一、哲學與文學： Philosophy is the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct. Logic, ethics, aesthetics, epistemology, metaphysics (ontology, cosmology), etc. Literature is writing regarded as having permanent worth through its intrinsic excellence. Poetry, drama, fiction, prose. 哲學是抽象推理論說的文學，文學是具体展示例 証的哲學。
二、存在主義的哲學： A. Basic Ideas: Existence precedes essence. 存在 先於 本質。 Existence is absurd. 存在是荒謬的。 Surd ( 無理根 ): 無定值、無精確答案 Essence is the result of free choice. 本質 為 自由抉擇之結果。
B. Main Existentialists: 1.Kierkegaard ( 齊克果 ) : A world without preexisting truths, values, or general laws. 原本無真理、價值、通則定律 Truth as inner commitment (truth = faith). Subjectivity is truth, and truth is subjectivity. Choice between esthetic and ethical ways of life. (Either/Or) 美或善 God as the mythic, eternal reality for faith. “leap to faith” or “leap of faith” knight of faith
2. Heidegger & Jaspers: Heidegger ( 海德格 ) ： Dasein: “being there,” “existence,” “being in the world” “thrown into the world” being as finite and transient in time 丟在、有限、短暫 (Being and Time) Angst: “being for death,” nothingness, 焦慮 active participation
2. Heidegger & Jaspers: Jaspers ( 雅斯柏斯 ): World-theories as human responses 世界觀 (Psychology of World Views) The three methods: scientific, existentialist, metaphysical 科學、人生、玄界 (Philosophy) Seeking truth in nature, in human communication, or in “the one being” (“The Absolute,” “God”)
三、 存在主義的文學： 1. Sartre ( 沙特 ): Being and Nothingness ( 論文 ): For man existence precedes essence. Being is objective, and existence has a subjective quality. Being-in-itself vs. Being-for-itself The Flies ( 劇本 ): Orestes kills Aegistheus to teach his people to be free and responsible, taking with him the crowd of repulsive flies.
1. Sartre ( 沙特 ): Nausea ( 小說 ): Roquentin records the process of his “nausea” ( 噁心 ) about the fact that things and people cannot help existing, and yet there is “absolutely no reason for existing.” 存在無理卻存在 No Exit ( 獨幕劇 ): Garcin, Estele, Ines a bare room/Hell 沒有出口 meaningless repetition 無意義的重複
2. Camus ( 卡繆 ): The Stranger 異鄉人 ( 小說 ): Meursault does not mourn for his mother’s death, kills an Arab, and rejects a clergyman’s preaching. He feels he is “the stranger” in the world. The Myth of Sisyphus 西西法斯神話 ( 論文 ): Sisyphus is the absurd hero confronting an unintelligible world but knowing his futile struggle towards the heights.
2. Camus 卡繆 : The Plague 瘟疫 ( 小說 ): Doctor Rieux stays 8 months at Oran for the bubonic plague, yet everything seems to “begin again from zero.” “The Guest” 客人 ( 短篇小說 ) ： Daru & the Arab A noble choice
3. Hemingway 海明威 : The Sun Also Rises 妾似朝陽又照君 ( 小說 ): Barnes tells the story of “the lost generation” (Brett Ashley, Michael Campbell, etc.), who have no direction for life. A Farewell to Arms 戰地春夢 ( 小說 ): Frederic Henry & Catherine Barkley escape to Switzerland only to have a tragic end. Choosing love instead of war.
3. Hemingway: For Whom the Bell Tolls 戰地鐘聲 ( 小說 ): Robert Jordan blows up the bridge, only to die on the hillside without having Maria or achieving his war ideal. The Old Man and the Sea 老人與海 ( 中篇小 說 ): An old Cuban fisherman, after 84 days without a catch, hooks a gigantic marlin but gains nothing reaching home.
4. Beckett 貝克特 : Waiting for Godot 等待果陀 ( 劇本 ): Two tramps (Vladimir/Didi & Estragon/Gogo) are forever waiting for Godot while Pozzo & Lucky pass by. Pozzo drives Lucky as if he were an animal but becomes blind led by Lucky, who becomes dumb.
4. Beckett: Endgame 殘局 ( 劇本 ): The blind bed-bound autocrat Hamn, whose parents Nagg and Nell are confined to garbage cans, learns from his servant Clov of the disappearance of objects and the deaths of people in a disintegrating world.