2 I.1 The Life of Mozi Mozi, named Ti (墨翟)--know nothing about his life lived between the death of Confucius (479B.C.) and the birth of Mencius (372 B.C.)studied under the Confucian School:quoted a lot from the Book of Poetry詩經 & the Book of Documents書經criticizes Confucian philosophy & practice in detailOnce served as a high minister in the state of Song宋 (small and weak)
3 I.1 The Life of MoziMozi also traveled a great deal, like most philosophers in late Zhou (Spring-autumn & Warring Period)hope to actualize his teachings.All Mohists acted according to his philosophical teachingsUnique ideas:universal love兼愛No war非攻
4 I.2 The Book: The Mozi complied by his disciples 53 chapters: some were incompleteImportant chapters: on political and ethical ideas of Mozi himself.
5 I.3 The Teachings of Mozi Mission of the Mohists: no War 1. by preaching universal love2. by warning the head of a state the potential risk & disadvantages of attacking others2. by strengthening the defense of vulnerable states so as to diminish the chances of a profitable victory for invadersMoists live according to their teachingsleft home to form close-knit, disciplined bandsheaded by an “elder” whose word was law, and when death drew near, selected his successor from the group.Go to invading states to point out the possibilities of losing the warAid the weak states to defense themselves.Moists are experts on methods of defense
6 I.3 The Teachings of Mozi All chapter-titles reflect the content Many: criticize Confucianism:Universal Love兼愛 (ch.14-16)Against Music非樂 (ch )Moderation in Expenditure節用 (ch )Moderation in Funerals節葬 (ch.23-25)Against Confucians非儒 (ch.38-39)The Will of Tian天志 (ch.26-28)Explaining Ghosts明鬼 (ch.29-31)Against Fatalism非命 (ch.36-37)
7 I.3 The Teachings of MoziAgainst the ruling class than any other philosophical school.Heavily Condemned:the lifestyle of the aristocracy:such pastimes taxed the wealth and energy of the common peopleadded nothing to the material welfare of the state
8 I.3.1 Ch.20: Moderation in Expenditure節用 (M ch.20) “The purpose of making clothes is to keep out the cold in winter and the heat in summer… The purpose of building house is to keep out the wind and cold in winter and the heat and rain in summer, and to provide protection against thieves… The purpose of armor, shields, and the various kinds of weapons is to provide protection against rebels and bandits... The purpose of making boats and carts is to provide a means of getting about on land and on rivers… In making of these five things, nothing is done that does not contribute to their usefulness…“其為衣裘何,以為冬以圉寒,夏以圉暑…其為宮室何,以為冬以圉寒,夏以圉暑,有盜賊加固者…其為甲盾五兵何,以為以圉寇亂盜賊…其為舟吏何,以為車以行陵陸,舟以行川公… 凡其為此物也,無不加用而為者…”
9 I.3.1 ch.20: Moderation in Expenditure節用 (M ch.20) “If one can persuade the rulers to give up their passion for collecting jewels, birds, beasts, dogs, and horses, and to increase the amount of clothing, houses, armor, shields, weapons, boats, and carts, then it is easy enough to double the number of these articles… Therefore Mozi said: To do away with needless expenditure is the way of the sage kings and the source of great benefit to the world.”“有去大人之好聚珠玉鳥獸犬馬,以益衣裳宮室甲盾五兵舟車之數,於數倍乎…故墨子曰:去無用之費,聖王之道,天下之大利也.”
10 I.3.2 ch.25: Moderation in Funerals節葬 Against the importance of elaborate funerals in Confucianism(M ch.25) “In my opinion, if, by following the principles and adopting the instruction of those who advocate elaborate funerals and lengthy mourning one can actually enrich the poor, increase the population, bring stability and order to the state, then such principles are in accordance with ren and yi and are the duty of a filial son…Thus we see that in elaborate funerals much wealth is buried, while lengthy mourning prevents people from going about their activities for long periods of time. If the wealth and goods that have already been produced are to be bundled up and buried in the ground, and the means of future production are to be prohibited for long periods of time, and one still hopes in this way to enrich a state , then it is like prohibiting planting and still hoping for a harvest. One could never acquire wealth that way!”
11 I.3.2 ch.25: Moderation in Funerals節葬 (M ch.25) “厚葬久喪,實可以富貧眾寡定危治亂乎?此仁也義也,孝子之事也…細計厚葬為多埋賦之財者也.計久喪為久禁從事者也.財以成者,扶而埋之,後得生孝,而久禁之.以此求富,此譬猶禁耕而求穫也,富之說無可得焉.”
