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Journal #5: Respond to the following questions in your entry…

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1 Journal #5: Respond to the following questions in your entry…
What are some characteristics of a super-hero? Name one and explain some of his/her strengths. What are some characteristics of a real-life hero? Name a person you believe is heroic and explain what makes them a hero to you.

2 Beowulf Vocabulary Artful – skillful, clever, tricky
Bolt – to move suddenly Fret – to worry or be annoyed by Furrow – to make wrinkles or grooves in something Grate – to cause irritation Hack – one who forfeits integrity in exchange for money/reward Hoary – white with age Infamous – having a bad reputation Lament – to mourn the loss of something/someone Loathe – to detest

3 Beowulf Vocabulary Quench – to extinguish or to put out
Relish – to take great pleasure or delight in Reprise – a recurrence, renewal or resumption of an action Solace – to comfort or cheer Utter – to express by speaking Vexation – discomfort or distress

4 “All that is gold does not glitter, Not all those who wander are lost; The old that is strong does not wither, Deep roots are not reached by the frost. From the ashes a fire shall be woken, A light from the shadows shall spring; Renewed shall be blade that was broken, The crownless again shall be king.” ― J.R.R. Tolkien, The Fellowship of the Ring

5 Major Themes Emphasis on FAMILY, ANCESTRY & TRIBE The men often introduce themselves by naming their ancestors; this establishes who they are and where they came from Lessons for GOOD WARRIORS & GOOD KINGS Beowulf exemplifies the perfect warrior and Hrothgar the perfect king – they are what every warrior and king should aspire to be FAME, PRIDE & SHAME Fame = gained from performing courageous acts, pride in making one’s king proud of them and shame from backing down or showing weakness

Each battle shows both repetition and change; while some preparations remain the same, Beowulf goes into each with a slightly different attitude and demeanor. With Grendel, he’s confident to the point of arrogance. With the mother, he’s cautious and seems happy to be done. With the dragon, he knows he’s at the end of his life and wants to go out being remembered as honorable and brave. PAGANISM & CHISTIANITY Elements of both are present in order to connect with the readers of the time and to help convert them to Christianity; this is why the “heroes” always praise and thank God.

7 Prereading notes for Beowulf
The book is divided into three main parts with Beowulf battling a 'monster' in each one. Much of the book is didactic; what does that mean? It contains advice for kings, qualities of a hero, qualities of a villain. Boasting is shown throughout the story as a means of proving one’s worth. How is boasting seen differently than in our time? It emphasizes weapons as a means of showing heritage, ancestry and success. The weapons in the story are often handed down from father to son or they are gifts or trophies given for success in battle.

8 Roles of Women It presents the roles and place of women and one can see how their viewpoints contributed to those society has had or has regarding women's roles today. Also, depicts the two extremes of Good and Evil Grendel’s Mother Queen Wealtheow

9 Importance of Leaders in Society
It shows the importance of leaders and their part in the destiny of their people, and their roles in relation to the roles of their followers. Kings were supposed to be the caretakers of their “community” they should be willing to sacrifice anything for their people and provide for their warriors at all costs.

10 Belief in One’s Fate or Destiny
The Anglo-Saxons believed strongly in the existence of fate, known as “wyrd” in Old English. They believed everyone had a predetermined destiny that must be fulfilled.

11 Attitude Toward Life & Death
With the existence of monsters, and feuds, etc., we are presented with subsequent attitudes toward life, death, and material possessions. Warriors believed that death in battle was valiant and dying for their king was the ultimate sacrifice. Immortality was gained through acts of bravery and courage on earth. To become “immortal” one had to perform acts so brave, valiant and memorable that they would be told by the scops for years to come.

12 Christianity vs. Pagan Beliefs
All of these concepts are presented with and through a 'Christian overlay.' That is, the original story may essentially be termed pagan, it had monsters and magic. But was written by a Christian trying to impress Christianity on people. By making the hero and the king Christians who pray to God, the writer is depicting his religion as strong and enduring. It is important to know, therefore, that there are at least two major and sometimes conflicting attitudes woven throughout Beowulf.

13 7 Deadly Sins vs. 7 Heavenly Virtues
The characters described using any of the 7 Deadly Sins are the “bad guys” they have characteristics that lead them to destruction. In the description the characters those characters who are described using the 7 Heavenly Virtues are the “good guys”. The author describes them using these virtues to show that they are honorable and virtuous characters and will be led to victory.

