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January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 1 The Trojan Women.

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Presentation on theme: "January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 1 The Trojan Women."— Presentation transcript:

1 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 1 The Trojan Women

2 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 2

3 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 3 Euripides playwright, librettist, composer, choreographer, producer, but not chief actor born about 480 bce, probably Salamis, of well-to-do family lived Athens? Left 408 for Macedonian court, where died 496 A recluse, not active in public life, unlike predecessors, not personally popular author of 92 plays; 16 tragedies, 1 satyr play survive Only 5 victories (20 plays)

4 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 4 Euripides’ Subjects tragedies, tragi-comedies, romantic drama episodic plots in comedies reworking of familiar material new popular style of music highly emotional women in love, babies, children emotions, passions, madness social subjects seen from personal point of view

5 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 5 Other Features emotionalism sententiousness pathos rhetoric used 3rd actor, added first by Sophocles Most influential of surviving playwrights: Seneca adopted these features and passed them on to the Renaissance reduced role of chorus

6 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 6 The Trojan Women 415 bce fifteenth year of Peloponnesian wars Immediately after destruction of Melos third play of trilogy: Alexander, Palamedes, Troades, Sisyphus background familiar from Iliad playwright’s second Hecuba play Trojan point of view anti-Homeric view

7 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 7 Elements of typical tragedy Plot of exceptional suffering and calamity Characters ones-like- ourselves Thought nature of human nature conditions of human life consequences of wrongdoing or sin

8 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 8 Plot based on legend/history of Trojan War plot of suffering, not of action serious threat to life or well-being of protagonist carried out episodes divided by four choral odes

9 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 9 Prologue Poseidon, Athena, Hecuba provide exposition and establish thought Troy’s glories contrasted with its present state moral, ethical, social, religious framework established

10 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 10 Prologue: “so soon to die themselves.” women and children slaughtered virgin priestess Cassandra violated and to be forced into concubinage: Athena is angry Poseidon: fools waste cities, violate the sacred, “so soon to die themselves.” gods must abandon the city: no worshippers left

11 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 11 Prologue: “This is no longer Troy. Hecuba: “this is no longer Troy,” we no longer lords, the mourning song replaces all earlier songs. Barbarism and sacrilege of the victors will be punished.

12 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 12 Parados Chorus of captive Trojan women horrors of war mourning, fear for future, fear of unknown destination somber, dirge-like poetic rhythm danced in same vein sets mood, ethical, social, historical framework for events

13 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 13

14 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 14 Episode 1 Talthybius, an Argive herald news of who is to go to which victor male Cassandra: “she is god’s.” Cassandra’s mad, macabre dance of Hymen—while planning to kill the “groom” Futility of war: for the Greek women, “in their homes are sorrows, too, the very same.” Prophecy of Odysseus’ sorrows to come. Hecuba: “count no one happy before he dies.” “all this misery, and all to come, because a man desired a woman.”

15 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 15 Ode 1 song to the death of Troy their own complicity, explicit in their bringing in the horse The horse statue intended as a gift for Athena

16 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 16 Episode 2: Andromache Andromache’s very young son, Astyanax, the only hope for the future Andromache, Hecuba mourn for city, husbands, sons, freedom but the dead don’t suffer domestic level: Hecuba’s advice on managing her new master Talthybius announces death for Astyanax even this victor pities the mother and is shamed by the murder to come

17 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 17 Ode 2 recalls a previous sack of Troy, also by Greeks contrasts lives of Greeks and ruined Trojans announces Athena’s desertion of the Trojan cause

18 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 18 Episode 3: Menelaus and Helen Helen’s defense ignoble Hecuba’s response: Women call for Helen’s death Menelaus agrees Hecuba warms against his taking Helen in his own ship

19 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 19 Ode 3 mourning for their losses: festivals, city does the god even notice? sorrow for unburied husbands, their own coming slavery, bereaved children to be enslaved prayer that Menelaus’ ship may never reach home

20 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 20 Episode 4: Funeral of Astyanax Astyanax’ body brought to his grandmother, along with Hector’s shield news that Achilles son and Andromache have sailed for Greece Funeral conducted by the women

21 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 21 Ode 4 Song of the Dead interrupted by Hecuba’s vision: –“in heaven—there is nothing there for us, only my miseries, only hate for Troy, most hated of cities.” exit of funeral procession

22 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 22 Episode 5 very brief Talthybius orders torching of Troy orders women to march to ships orders Hecuba to go with Odysseus’ men Exodos Hecuba and Chorus mourn in alternating verses.

23 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 23 Characters eight speaking, played by three actors: –Poseidon and Athena –four royal Trojan women –Argive men: Talthybius, Menelaus of them, five appear only once. non-speaking soldiers non-speaking child women suffer, men act

24 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 24 Thought irony of successful wrongdoing of Argives pathos of women’s situation and death of child everyone suffers, including the Argive victors dehumanization of war moral indifference of gods futility, horror and degradation of war, viewed internally

25 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 25 Performance Circumstances festival situation of City Dionysia (others Lenea, Rural Dionysias) state support also support of wealthy patrons (choregoi)

26 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 26 State support theatre prizes poets' honoraria actors fees, costumes

27 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 27 Choregos civic, religious duty and privilege chorus fee, training, costumes flute player extras, as for the procession

