Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Mythology"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to Mythology Heroes, Gods, and Monsters of the Greek Myths
2MythologyA usually traditional story of events that serves to unfold part of the world view of a people or explain a practice, belief, or natural phenomenon . Myths often involve divine, supernatural, and/or heroic characters.
3MythologyOR A collection of fictional stories involving the actions of gods, goddesses and other imaginary characters, intended to explain the unexplainable.
4Classical Greek Mythology A collection of stories about a set of gods, based upon oral tradition, as told and recorded by the ancient GreeksMyths served as entertainment, a sense of national/regional pride, and religious education
5Oral TraditionThe practice of passing along stories, tales, and folklore by word of mouthOral tradition is responsible for many of the “inconsistencies” of ancient mythology.
6FantasyHighly imaginative writing that contains elements not found in real lifeMany science fiction and fantasy books, movies and comic books are based upon the style and manner of myths.
7LegendsDefinition: fictional stories loosely based upon real/historical people and events.Also known as “tall-tales”Are rooted in facts, but stories have been changed through the years…WHY?
8FablesDefinition: A brief story, often containing animal characters that teaches a lesson or moralFables deal with “useful truth”
9“The Classicists”Greek mythology existed for hundreds of years before these stories were ever recorded with written words.The scholars/poets who recorded the myths are known as “classicists.”The major classicists of Greek Mythology include Virgil, Homer, and Ovid.
10The Importance of Myths Myths were critical to the ancient Greeks These stories touched all aspects of Greek life, including art, music, architecture, military endeavors, religion, and education. Greek myths and sunlight are represented by moral quality. Heroes are set in sunlight, monsters belong to the darkness.
11Categories of MythsMyths of creation: these explain the beginning of time, space, and manMyths of explanation: these explain the great questions of the universeMyths of morality: these teach lessons and reinforce cultural morality
12Why Study Mythology?Greek myths are the foundations for the arts as we know them, including movies, television, commercial products, sports, music, and comic books. A knowledge of Greek mythology enhances a person’s ability to understand and appreciate the world as a whole.
13Mythology: A Brief Timeline The beginning: according to popular beliefUranus was the “First One”, and he created the universe.Uranus created and married Gaia, otherwise known as “Mother Earth.”They lived on Mt. Olympus
14Uranus and Gaia had many children: Some were human-like giants, called the “Titans”Some were hideous, disfigured monstersThe Titans lived for many years under Uranus’s cruel reignUranus’s most powerful son would soon challenge his rule.
15Cronus killed his cruel father and assumed his role as “king of the Titans.” Before Uranus died, he predicted that Cronus would be killed by one of his sons, just as he had been.What is the logical solution to this problem?
16Because he feared his sons, Cronus ate his first two sons whole Fed up with his baby-gobbling, Rhea gave birth to her third son in secretRhea dressed a boulder up as a baby and Cronus ate the rock unknowinglyZeus was sent as an infant to be raised in secret by human shephards
17Cronus married his sister, Rhea, and had: -Three daughters: Hestia, Demeter, Hera-Three sons: Posiedon, Hades, and ZeusThese offspring were considered Titans, but would later become the gods and goddesses of Greek Mythology
18Zeus returned to Mt. Olympus as a young man and poisoned Cronus Cronus vomited up brothers Poseidon and HadesZeus was celebrated as a heroAn epic battle ensues between Cronus and his sons for the right to rule Mt. Olympus and the universe.
19The Great Battle! Cronus is assisted in battle by his Titan brothers Zeus and his brothers are assisted by the monsters Cronus had abused and tortured for years in captivity.These monsters included the Cyclopes (3) and the Hundred-Handed Ones (3)
20Mythology and Classic Art The Battle Between the Gods and the Titans by Wtewael Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago
21Cronus is Defeated! The three sons roll dice to divide Cronus’ kingdom Zeus wins, and chooses the empty sky.Poseidon secretly wanted the sea.Hades is left to bitterly receive “leftovers” In the underworld.
22Enter the Gods…Magically and mysteriously, the children of Cronus become immortal, and become gods and goddesses.Mythology offers no explanation for this important transformation!The twelve main gods and goddesses are known as the Pantheon.
23The PantheonThere are many gods, goddesses, demi- gods (half-gods) and supernatural beings in Greek Mythology.The twelve main gods and goddesses are known as the Pantheon.
