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Neolithic & Classic Antiquity. Taking Notes Time Period * Key theorists Major events/context Who is in power? Who.

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Presentation on theme: "Neolithic & Classic Antiquity. Taking Notes Time Period * Key theorists Major events/context Who is in power? Who."— Presentation transcript:

1 Neolithic & Classic Antiquity

2 Taking Notes Time Period * Key theorists Major events/context Who is in power? Who is a threat to power? Always ask: Purpose of punishment? Assumptions about punishment?

3 But what do I have to know?  Let the slides guide where you should focus in the readings…  Slides do not replace readings…  Dates?

4 Acephalous Societies Agrarian Agrarian Shared goals Survival No central authority Multiple geographically specific Nature Deities Deviance = threat to group survival Retribution is illogical Group reconciliation is logical

5 Sumerian (Neolithic Period)  2285-2250 BCE  Agrarian + trade  Mathematics  Music – ritualistic


7 Enhuanda High Priestess Writer Male dominated society Divine right of rulers… Love, sex, not dualistic Becomes important when we cover the Inquisitions

8 Code of Ur Ur- City State  Philosophers, doctors, teachers  Merchants, labourers, artisans  Slaves If crime, then punishment Restitution & equality of land…

9 Classic Antiquity... City States: Polis ● Greece ● Sparta/Athens

10 Supracontext Nostalgic recollections about ‘rationality’

11 The Birthplace of “Democracy”  Lottery  Slaves & women Rationalism: Everything and everyone has its proper place and function (virtue) Plato: Purpose of Law (p. 45)  Perfection in virtue  Essential freedom  Political Community

12 399 BCE: Trial of Socrates Courts Trials Trials Dikasts Dikasts Formal and ritualized Avoid concentrated authority Avoid concentrated authority Adversarial system Character was important Character was important Hierarchy of Citizens Hierarchy of Citizens “…corrupting the youth and impiety ”

13 Plato’s State Doctrine: Aristocracy …the elite eclipse everyone because of their wisdom, the masses should y means of self- control, simply rein in their own unreasonable instincts. …governing power belongs exclusively to the reasonable elite. …The everyday physical work is performed by the unwise masses. (p.46) Rejection of Democracy & Tyranny

14 Function of the Polis: 1. Government 2. Maintain order 3. Productive labour (virtue) Three classes ordered by virtue :  courage & intelligence  philosophers natural rulers Plato’s State Doctrine

15 Individually: weak 1. Governance/Reason/Philosophers 2. Maintain Order/courage/soliders 3. Productive labour/animals/slaves Deductive: Find specific examples of an idea as evidence Plato’s Ontology

16 Aristotle & Ontology  Student of Plato’s  Became a scholar “Why are things ordered as they are?”  Teological - a natural capacity in objects  Inductive: look for ideas/concepts to develop in collection of examples

17 Aristotle’s Ethics Purpose of Law  Highest Good (“happiness”)  Duty to ‘essential nature’ Maintain ‘natural’ hierarchy  Distributive Justice  Equality in Inequality  Corrective Justice  Contractual fairness Democracy that Excludes…

18 The Sophists: Skeptics 469 - 399 BCE Sophists: Taught the art of rhetoric (elite)/persuasion Law is created by Man (relativism) not a natural order Good: what people in a polis define as good Attempt at Secularism Broke with ethnocentricity & cosmic order

19 Stoics: Apathy? Alexander the Great Authoritarian rule Aristocracy Plagues Seneca:  One should not desire things outside your control  Do not mourn your poverty, control what you can….  Do not resist… Cicero –apolitical is unsustainable

20 Cicero: Natural Law 1. Do not disturb the order of a community 2. Contribute generously to the Polis through: 1. Benevolence 2. Generosity 3. Goodness 4. Justice Good of the People always trumps supporting tyranny, for example…

21 Next Class….

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