Measure Comedies: All ’ s Well That Ends Well and Measure for Measure The last period: The last period: His principal romantic tragicomedies: Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter ’ s Tale and The Tempest His principal romantic tragicomedies: Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter ’ s Tale and The Tempest His final plays: Henry VIII and The Two Noble Kinsmen His final plays: Henry VIII and The Two Noble Kinsmen Poetry: two long narrative poems Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece 154 sonnets Poetry: two long narrative poems Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece 154 sonnets Four famous comedies: A Midsummer Night ’ s Dream, As You Like it, The Merchant of Venice, Twelfth Night Four famous comedies: A Midsummer Night ’ s Dream, As You Like it, The Merchant of Venice, Twelfth Night Sonnet: is a 14-line lyric poem, usually written in rhymed iambic pentameter, with a rhymed pattern: abab cdcd efef gg Sonnet: is a 14-line lyric poem, usually written in rhymed iambic pentameter, with a rhymed pattern: abab cdcd efef gga rhymed patterna rhymed pattern

22 Hamlet

23 Jon Finch (centre) as Macbeth in Roman Polanski's 1971 film version of Shakespeare's Macbeth.

24 Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet

25 Othello

26 Royal Shakespeare Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire,

27 The Sonnet The Sonnet Form The Sonnet Form A sonnet is a fourteen-line lyric poem, traditionally written in iambic pentameter-- that is, in lines ten syllables long, with accents falling on every second syllable, as in: "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?". A sonnet is a fourteen-line lyric poem, traditionally written in iambic pentameter-- that is, in lines ten syllables long, with accents falling on every second syllable, as in: "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?".

28 Sonnet 18 (to a young man) Shall I compare to a summer’s day? a Thou art more lovely and more temperate; b Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, a And summer’s lease hath all too short a date; b Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, c And often is his gold complexion dimmed; d And every fair from fair sometime declines, c By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed; d But thy eternal summer shall not fade, e Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st,’ f Nor shall death brag thou wand rest in his shade, e When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st. f S So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, g o long lives this, and this gives life to thee. g

29 The sonnets Two kinds of sonnets have been most common in English poetry, and they take their names from the greatest poets to utilize them: the Petrarchan sonnet and the Shakespearean sonnet. Two kinds of sonnets have been most common in English poetry, and they take their names from the greatest poets to utilize them: the Petrarchan sonnet and the Shakespearean sonnet. The Petrarchan sonnet is divided into two main parts, called the octave and the sestet. The octave is eight lines long, and typically follows a rhyme scheme of ABBAABBA, or ABBACDDC. The sestet occupies the remaining six lines of the poem, and typically follows a rhyme scheme of CDCDCD, or CDECDE. The octave and the sestet are usually contrasted in some key way: for example, the octave may ask a question to which the sestet offers an answer. The Petrarchan sonnet is divided into two main parts, called the octave and the sestet. The octave is eight lines long, and typically follows a rhyme scheme of ABBAABBA, or ABBACDDC. The sestet occupies the remaining six lines of the poem, and typically follows a rhyme scheme of CDCDCD, or CDECDE. The octave and the sestet are usually contrasted in some key way: for example, the octave may ask a question to which the sestet offers an answer.

30 The Shakespearean sonnet The Shakespearean sonnet, the form of sonnet utilized throughout Shakespeare's sequence, is divided into four parts. The first three parts are each four lines long, and are known as quatrains, rhymed ABAB; the fourth part is called the couplet, and is rhymed CC. The Shakespearean sonnet, the form of sonnet utilized throughout Shakespeare's sequence, is divided into four parts. The first three parts are each four lines long, and are known as quatrains, rhymed ABAB; the fourth part is called the couplet, and is rhymed CC. Sonnet is a 14-line lyric poem, usually written in rhymed iambic pentameter, with a rhymed pattern: abab cdcd efef gg Sonnet is a 14-line lyric poem, usually written in rhymed iambic pentameter, with a rhymed pattern: abab cdcd efef gga rhymed patterna rhymed pattern The Shakespearean sonnet is often used to develop a sequence of metaphors or ideas, one in each quatrain, while the couplet offers either a summary or a new take on the preceding images or ideas. The Shakespearean sonnet is often used to develop a sequence of metaphors or ideas, one in each quatrain, while the couplet offers either a summary or a new take on the preceding images or ideas.