25Zeus: King of the gods, ruler of Mt. Olympus Also god of lightning Was a powerful and aggressive rulerStruck Earth with lightning bolt when upsetWaged constant war with wife and sisterHeraCheated on wife countless times, and had numerous children with mortals, gods, and other creatures
26Zeus (continued)Was a master of disguise, which aided him in his philanderingWas a complex character: capable of unspeakable acts of immorality and occasional acts of mercy
28HERA Queen of immortals, goddess of marriage and childbirth Unhappy wife of ZeusDisapproved of Zeus’ constant cheatingHeld grudges against Zeus’ “children”Often punished Zeus with childish pranks and vengeful schemes
30Athena Goddess of wisdom and warfare, mistress of strategy Taught men how to use an ax, plough, wheel, sail. Taught women how to spin and weave (Arachne story...)Mother was Metis, a TitanessZeus became paranoid that his child would harm him, so he eats her whole.Zeus developed a splitting headacheHephaestus split his head open with a chisel, and…
34PoseidonGod of waterNever had children with sea nymph-Thetis because any son of Thetis would be greater than PoseidenThetis had a son from Peleus whose name was Achilles therefore the prophecy came true.Difficult, quarrelsome, greedy, liked jokesThought up creature...octopus, squid, jellyfish, swordfish, dolphin, etc.Was trying to perfect the horse for Demeter and that is why we have the camel, hippo, giraffe, donkey, and zebra
35Ruled over seas, oceans, rivers and all the sea creatures Did not live in the lost city of AtlantisInvented many of the fish and sea monsters of mythologyCreated the horse for Demeter (*)
37HADES God of the Underworld Greeks buried their dead with a coin so that when they entered "Hades" they could pay the fare on their way to the river StyxCerberus- 3 headed dog that guarded the gate3 judges awaited the dead - Minos, Rhadamanthys and Aeacus.> if judges were displeased - bad punishments> if judges were pleased - Elysian FieldsPalace grounds were called Erebus- deepest part of the underworld
38Hades (continued) Lived with his kidnapped wife, Persephone The Eumenides or the " kindly ones" would wander the earth in search of evil-doers and ones that escaped punishment and their attention persuaded people to suicide
40DemeterGoddess of the cornfield, mistress of planting and growing thingsOne of Zeus’ favorite females (also sister)Had a daughter named PersephoneDemeter's daughter Persephone was kidnapped by HadesResponsible for the winter and summer seasons, since Persephone ate the 6 pomegranate seeds, she will have to stay in the underworld with Hades for 6 months, and nothing will grow on earth because Demeter will mourn.
42Artemis Born of Zeus and Leto (a nymph) Zeus granted her whatever she wanted: remain a maiden, many names, silver bow and arrow, deerskin tunic, 50 ocean nymphs, 20 wood nymphs, hounds, mountains, and one cityWas Zeus’ favorite daughterWent by Goddess of the Moon, Maiden of the Silver Bow, Lady of the Wild Things, Huntress, Maiden
44ApolloGod of the sun, patron of music, math, medicine and poetry. Preached moderationArtemis’ twin brotherHunted python who hunted his motherShowed no mercy against the musician Marsyas ( unfair competition)
47Hermes Precocious Stole Apollo's cattle and named himself the 12th god Taught Apollo to play the lyre and traded Apollo pipes for his herdsman's golden staffApollo took Hermes to meet ZeusHermes became Zeus's messenger and known as the patron of liars, thieves, and gamblers, God of Commerce, framer of treaties, guardian of travelers, took newly dead to TartarusInvented the alphabet, scales, playing cards and card gamesTold Zeus to disguise himself and join in on many adventures of the mortals
48Hermes Messenger god, god of gambling, theivery and trickery Has a sketchy creation:Zeus child with a nymphZeus child with a goddess (unnamed)Son of two enchanted mortals*Oral tradition is contributed to the many different creations of Hermes
50Hephaestus Son of Zeus and Hera Was born ugly and fitful Hera kicked him from Mt. OlympusWas reinstated by Hera for his masterful skill of jewelry-makingHera gave him Cyclops for helpers and Aphrodite for a bride
51Hephaestus Strikes Gold… Married to Aphrodite, the most beautiful of all goddessesHad no children with his wifeEndured Aphrodite’s many affairs and constant flirtationsWas emotionally scarred by Aphrodite’s affair with Ares, the god of war
53Aphrodite Goddess of love and beauty, desire Never distracted from her dutiesBorn out of primal murder - when Cronus killed his father Oranus/Uranus a body floated up from the foam and taken to OlympusHera wanted her married immediately, Aphrodite chose Hephaestus because he worked late ( though she planned to meet her other suitors)
54Aphrodite’s CreationVersion #1: Aphrodite was the son of Zeus and a DioneVersion #2: Aphrodite was born of Zeus and the daughter of one of his arch enemiesBut both of these stories are less-than- accurate twists on the real version…
55Aphrodite (con’t.)Discovered by fishermen and taken to Mt. Olympus as a gift to ZeusHera, fearing a relationship between Zeus and Aphrodite, insisted that she marry Hephaestus, her ugliest childAphrodite serves as a constant temptation for gods and mortals alike.Her name literally means “from the foam”
56The Real Creation of Aphrodite Aphrodite was born from the death of UranusCronus castrated his father before death, and threw the “part” into the oceanFrom the bubbling, boiling, bloody foam, Aphrodite appearedShe was accompanied at birth by sea nymphs and dovesOften depicted as having hatched from a seashell
58Ares God of warfare Was violent, aggressive, and unlikeable Was Hera and Zeus’s most despised sonHad an awkward love affair with AphroditeWas actually a coward (traitor)Was feared, but not respected by Greeks