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China: From Mao to Now Mao Zedong VS Deng Xiaoping? Is the China that emerged in the 1990s the type of China that Mao Zedong had envisioned and worked.

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Presentation on theme: "China: From Mao to Now Mao Zedong VS Deng Xiaoping? Is the China that emerged in the 1990s the type of China that Mao Zedong had envisioned and worked."— Presentation transcript:

1 China: From Mao to Now Mao Zedong VS Deng Xiaoping? Is the China that emerged in the 1990s the type of China that Mao Zedong had envisioned and worked toward? To what extent did Deng Xiaoping’s policies and crackdowns change China? How are communism and capitalism existing side by side in China today?

2 Background to Deng Xiao Ping Participated in the Long March with Mao Rose to power in the CCP as the general secretary Views on economics differed from Mao –Mao = egalitarian, Deng = focused on economic development During the failure of the Great Leap Forward, Deng suggested allowing privatization of farms to increase food production (Lenin’s NEP?) Survives all of Mao’s purges –Deng utilized free market to revive the economy from GLF –Back to politics in 1973 with the help of Zhou Enlai 1978 becomes the Chairman of the PLA (People’s Liberation Army) – key to controlling China –He is 74 years old at the time!!!

3 Deng Xiao Ping’s Ideologies "better to be poor under socialism than rich under capitalism." (adage of Cultural Revolution) (“De-Maoization”) Against the Cultural Revolution – 1979 declared a major setback Four Modernizations :industry, agriculture, science and technology, and national defence Deng’s policies were more practical and responsive to the economic times – willing to alter communist ideologies for what’s best for the country “a cat that catches mice is a good cat, whether white or black” –A policy of material gain as the goal –Not as concerned with political change/ revolution Unwilling to release control over the people

4 Deng Xiao Ping’s Successes Education: Tries to reverse the “uneducation” of the Cultural Revolution –encourages studying abroad –intellectuals sent to the farms during the Cultural Revolution, Hundred Flowers and Great Leap Forward were allowed to reunite with their families Promotes learning in universities and scientific research *studied in France in his 20s

5 Deng Xiao Ping’s Successes Economics Farmers were allowed to produce more food on their own initiative Private ownership is allowed Borrowed from foreign states to boost infrastructure (failure?) 1979 Special Economic Zones instead of borrowing money –First four cities Shenzen, Zhuhai, Shantou, Xiamen near HK and Taiwan were given administrative independence and legal freedom to conduct foreign trade

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7 Special Economic Zones Special tax incentive for foreign investment in the SEZs Greater independence is provided for International trade activities Products are primarily export oriented Market driven economic activity Attracts and utilizes foreign capital Means to China’s booming manufacturing industry flowing through these zones

8 Deng Xiaoping’s Successes 1984 successful negotiation to return Hong Kong to the Chinese Agreed that HK would be returned to China in assurance that it would keep its economic and social systems Leads to mass emigration (a lot to Richmond) in fears of the changeover – 80’s and 90’s HK acts like a SEZ Instead of China bringing down HK, it seems that the success in HK has become a model for China to follow

9 Deng Xiao Ping’s Successes Tenure was abolished and many made way for more qualified people to take government positions 1984 revives China to a point that it is self sufficient on food 1984 successful negotiation to return Hong Kong to the Chinese Mao re-unified China, Deng pushed its economy forward

10 Success or Failure? One Child Policy China has 1 billion people Began as a temporary measure but lasts to today and will continue (reassessment in 2010) Has been limited to urban populations Fines, pressures to abort a pregnancy, and forced sterilization accompanied second or subsequent pregnancies

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12 Effects of One Child Policy Caused a disdain for female babies –abortion, neglect, abandonment, and even infanticide 114 males for every 100 females (world average is 105:100) “Little Emperor Syndrome” of spoiled only children Estimated to have lowered the population by 300 million 80’s generation now of childbearing age and are allowed to have two per couple (if you don’t have siblings)

13 Deng Xiao Ping’s failures Continued to purge any threats to the CCP – 1978 and 1986 puts down democratic demonstrations No protests (Tiananmen Square) 1979 border war with Vietnam 1979 failure to revive a relationship with Russia Didn’t want years of revolution to go to waste – therefore continued to push for dictatorship, not democracy

14 Tiananmen Square Massacre 1989 Leaders of the 1986 demonstration were painted as hooligans and were misleading other students Hu Yaobing (General Secretary) had been tolerant of student demonstrations and dies in 1989 Students gather to mourn Hu’s death

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17 Tiananmen Square Massacre Renmin ribao (People's daily) editorial (printed April 26, 1989) “In their activities to mourn the death of Comrade Hu Yaobang, communists, workers, peasants, intellectuals, cadres, members of the People's Liberation Army and young students have expressed their grief in various ways. They have also expressed their determination to turn grief into strength to make contributions in realizing the four modernizations and invigorating the Chinese nation. Some abnormal phenomena have also occurred during the mourning activities. Taking advantage of the situation, an extremely small number of people spread rumors, attacked party and state leaders by name, and instigated the masses to break into the Xinhua Gate at Zhongnanhai, where the party Central Committee and the State Council are located. Some people even shouted such reactionary slogans as, Down with the Communist Party. In Xi'an and Changsha, there have been serious incidents in which some lawbreakers carried out beating, smashing, looting, and burning.”

18 Tiananmen Square Massacre The next day students from over 40 universities plus pro-democracy demonstrated began protests (April 26- June 4, 1989) – about 100,000 –Becomes a protest against the government (removal of Deng Xiaoping) May 13 students begin a hunger strike May 20 martial law is declared but demonstrations continued

19 Tiananmen Square Massacre After about two weeks of deliberation, the PLA is sent in to end the demonstration June 3-4 Killed hundreds, injuring 10,000 as students tried to block the tanks –Students shot or run over with tanks Afterwards, trials and executions were conducted Foreign press is banned Chinese are quiet about the issue to this day

20 China today Considered Communist but acts Capitalist –“Free” market (still subject to what the government thinks is best for the country) Better definition may be that it is a socialist country (healthcare) Government structure is still communist and there is only one party No cult dictatorship like Mao 2007 second largest GDP in the world (next to US)

21 Assignment: Read pp 332 – 337 Construct a “T” chart comparing Mao and Deng in terms of: 1.Assumptions/ Priorities 2.Methods/ Policies Complete Quote worksheet

22 Tank Man


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