31 Shakespeare's sonnets are very different from Shakespeare's plays, but they do contain dramatic elements and an overall sense of story. Each of the poems deals with a highly personal theme, and each can be taken on its own or in relation to the poems around it. The sonnets have the feel of autobiographical poems, but we don't know whether they deal with real events or not, because no one knows enough about Shakespeare's life to say whether or not they deal with real events and feelings, so we tend to refer to the voice of the sonnets as "the speaker"--as though he were a dramatic creation like Hamlet or King Lear. Shakespeare's sonnets are very different from Shakespeare's plays, but they do contain dramatic elements and an overall sense of story. Each of the poems deals with a highly personal theme, and each can be taken on its own or in relation to the poems around it. The sonnets have the feel of autobiographical poems, but we don't know whether they deal with real events or not, because no one knows enough about Shakespeare's life to say whether or not they deal with real events and feelings, so we tend to refer to the voice of the sonnets as "the speaker"--as though he were a dramatic creation like Hamlet or King Lear.

32 There are certainly a number of intriguing continuities throughout the poems. There are certainly a number of intriguing continuities throughout the poems. The first 126 of the sonnets seem to be addressed to an unnamed young nobleman, whom the speaker loves very much; The first 126 of the sonnets seem to be addressed to an unnamed young nobleman, whom the speaker loves very much; The rest of the poems (except for the last two, which seem generally unconnected to the rest of the sequence) seem to be addressed to a mysterious woman, whom the speaker loves, hates, and lusts for simultaneously. The two addressees of the sonnets are usually referred to as the "young man" and the "dark lady"; in summaries of individual poems, I have also called the young man the "beloved" and the dark lady the "lover," especially in cases where their identity can only be surmised. The rest of the poems (except for the last two, which seem generally unconnected to the rest of the sequence) seem to be addressed to a mysterious woman, whom the speaker loves, hates, and lusts for simultaneously. The two addressees of the sonnets are usually referred to as the "young man" and the "dark lady"; in summaries of individual poems, I have also called the young man the "beloved" and the dark lady the "lover," especially in cases where their identity can only be surmised.

33 1 In the old age black was not counted fair, 1 In the old age black was not counted fair, Or if it were it bore not beauty ’ s name. Or if it were it bore not beauty ’ s name. But now is black beauty ’ s successive heir, But now is black beauty ’ s successive heir, 4 And beauty slandered with a bastard shame; 4 And beauty slandered with a bastard shame; For since each hand hath put on nature ’ s pow ’ r, For since each hand hath put on nature ’ s pow ’ r, Fairing the foul with art ’ s false borrowed face, Fairing the foul with art ’ s false borrowed face, 8 Sweet beauty hath no name, no holy bow ’ r, 8 Sweet beauty hath no name, no holy bow ’ r, But is profaned, if not lives in disgrace, But is profaned, if not lives in disgrace, Therefore my mistress eyes are raven black, Therefore my mistress eyes are raven black, Her eyes so suited, and they mourners seem Her eyes so suited, and they mourners seem At such who, not born fair, no beauty lack, At such who, not born fair, no beauty lack, 12 Sland ’ ring creation with a false esteem. 12 Sland ’ ring creation with a false esteem. yet so they mourn becoming of their woe, yet so they mourn becoming of their woe, That every tongue says beauty should look so. That every tongue says beauty should look so.

34 Questions: Questions: 1. What is the theme of the sonnet? 1. What is the theme of the sonnet? 2. How do you define “ beauty ” ? 2. How do you define “ beauty ” ? Rhymed pattern: Abab cdcd efef gg

35 Rhymed Pattern In the old age black was not counted fair, [a] In the old age black was not counted fair, [a] Or if it were it bore not beauty ’ s name. [ b] Or if it were it bore not beauty ’ s name. [ b] But now is black beauty ’ s successive heir, [a] But now is black beauty ’ s successive heir, [a] And beauty slandered with a bastard shame; [b] And beauty slandered with a bastard shame; [b] For since each hand hath put on nature ’ s pow ’ r, [c] For since each hand hath put on nature ’ s pow ’ r, [c] Fairing the foul with art ’ s false borrowed face, [d] Fairing the foul with art ’ s false borrowed face, [d] Sweet beauty hath no name, no holy bow ’ r, [c] Sweet beauty hath no name, no holy bow ’ r, [c] But is profaned, if not lives in disgrace, [d] But is profaned, if not lives in disgrace, [d] Therefore my mistress eyes are raven black, [e] Therefore my mistress eyes are raven black, [e] Her eyes so suited, and they mourners seem [f] Her eyes so suited, and they mourners seem [f] At such who, not born fair, no beauty lack, [e] At such who, not born fair, no beauty lack, [e] Sland ’ ring creation with a false esteem. [f] Sland ’ ring creation with a false esteem. [f] yet so they mourn becoming of their woe, [g] yet so they mourn becoming of their woe, [g] That every tongue says beauty should look so. [g] That every tongue says beauty should look so. [g]

36 III The detailed study of the poem 1. the old age: former times 1. the old age: former times black: brunette black: brunette counted: considered. counted: considered. fair: (1) blonde (2) beautiful fair: (1) blonde (2) beautiful 2. bore not beauty ’ s name: was not called beautiful. 2. bore not beauty ’ s name: was not called beautiful. 3. is … beauty ’ s successive heir: i.e. has legally acquired beauty ’ s name 3. is … beauty ’ s successive heir: i.e. has legally acquired beauty ’ s name successive: by order of succession. successive: by order of succession.

