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Chapter – 4 New Service Development

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1 Chapter – 4 New Service Development
Service Management (5e) Operations, Strategy, Information Technology By Fitzsimmons and Fitzsimmons Chapter – 4 New Service Development

2 Learning Objectives Discuss the new service development process.
Prepare a blueprint for a service operation. Describe a service process using the dimensions of divergence and complexity. Use the taxonomy of service processes to classify a service operation. Compare and contrast the generic approaches to service system design.

3 Levels of Service Innovation
Radical Innovations Major Innovation: new service driven by information and computer based technology Wells Fargo Internet banking launched in May 1995 Start-up Business: new service for existing market New Services for the Market Presently Served: new services to customers of an organization Bank branches in Supermarkets

4 Incremental Innovations
Service Line Extensions: augmentation of existing service line, such as adding new menu items, new routes Exclusive lounge at Airports for first class passengers for some airlines Service Improvements: changes in features of currently offered service Delta Airlines use of ATM-like kiosks to distribute boarding passes to passengers Style Changes: modest visible changes in appearances Some funeral homes now arrange for celebration of life instead of mourn death

5 Technology Driven Service Innovation
Power/energy - International flights with jet aircraft Physical design - Enclosed sports stadiums, Hotel Atrium Materials - Astroturf Methods - JIT and TQM Information - E-commerce using the Internet

6 Sources of New Services
Customer suggestions Frontline employees Mining customer database

7 New Service Development Cycle
People Technology Systems Product Full Launch Development Design Analysis Organizational Context Teams Tools Enablers Formulation of new services objective / strategy Idea generation and screening Concept development and testing Business analysis Project authorization Full-scale launch Post-launch review Service design and testing Process and system design and testing Marketing program Personnel training Service testing and pilot run Test marketing

8 Service Design Elements 1. Structural
Delivery system Front and back office Automation Customer participation Facility design Size Aesthetics Layout Location Customer demographics Single versus multiple sites Competition Site characteristics Capacity planning Managing queues Number of servers Accomodating average or peak demand

9 Service Design Elements 2. Managerial
Service encounter Service culture Motivation Selection and training Employee empowerment Quality Measurement Monitoring method Expectations versus perceptions Service guarantee Managing capacity and demand Strategies for altering demand and controlling supply Queue management Information Competitive resources Data collection

10 Service Blueprint of Luxury Hotel

11 Strategic Positioning Through Process Structure
Degree of Complexity Measured by the number of steps in the service blueprint. For example a clinic is less complex than a general hospital. Degree of Divergence Amount of discretion permitted the server to customize the service. For example the activities of an attorney contrasted with those of a paralegal. Figure 4.3 (pp 85) Allows us to see the market positioning of a service based on degree of complexity and degree of divergence allowed

12 Structural Alternatives for a Restaurant Table 4.3 (pp 85)
No Reservations Self-seating. Menu on Blackboard Eliminate Customer Fills Out Form Pre-prepared: No Choice Limit to Four Choices Sundae Bar: Self-service Coffee, Tea, Milk only Serve Salad & Entree Together: Bill and Beverage Together Cash only: Pay when Leaving TAKE RESERVATION SEAT GUESTS, GIVE MENUS SERVE WATER AND BREAD TAKE ORDERS PREPARE ORDERS Salad (4 choices) Entree (15 choices) Dessert (6 choices) Beverage (6 choices) SERVE ORDERS COLLECT PAYMENT Specific Table Selection Recite Menu: Describe Entrees & Specials Assortment of Hot Breads and Hors D’oeuvres At table. Taken Personally by Maltre d’ Individually Prepared at table Expand to 20 Choices: Add Flaming Dishes; Bone Fish at Table; Prepare Sauces at Table Expand to 12 Choices Add Exotic Coffees; Sherbet between Courses; Hand Grind Pepper Choice of Payment. Including House Accounts: Serve Mints LOWER COMPLEXITY/DIVERGENCE CURRENT PROCESS HIGHER COMPLEXITY/DIVERGENCE

13 Taxonomy for Service Process Design
Service processes can be classified using the concept of Divergence the object toward which service activity is directed Degree of customer contact

14 1. Degree of divergence Low divergence – standardized service with high volume Tasks are routine Relatively low level of technical skills required Production-line approach, example, McDonalds High divergence – customized services More technical and analytical skills required More flexibility required More capacity required

15 2. Object of the Service Process
Working on goods of the customer, ex. Auto repair Property must be secured from damage or loss Services where the provider provides facilitating goods ex restaurant Appropriate stock levels and the quality of these facilitating goods becomes a concern Processing information Done in back office, ex. check processing at a bank Providing information over phone , ex. Phone banking Processing People, ex. Haircut or surgical operation High interpersonal skills required as well as technical skills

16 3. Type of Customer Contact
Decision on level of customer contact will decide the type of training for employees and the design of the facility Indirect via electronic media – no need for service provider at the time of service delivery Indirect via phone – need for service provider at the time of delivery and need for employee interpersonal skills Customer is physically present for part or full service – need for interpersonal skills and also careful planning of service layout

17 Taxonomy of Service Processes Table 4.4 (pp. 86)

18 Generic Approaches to Service Design
Production-line Customer as Coproducer Customer Contact Information Empowerment

19 1. Production-Line Approach
Characteristics Routine and simple services High standardization Low customer contact Limited discretionary action of personnel – to get consistency in service performance Division of Labor – total job is broken into groups of simple tasks Substitution of technology for people – example ATM machines Service standardization – limited service options creates opportunities for predictability and preplanning

20 2. Customer as Co-Producer
Characteristics For most services, the customer is present when the service is being performed We can use the customer as a productive worker – through proper design of the service Either compensate the customer for their service or design in such a way that he/she does not feel as a co-producer Self Service – E-tickets over the Internet provide convenience Smoothing Service Demand – will allow better use of capacity, which is time-perishable To implement demand-smoothing strategy, customers must participate, adjusting the time of their demand to match availability of the service. Appointments, reservations, price incentives

21 3. Customer-Contact Approach
Manufacturing is a controlled environment focused on maximizing productivity and capacity utilization; inventory to decouple production from customer demand Services When low contact – then run them as manufacturing in back-office, achieving high capacity utilization and economies of scale When high-contact – the quality is determined by customers’ experience – both the process and the outcome are important Separate different components of service into high and low contact areas to bring efficiency Considerations that will impact high and low contact are given in table 4.5 (pp 93)

22 4. Information Empowerment
Employee empowerment – faster and accurate Record keeping customer names Supplier relationship Communication with other firms All aspects of an operation can be integrated (ERP systems) Customer empowerment Customers can use Internet to educate themselves

23 Customer Value Results produced for the customer Process quality
It must satisfy the need for which it was purchased Process quality Since customer is a part of the process of service delivery, therefore improvement in service quality will be appreciated by the customer Price to the customer Greater consistency in service quality should lower cost – because that allows greater alignment between customer perceptions and expectations; resulting in lower price being offered to customer Cost of acquiring the service Total cost of acquiring the service is important to customers

24 Customer Value Equation

25 Discussion Questions What are the limits in the production-line approach to service? Give an example of a service in which isolation of the technical core would be inappropriate. What are some drawbacks of customer participation in the service delivery process? What ethical issues are raised in the promotion of sales during a service transaction?

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