14 Seven Virtues vs. Seven Sins
Pride is excessive belief in one's own abilities, that interferes with the individual's recognition of the grace of God. Envy is the desire for others' traits, status, abilities, or situation. Gluttony is an inordinate desire to consume more than that which one requires. Lust is an inordinate craving for the pleasures of the body. Anger is manifested in the individual who spurns love and opts instead for fury. It is also known as Wrath. Greed is the desire for material wealth or gain, ignoring the realm of the spiritual. It is also called Avarice or Covetousness. Sloth is the avoidance of physical or spiritual work. Truth - implies honesty, accuracy, sincerity, integrity, and reality. Love - tender, ineffable feeling of affection, devotion, or compassion toward a person. Courage - quality of mind or spirit that enables one to face danger, fear, or change Wisdom – Knowledge and use of the best means for attaining the best ends Creativity - The ability to produce through artistic or imaginative effort, Tolerance - recognizing and respecting the beliefs or practices of others. Freedom - The power to act, speak, or think without externally imposed restraints

15 Narrative and Character Types
HERO: Individual whose quest is to restore the equilibrium. VILLAIN: Individual(s) whose task is to disrupt the equilibrium. DONOR: Individual(s) who gives the hero something e.g. advice or an object. HELPER: Individual who aids the hero with their set task. PRINCESS/PRINCE: Individuals who need help, protecting and saving. DISPATCHER: Individual(s) who send the hero on their quest. FALSE HERO: Individual(s) who set out to undermine the hero's quest by pretending to aid them. Often unmasked at the end of the film.

16 Family Tree of the Sheaf Danes

17 Family Tree of the Geats


19 “Look Fors” pgs Find 3 examples of ALLITERATION (include line #). Find 3 examples of ASSONANCE (include line #). Cite three examples of CHRISTIANITY in the text. Cite three examples of PAGANISM in the text. What Bible story is referenced? What is the significance of this comparison (if you don’t know, don’t worry, we’ll discuss this)? How many men does Grendel kill the first time he attacks? For how many years does Herot lay empty because of Grendel? What is the only thing Grendel cannot touch? Why? Why would the writer make this specific comment? Reread lines What message does the writer seem to be trying to send to the reader?

20 “Look Fors” pgs. 46-49 Who are Healfdane, Higlac, Wulfgar and Edgetho?
According to what you read, what seems to be Beowulf’s reason for going to help Hrothgar and the Danes? How does Beowulf say he’ll fight Grendel? Why? How do Beowulf’s men treat him? What does this tell us about Beowulf? What Heavenly virtues does Beowulf possess? Hrothgar? Note the Virtue and the line # you found the example on… Summarize the swimming race b/n Beowulf and Brecca. Who challenges his story? What elements of “fate” are mentioned in this section? How does the mood seem to shift from the end of the first section to this one?


22 “Look Fors” pg. 50=54 Describe the mood in the beginning of this section… What seems to be Grendel’s motivation for killing the Danes? How does Grendel react to Beowulf’s strength? Why are Beowulf’s men unable to injure Grendel? The verb “to purge” means to rid or to cleanse. It usually refers to sin. Why do you think this is used in describing Beowulf’s ridding Herot of Grendel? No man-made weapons can destroy Grendel or his mother. What might this be symbolizing about the struggle between Good and Evil? How is Hrothgar thought of by his people? What does this tell us about him as a king? How has the mood changed by the end of this section?

23 “Look Fors” pgs How is Grendel’s mother’s motivation for visiting Herot different from his? Why does she only take one soldier? How can we tell that her choice a deliberate one? Reread the last section where Hrothgar is describing the fen (that’s the swamp where Grendel and his mother live). How does it appear? What point is Hrothgar trying to make by using this description? Why do you think Beowulf wears armor and uses a sword to fight Grendel’s mother? Where do we see evidence that Beowulf is fighting, in part, to become immortalized? Who gives up on Beowulf first? Who does not? What’s that tell us about them? What kinds of words are used to describe Beowulf in the scene where he returns from the fen? Compare Grendel to his mother. What do they have in common? What makes them different?


25 “Look Fors” pgs What kind of king has Beowulf been to his people? How does his demeanor change with the Dragon as opposed to Grendel/Grendel’s mother? What does Beowulf say about fate before this challenge? In what ways is the battle with the dragon different than the one’s from the beginning? Describe how fate has changed sides according to the text. How does Beowulf still fight back? Which one of Beowulf’s men stays to help him? This man serves as the exemplary soldier. How is he made to be a hero? What would this be “teaching” to the readers? How long has Beowulf been king? Who is he giving his possessions to? Why? Why does Beowulf claim he will be able to die in peace? According to the text, why was Beowulf bound to fail in this final battle?

26 “Look Fors” pgs Who does Beowulf give thanks and credit to for helping him destroy the dragon and get the treasure? Who does he leave to lead the Geats? What all does he give this man? What are Beowulf’s “funeral directions” to this man? How do the other warriors feel after Beowulf’s death? What does Wiglaf say to them? For how long did Beowulf’s men mourn him? How many of Beowulf’s men live to tell his story to others? What is significant about this in comparison with Christian beliefs? In the end, how is Beowulf remembered? What all Heavenly Virtues did he possess? Give an example from the book of any that you can think of.

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