28 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 28 Production Process festival controlled by chief civil magistrate: public authority choregoi chosen by lot in July: private cooperation Poet: producer-director+ cast actors (until 449) trained chorus, including choreography and singing conducted rehearsals played lead

29 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 29 City Dionysia of 458 BCE March or early April procession of cult statue from temple to Academy sacrifices, rituals two days of dithyrambs, ending with processions and revels five comedies three days of tragedies with satyr plays

30 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 30 Audience thousand, mostly males, of population 200, ,000 resident foreigners privileged had honored seats, with backs, others merely stone benches admission free participants in a religious rite spectators at an entertainment citizens at a civic festival, excitable, voluble, volatile, and knowledgeable

31 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 31

32 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 32 Actors and Acting male amateurs, but increasingly dominant performance element highly trained, especially vocally emphasis enunciation, resonance, flexibility doubling, even tripling males played all roles praised for naturalness, not to be confused with naturalism

33 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 33 Music and dancing

34 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 34 Likely only 3 actors

35 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 35 Theatre buildings: state public facilities evidence important theatres general features Theatre of Dionysus at Athens

36 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 36 Evidence few records of theatre buildings architectural remains theatres frequently remodeled and reconstructed during and after the fifth century

37 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 37 Theatre at Thorikos very early Theatre of Dionysus in Athens most frequent performance site Theatre of Epidauros especially well-preserved Important Theatres

38 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 38 Palace of Knossos, Crete

39 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 39 General Characteristics sacred shrines, at least at festival times located all over the Greek world including Greek colonies in Asia Minor built in natural bowls

40 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 40 three elements orchestra circle skene or scene house auditorium

41 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 41 Theatre at Epidauros

42 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 42 Theatre of Dionysus in Athens first performances of tragedy in 534 BCE earliest, audience seated on hillside flat dancing place supported by retaining wall, backfill perhaps altar South side, opposite audience small temple of Dionysus Eleuthereus

43 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 43 Conjectural reconstruction

44 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 44 City of Athens

45 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 45 Auditorium of mid-fifth century wooden benches (early century) separated from skene by paradoi curves around orchestra audience, chorus entered through paradoi

46 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 46 Stone auditorium (330 BCE) Divided into 13 blocks by 12 stairways

47 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 47 Orchestra or dancing place perhaps rectangular in earliest theatre likely circular by time of Agamemnon 66' diameter

48 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 48 Skene or scene building. earliest, hut or tent for changing no building required prior to 458 BCE, Orestia probably temporary wooden structure at one side of orchestra different from festival to festival? set in stone after 430

49 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 49 Temporary skene for Women possibly paraskenia unknown number of doors, perhaps 3-5 roof for watchman later stone theatre (about 330 B.C.) had paraskenia and 5 doors. perhaps 2 stories, permanent or temporary

50 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 50 Acting place or "stage" possibly none other than the orchestra possibly broad steps in front of skene no evidence of raised stage prior to late 4th century BCE no evidence of high raised stage prior to mid- 2nd century

51 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 51 Scenery no attempt to conceal the skene no evidence of changing scenery 3 other plays produced following Agamemnon perhaps pinakes, but not periaktoi ekkyklema necessary for bodies mechane available, not needed here

52 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 52 Properties Altar always present? needed to suggest tomb of Agamemnon in Choephoroi Cassandra’s torch Hector’s shield Clothing taken from dead Trumpet no attempt to use all the furnishings of daily life.

53 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 53 Costumes essential to identify characters and their status huge theatre, doubling chorus all alike long robe or short tunic, with or without sleeves cloak short or long soft boots appropriate accessories: armor, staffs, crowns, sceptres

54 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 54 Costume: Evidence late 5th c. evidence only Oinochoe from the Agora Pronomos and Andromeda vases Texts choruses differentiated by ethnicity, occupation Actors distinguished by ethnicity, poverty in rags, mourning

55 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 55 Masks worn by all, actors and chorus use in rituals text references differentiation of coloring by ethnicity various hair colors shorn hair for mourning covered entire head appropriate hairstyle, beard, ornaments

56 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 56 Masks: Evidence experiments of Thespis little contemporary evidence Fragment of about 470 no onkos, no gaping mouth, eyes painted in Andromeda vase

57 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 57 Lighting daylight torches indicate night, possible in Prologue

58 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 58 Bibliography Allen, James T. Stage Antiquities of the Greeks and Romans. New York: Cooper, Arnott, Peter D. Greek Scenic Conventions in the Fifth Century, B.C. Oxford: Clarendon, Bieber, Margarete. History of the Greek and Roman Theatre. 2 ed. Princeton UP: Butler, James H. Theatre and Drama of Greece and Rome. San Francisco: Chandler, Flickinger, Roy C. Greek Theatre and Its Drama. 4 ed. Chicago UP, 1936.

59 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 59 Bibliography, continued Harsh, Philip Whaley. Handbook of Classical Drama. Stanford UP, Pickard-Cambridge, Arthur W. Dramatic Festivals of Athens. Oxford: Clarendon, Theatre of Dionysus in Athens. Oxford: Clarendon, 1946.

60 January 21, 2008 Virginia R. Francisco 60 Web Sites “Classics and Mediterranean Archaeology.” “Didaskalia: Ancient Theatre Today.” “Dr. J/s Illustrated Mycenae. –”http://nimbus.temple.edu/%7Ejsiegel/sites/mycenae/mycenae.htm “Greek Art and Architecture.” Skenotheke: Images of the Ancient Stage.”


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