Presentation on theme: "Supernova Remnants and ULX bubbles Manfred Pakull, Fabien Grisé, C. Motch, R. Soria 0bservatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg SNR & PWN in the Chandra Era,"— Presentation transcript:
Supernova Remnants and ULX bubbles Manfred Pakull, Fabien Grisé, C. Motch, R. Soria 0bservatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg SNR & PWN in the Chandra Era, July , Boston, MA
Outline -- Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) -- ULXs are (often) located in bubbles = ULXBs -- many (large) SNRs are really ULXBs -- Rosetta Stone S26 in NGC ULXBs = jet inflated « beambags » like SS433/W50
Ultraluminous X-Ray sources B right (variable) non-nuclear X-ray sources in galaxies (Long & van Speybroeck (1983) i.e Lx ~ few erg/s: more luminous in X than Local Group of Galaxies!! Isotropic luminosities > erg/s i.e. Lx > Ledd (= erg/s M/M ) for stellar-mass accretors ( M < 20 M ) ‘superEddington’ sources 1 ULX per 3 star-forming galaxies
(Cropper et al 2004) XMM/ EPIC view of NGC 4559
Cropper et al 2004, MNRAS; Soria et al 2004, MNRAS XMM Optical Monitor image (near-UV band) 2 ULXs in NGC 4559 (Sc, d = 10 Mpc) 2 ULXs in NGC 4559 (Sc, d = 10 Mpc) X-7
(Cropper et al 2004) XMM/ EPIC view of NGC 4559
Ultraluminous X-ray Sources suggested nature SNe/very young SNR, but most are variable ! truly super-Eddington (Begelman 2002) beamed into our l.o.s. (King 2002, Markoff 2002) stellar pop III remnants (Madau & Rees 2001) low-metallicity (Z = 0.1Z ) binaries (Pakull & Mirioni 02) intermediate mass black holes, IMBH; in between the stellar and AGN variety We need information from other wavelengths !! optical work: Pakull& Mirioni&Grisé, Roberts & Co; Abolmasov & Fabrika...
A few examples of our optical follow-up observatuions of ULXs
ULX IC 342 X-1 "Tooth" nebula situated in spiral arm has a diameter of 220pc ( Pakull & Mirioni 2002; Roberts et al. 2003; Grisé et al 2006 ) SNR-like spectrum: [SII]/H =1.2 [OI] 6300/H =0.4 X-ray or shock ionization ? Detection of supersonic expansion (see later) from Laurent Mirioni’s thesis CFHT, H
ULX IC 342 X-1 "Tooth" nebula situated in spiral arm has a diameter of 220pc Pakull & Mirioni 2002; Roberts et al 2003; Grisé et al 2006 SNR-like spectrum: [SII]/H =1.2 [OI] 6300/ H =0.4 X-ray or shock ionization ? Detection of supersonic expansion (see later) CFHT; from Laurent Mirioni’s thesis
ULX NGC 1313 X-2 Lx ~ erg/s variable location far away (9kpc) from nucleus of 4.7 Mpc distant spiral NGC 1313 SNR-like optical spectrum (e.g. Grise et al. 2008) bubble diameter ~ 26’’ = 400 pc (!) v exp. ~ v shock ~ 100 km/s H VLT * VLT, FORS : HeII 4686 emission *
Are there unrecognized ULXB (incl. from presently inactive, or from ULXs possibly beamed away from us) among large SNRs candidates ?
