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History of Texas, 4e © 2007, Harlan Davidson, Inc. 1 Instructor E-Sources PowerPoint™ Presentation Chapter 2 Spaniards in a Far Northern Frontera The History of Texas Harlan Davidson, Inc.
History of Texas, 4e © 2007, Harlan Davidson, Inc. 2 Learning Outcomes (2) be knowledgeable concerning frontier institutions & their impact on Texas culture and society think about the implications of Indian accommodation & resistance in the Far Northern Frontera appreciate the relationship between Bourbon reforms & the independence movement cite the key components of Spain’s legacy in the colonial era
History of Texas, 4e © 2007, Harlan Davidson, Inc. 3 Chapter 2 Spaniards in a Far Northern Frontera Settling New Spain’s Far NorthSettling New Spain’s Far North –Crown motivations for settlement Expand imperial control Buffer against French & British –Motives of frontier peoples Escape unemployment, natural disasters, excessive taxation, ethnic prejudice, & other hardships Opportunity to acquire land & improve economic status
History of Texas, 4e © 2007, Harlan Davidson, Inc. 4 The Far Northern Frontera Settler problemsSettler problems –Fear relocation to unknown hinterland –Settled parts of New Spain face labor shortages ― discourage migrations –Lack of regional infrastructure & isolation –Resistance of Native peoples By 1800 Spanish Texas remains least inhabited part of New SpainBy 1800 Spanish Texas remains least inhabited part of New Spain
History of Texas, 4e © 2007, Harlan Davidson, Inc. 5 Frontier Institutions Missions in Spanish TexasMissions in Spanish Texas –Responsibility Catholicism sole religion – state subsidized Guard the Frontier Christianize native peoples Minister to families, soldiers, & government officials –Missionization limited Started 1738: Church of San Fernando in San Antonio Only mission in Texas at mid-eighteenth century
History of Texas, 4e © 2007, Harlan Davidson, Inc. 6 Frontier Institutions Presidios in Spanish TexasPresidios in Spanish Texas –Responsibility Function as agents of defense Serve as trade centers Attract pioneers seeking security Assist missionization process –Discipline Indians –Help maintain mission Indian labor force –Social & economic development Provide work Place to exchange goods & services
History of Texas, 4e © 2007, Harlan Davidson, Inc. 7
History of Texas, 4e © 2007, Harlan Davidson, Inc. 8 Frontier Institutions The ranching frontier & the cattle tradeThe ranching frontier & the cattle trade –Mid-18 th century cattle ranching expands –Livestock markets connect Texas to neighboring provinces & Louisiana –Semi-subsistence agriculture develops Town livingTown living –Civilian settlements scarce in 18 th century –Urban problems of disease & limited access to services Camino Real connects Texas to MexicoCamino Real connects Texas to Mexico
History of Texas, 4e © 2007, Harlan Davidson, Inc. 9 Frontier Society Cultural traditions of New Spain modifiedCultural traditions of New Spain modified –Wide range of ethnic identities & wealth –Slavery limited –Tejana legal rights under Spanish law Women allowed to hold material assets More rights than French & British North American women
History of Texas, 4e © 2007, Harlan Davidson, Inc. 10 Indian Accommodation & Resistance Hispanicized Native AmericansHispanicized Native Americans –Resistance to missionization –Warfare, disease, territorial violations, decimate Karankawans, Jumanoes, & Coahuiltecan culture –Caddos retain homelands until 1850s Apaches & Comanches resist white interlopersApaches & Comanches resist white interlopers
History of Texas, 4e © 2007, Harlan Davidson, Inc. 11 The Bourbon Reforms Streamlining colonial administrationStreamlining colonial administration –José de Gálvez fact-finding in Mexico –Marqués de Rubí inspecting la frontera End of Spanish EraEnd of Spanish Era –Imperial intrusion resented –Secularization of Missions Few Native Americans Christianized or Hispanicized –Three major settlements in place: San Antonio, Goliad, & Nacogdoches –Illegal trade & drive for Mexican autonomy increase –Tejanos develop distinct character
History of Texas, 4e © 2007, Harlan Davidson, Inc. 12 The Spanish Legacy 300 Years of Spanish rule in Texas ends300 Years of Spanish rule in Texas ends – – Few mourn passing – – Case for relocation never strong Spanish influence in TexasSpanish influence in Texas – Cultural Language & geographical nomenclature Cuisine & architecture – Community property laws – Debtor protection
History of Texas, 4e © 2007, Harlan Davidson, Inc. 13 Key Words & Terms (2) Mexican Era ( ) Missions presidios ranchos towns farms towns Tejanas Dona Maria Hinojosa de Balli Bourbon Reforms Miguel Hidalgo de Costilla Juan Bautista de las Casas Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara Spanish terms & words mestizaje Indios barbaros rancheros vaqueros Islenospresidio gente de razon cabildo municipio alcalde acequia corridos peninsulares Diez y Seis de Septiembre reconquista conquistadores
History of Texas, 4e © 2007, Harlan Davidson, Inc. History of Texas, 4e1 Instructor E-Sources PowerPoint Presentation The History of Texas E-SOURCE CENTER.
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