37 Queen Elizabeth I

38 4. beauty: natural beauty, i.e. blonde. Slandered: is disgraced. With a bastard shame: (1) as a bastard; (2) as the parent of a bastard (ugliness). 4. beauty: natural beauty, i.e. blonde. Slandered: is disgraced. With a bastard shame: (1) as a bastard; (2) as the parent of a bastard (ugliness). 5. since: ever since. Each hand: everybody. Put on: assumed. 5. since: ever since. Each hand: everybody. Put on: assumed. 6. Fairing: Making fair, i.e. painting up as a blonde. The foul: what is ugly. Art ’ s: of artifice. Art ’ s false borrowed face: i.e. cosmetics. 6. Fairing: Making fair, i.e. painting up as a blonde. The foul: what is ugly. Art ’ s: of artifice. Art ’ s false borrowed face: i.e. cosmetics. fairing foul false face fairing foul false face 7. Sweet beauty: Natural beauty. Name: i.e. good name (to be envied). Holy bow ’ r: holy place, sanctuary (for worship). 7. Sweet beauty: Natural beauty. Name: i.e. good name (to be envied). Holy bow ’ r: holy place, sanctuary (for worship).

39 8. But: On the contrary. Profaned: treated with disrespect. If not: or even. 8. But: On the contrary. Profaned: treated with disrespect. If not: or even. 9.,10 eyes, eyes 9.,10 eyes, eyes eyes are raven black. (disfigure) eyes are raven black. (disfigure) so suited: dressed in the same color. They, i.e. her eyes. Mourners seem: seem to be mourners so suited: dressed in the same color. They, i.e. her eyes. Mourners seem: seem to be mourners 11. At such who: Mourning those who, follows the above line: mourners. No beauty lack: lack no beauty, are not without beauty (such as a blonde ’ s) 11. At such who: Mourning those who, follows the above line: mourners. No beauty lack: lack no beauty, are not without beauty (such as a blonde ’ s)

40 12. Sland ’ ring: Disgracing. 12. Sland ’ ring: Disgracing. Creation: (1) nature; (2) nature ’ s creative powers. False esteem: confused judgement, with the false valuation, estimation. Creation: (1) nature; (2) nature ’ s creative powers. False esteem: confused judgement, with the false valuation, estimation. 13. Yet: However. So: in such a manner. mourn: lament, is followed “ that ”. Becoming of: befitting. 13. Yet: However. So: in such a manner. mourn: lament, is followed “ that ”. Becoming of: befitting. 14. so: like that. 14. so: like that.

41 翻译 : 第 127 首十四行诗 黑色在过去并不被人视为娇媚, 黑色在过去并不被人视为娇媚, 即使它娇媚也没姓过美的姓氏; 即使它娇媚也没姓过美的姓氏; 但如今黑色成了美的嫡传后辈, 但如今黑色成了美的嫡传后辈, 美反被诬蔑为庶出,蒙受垢耻。 美反被诬蔑为庶出,蒙受垢耻。 因自从世人僭 取了自然的力量, 因自从世人僭 取了自然的力量, 用涂脂抹粉的假颜来美化丑陋, 用涂脂抹粉的假颜来美化丑陋, 美就丧失了名誉和圣洁的闺房, 美就丧失了名誉和圣洁的闺房, 只能任人玷污,只能忍辱含羞。 只能任人玷污,只能忍辱含羞。 所以我情人的眼睛乌鸦般漆黑, 所以我情人的眼睛乌鸦般漆黑, 眉额也黑不溜秋,像是哭丧人, 眉额也黑不溜秋,像是哭丧人, 因为天生不美的人却不乏姣美, 因为天生不美的人却不乏姣美, 他们用虚名在玷污自然的名声。 他们用虚名在玷污自然的名声。 但眉眼如此伤心倒也楚楚可怜, 但眉眼如此伤心倒也楚楚可怜, 于是人人都说美看来就该这般。 于是人人都说美看来就该这般。

42 IV Discussion The author defines the new standards as being beautiful: black, black eyes. Why does he keep such different criteria? The author defines the new standards as being beautiful: black, black eyes. Why does he keep such different criteria?

43 Summary In this lecture we learn the information about sonnet, Shakespeare and his sonnet. With the scrutiny of sonnet 127, we can taste the beauty of Shakespearean sonnets, understand what the great writer thinks about and the ideas on the times he lived in. In this lecture we learn the information about sonnet, Shakespeare and his sonnet. With the scrutiny of sonnet 127, we can taste the beauty of Shakespearean sonnets, understand what the great writer thinks about and the ideas on the times he lived in.


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