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Eha Mängel Tallinn University  Phonetics - a theory about speech sounds, describing the sounds that we use in speaking  Phonology - explains how phonemes.

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Presentation on theme: "Eha Mängel Tallinn University  Phonetics - a theory about speech sounds, describing the sounds that we use in speaking  Phonology - explains how phonemes."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Eha Mängel Tallinn University

3  Phonetics - a theory about speech sounds, describing the sounds that we use in speaking  Phonology - explains how phonemes function in language, the relationships among different phonemes

4 EEnglish sounds IIntonation and rhythm TTranscription

5  Phoneme - a unit within a set of units as the basis of our speech. If we put one of these units in the place of one of the others, we can change the meaning of the word  Allophone – different realisations of one and the same unit

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7  Vowels  Consonants

8  Relatively low position of the tongue  More retracted articulation  Re l ative absence of lip-rounding and protrusion  Laxness

9  Monophthongs  Diphthongs  12 monophthongs: 7 short: ɪ, e, æ, ʌ, ɒ, ʊ, ә and 5 long: i:, ɑ :, ɔ :, з:, u:  7 diphthongs: 5 closing: e ɪ, a ɪ, ɔɪ, a ʊ, ә ʊ  and 2 (3) centring: eә, ɪ ә, ( ʊ ә)

10  Stress  Rise  Fall  Rise-fall  Fall-rise

11  Tone unit  Prominent syllable  Tonic syllable  Tone unit border mark //  I hurried across and turned around the corner and started to walk  I hurrried across// and turned around the corner// and started to w alk

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13  Estonianniitpiiksiilsiinkiin  Englishneatpeaksealscene keen

14 Spelling i: All –ee: heel, sleep, keen Most –ea: steal, meat, read -e: be, me Less common: -i : machine, police -ie : field, piece -ei : receive -ey : key

15  Estoniantipplipppikk  Englishtiplippick

16 Spelling I Common: -i : if, film, his -e : verb endings and plurals: started, dances Exceptions: -o : women -u : busy -a : village

17 There was an Old Man of the East, Who gave all his children a feast; But they all ate so much, And their conduct was such, That it killed that Old Man of the East.

18 was Man East, gave children feast; all much, conduct such, killed Man East.

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20  Common:  -e end, bed, letter  -ea dead, health, deaf, jealous  Less common:  -a any, ate, Thames, Pall Mall  -ai said, against  -ay says  -ei leisure, heifer, Leicester  -eo leopard, jeopardy  -u bury

21  Estonian:testsetttennis  English:testsettennis

22  Common  -a add, apple, rat,  Less common:  -ai plaid, plait  -al salmon

23  Estonian:mändkättpäkk  English:mancatpack

24 FRONT CENTRAL BACK CLOSE MID-OPEN OPEN

25  Common:  -uup, begun, luck, republic, frustrate,  Less common:  -oonion, come, among, ton, won  -ouenough, double, touch, southern  -eethreepence  -oedoes  -ooblood, flood  -wotwopence

26  Estoniankappsammkamm  Englishcupsomecome

27  Common:  -ar art, park, star, argue, departure  -aafter, staff, father, class, gasp, answer  Less common:  -al calf, half, calve, halve, salve, calm, palm  -ah Brahmin  are are  -au aunt, laugh, draught  -ear heart, hearth  -er clerk, sergeant, Derby, Berkeley

28  Estonianpaatkaarmaast  Englishpartcarmast

29 FRONT CENTRAL BACK CLOSE MID-OPEN OPEN

30  Common:  -oox, not, doll, shone, goneBUT: front, tongue,sponge etc.  Less common:  -awash, swan, quarrel BUT: wax, swam  -au sausage, cauliflower, Austria, Laurence  -eaubureaucracy  -oucough, Gloucester, trough  -owknowledge  -achyacht

31  Estonian: mokk sokk oks nokk  English: mock sock ox knock

32  Common:  -or or, form, cord, sort  -al chalk, talk, Baltic, Malta BUT album,Albert,  palm,calm  -ar war, reward, quarter BUT:card,larder  -au autumn, pause, launch  - awawful, lawn, jaw Less common:  -aughdaughter, taught  -augha- Maugham  -as Arkansas

33  -aweawe  -oaoar, broad  -oughought, fought, brought  -oupour, court, source, four  -worsword

34  Estonian:toolpoolmoon  English:tallPaulmourn

35 FRONT CENTRAL BACK CLOSE MID-OPEN OPEN

36  Common:  -oogood, book, took, foot, stood,wool  -uput, full, pull,  Less common:  -oucould, should, would  -owoman, wolf, Wocester

37  Estonianpukktukkkukk  Englishbooktookcook

38  Common:  -ootool, roof, zoo, food, boot  -uplume, rule, June, rude  -ewflew, chew, Jew, grew  -odo,move, Domesday, tomb, womb  -ougroup, rouble, sou  -ueblue, true, sue  -uisuit, bruise, juice, cruise, recruit  -eusleuth, rheumatism  -oeshoe, canoe

39  -oeumanoeuvre  -oughthrough  -wotwo  -ucTucson

40  -uunit, humour, perfume  -uecue, due, residue  eueucalyptus  -ewfew, curfew  -eaubeauty  eweewe  -ieuadieu  -iewview  yewyew

41  Estoniantuultuum  Englishtooltomb

42 FRONT CENTRAL BACK CLOSE MID-OPEN OPEN

43  Common:  -urcurly, fur, occur, urn  -urrpurr, ocurred BUT: occurrance  -erpermit, person, refer, Ernest  -errerr, referred  -irdirty, firm, sir, Irving  -irrstirred, whirr  -earsearch, earth, rehearse, earn  -euramateur, Fleur  -orword, work, worse, attorney

44  Less common:  -ourcourtesy, journal  -erewere  -olocolonel  -yrmyrtle

45  Estoniankööksööpöör  EnglishKirksirpurr


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