Optical [SII]/H > 0.4 selected surveys of SNRs in large nearby galaxies (outside LG) Matonick & Fesen 1997: N5204, N5585, N6946, M81, M101; N2403 Blair & Long 1997: N300, N7793 HH [SII] [SII]-H
some very large SNR candidates… Lozinskaya & Moiseev 2007 Log - logD for SNR S1-N pc IC 10: Bubble around XRB WR + 30 Mo BH (LM2007) NGC 5585 S1: new ULX (Pakull et al 2008)
very large ‘SNR’ in NGC 5585 Matonick & Fesen (1997) noted huge (200x300) pc ‘SNR’ in NGC pc
very large ‘SNR’ ULXB ! 5.0 Matonick & Fesen (1997) noted huge (200x300) pc ‘SNR’ in NGC pc Chandra: point source (~ erg/s) as in many previously identified ‘SNRs’ Ho IX, NGC 6946X-1; M81X-6 …
The ‘SNR’ MH9-11 in HolmbergIX Holmberg IX X-1: Lx ~10 40 erg/s Miller (1995): X-ray superluminous SNR; but X-ray variable point source! Note small cluster incl. ULX counterpart; SE: shock breakout (?) SE Subaru B Ha [OIII] B 30 " = 500 pc
Kinematics of ULX bubbles Holm IXNGC1313 X-2 IC 342 X-1 Holm II HH [NII] 6584 V exp = 80 – 250 km/ s
Energetics of ULX Bubbles Typical bubble radii ~200 pc (ie. >> SNR) Expansion velocity ~ 80 km/s (up to 250 km/s) if due to SN explosion; Sedov /snowplow : E 0 ~ erg R v n t ~ yrs, E 0 ~ erg n “Hypernova” (GRB) Remnant (shock H luminosity: I ~ v exp 2.3 n --> n = cm -3 ) - Explosion of several (>20) SNe (superbubble) excluded (no massive cluster !) - Hypernova remnants (very popular 10 years ago) excluded
ULX (Swartz, Soria, in prep) 30 pc HST/ACS NGC 6946 MF16 no HNR ! - brightest ‘SNR’ (10 39 erg/s) - ‘colliding SNRs’ (Blair & Fesen 94, BF & Schlegel 01) - X-ray variable ULX (Roberts & Colbert 03) - v ex =225 km/s; t ~ yrs; (Dunne et al. 00) The youth of the bubble excludes nature as a remnant of SN explosion that created compact accreting star in ULX [after SN explosion nuclear timescale expansion of donor star before Roche lobe overflow mass transfer can take place]
Energetics of ULX Bubbles Bubble radii up to ~200 pc (ie. >> SNR) Expansion velocity ~ 80 km/s (up to 250 km/s) if due to SN explosion; Sedov /snowplow : E 0 ~ erg R v n t ~ yrs, E 0 ~ erg n (shock H luminosity: I ~ v exp 2.3 n --> n = cm -3 ) if wind/jet driven bubble (Castor 1975, Weaver et al 1977): Lw ~ erg/s R v n t ~ yrs ( for NGC6946X-1); Lw ~ erg/s for all ULXB Lw = ½ Mdot v out 2 ~ jet mechanical luminosity of SS433; i.e. v out should be mildly relativistic (~ 0.3 c).
QSO SS433 & W50 mechanically inflated Bubble W50 with ‘ears’ due to v=0.26c jets (+SNR ?) radio-image 200 pc ASCA image (Kotani 98) Begelman’s ‘beambags’ i.e. linear triple
ss433film VLBA; credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF
Problem: no large-scale jets seen in ULXB (or other QSO)
some very large SNR candidates… NGC 7793 S26 Log - logD for SNR S1-N pc
NGC 7793-S26: discovery of an extra- galactic SS433/W50-type system very large optical ‘SNR’ S26 in NGC7793 dist=3.4 Mpc, dia~250pc; [SII]/Ha~0.5. Blair & Long 1997 radio source (> CasA; Pannuti et al 02) X-ray Chandra (archive) H H 13’’ 250pc from Chandra archive: S26 is coincident with linear X-ray triple
S26 Chandra keV keV keV H contours Lx ~ erg/s soft hot spot Lx ~ erg/s hard source = 23mag OB star
What have we learned/open questions ULXs blow very energetic bubbles (ULXB) ULXB resemble large SNRs but they aren’t synchrotron/thermal bubble NGC7793-S26 is jet-inflated (SS433 and S26 do show P mech >> Lx; both are not ULX) connection QSO and ULX ? jet interaction with ISM all large SNR candidates are ULXBs (incl. inactive ULX) Merci !