12 I.3.3 ch.32: Against Music非樂Against the importance of music in Confucianism(M ch.32) “There are three things the people worry about: that when they are hungry they will have no food, when they are cold they will have no clothing, and when they are weary they will have no rest. There are the three great worries of the people. Now let us try sounding the great bells, striking the rolling drums, strumming the zithers, blowing the pipes, and waving the shields and axes in the war dance. Does this do anything to provide food and clothing for the people? I hardly think so...”
13 I.3.3 ch.32: Against Music非樂“民有三患:飢者不得食,寒者不得衣,勞者不得息.三者民之巨患也.然即當為之撞巨鐘,擊鳴鼓,彈琴瑟,吹竽笙,而揚干戚,民衣食之財將安可得乎.即我以為未必然也…”
14 1.3.4 Moists’ Concern Basic needs (food, warmth) for everyone the farmers = the majorityMoists ignore contributions made by any other sectorsUnderstandable:warfare for years.
15 I.3.4 ch.19: Against Offensive Warfare非攻 Denounced offensive warfare for the same reasona burden & an expense to the people, yet no material benefit(M ch. 19) “(The rulers and feudal lords of today) all set about to examine the relative merits of their soldiers, who are their teeth and claws, arrange their boat and chariot forces, and then, clad in strong armor and bearing sharp weapons, they set off to attack some innocent state…When a state which delights in aggressive warfare raises an army, it must have several hundred high officials, several thousand regular officers, and a hundred thousand soldiers, before it can set out. The time required for the expenditure will be several years at the longest, several months at the least…
16 I.3.4 The Teachings of Mozi: Against Offensive Warfare非攻 “…During that time, the leaders will have no time to attend to affairs of government, the officials no time to manage their departments of state, the farmers no time to sow or reap, the women no time to spin or weave. So in this case too the state will lose its fighting men and the common people will be forced to abandon their occupations...”“(今王公大人,天下諸候)必皆差論其爪牙之士,皆列其舟吏之卒伍,於此為堅甲利兵,以往攻伐無罪之國…今不嘗觀其說好攻伐之國,若使中興師,君子庶人也,必且數千,徒倍十萬,然後足以師而動矣.久者數歲,速者數月.是上不暇聽治,士不暇治其官府.農夫不暇稼穡,婦人不暇紡績織紝.則是國家失卒,而百姓易務也…”
17 I.3.5 Against Fatalism非命- Attacked fatalistic thinking :--men should believe that wealth and good fortune came only in response to virtuous deeds.--we have to be good to avoid bad luck
18 I.3.6 “Against Fatalism非命” (M ch.35-37): Mozi’s Way of Argumentation Three criteria (法) for the validity of any theory:1. origin本whether or not it conforms with what we know of the practices of the sage kings of antiquity.2. validity原whether or not it conforms with what we know from the evidence of the senses.3. its applicability用whether, when put into practice, it will bring benefit to the state and the people.
19 I.3.6 Mozi’s Way of Argumentation Mozi does not apply all three in every case, these are the principal criteria upon which he bases his arguments.
20 I.3.6 Analysis: “origin”本 “Of what history proves” may not be the truthdisparate and even contradictory assertionsMozi always cites to ancient legends and myths
21 I.3.6 Analysis: “origin” Most educated Chinese accepted the following: 1. At certain periods in the past, great/ enlightened rulers raised Chinese society to a level of peace, prosperity.2. Through the records in the Book of Poetry and Book of Documents, how these rulers had acted and why.The appeal to antiquity:carried enormous weight in Mozi’s dayEven down to the present century
22 I.3.6 Analysis: “validity” & “applicability” Based on the evidence of the senses are unreliableBUT: wrong perception, hallucinationse.g. ghosts and spirits exist in the worldon the basis that people says: see and hear them.Practicability:whether the policy/rule/theory is useful, advantageousvital in assessment
23 I.3 “Honoring the worthy”尚賢 (ch.8) Rulers’ in Mozi’s time:Ambitous, to expand the borderto employ wise & virtuous men from all classes in their governmentsEmphasis character and ability rather than bloodSame idea in most philosophical schools
24 I.3.8. “Identifying with one’s Superior” Authoritarianism: Chinese tradition (e.g. Moists, Confucians, Legalists etc.)hierarchical social order :pyramid of classesThe King = “Son of Heaven/Tian”天子“a personal God”Till modern time: no one ever dream of challenging this system.
25 I.3.8. “Identifying with one’s Superior” Mozi:each group in society must take orders from the group above itDecisions, in normal times at least, come only from aboveAdvice could, and should flow freely upward the hierarchy.
26 Question: What happen if the top person goes awry? Confucian’s answer:a new leaderrise up from the lower rankreplace the wicked person (disqualified himself for the position by his misrule)his virtues: wins the support of the people and Tian (a vague order of the above)
27 Question: What happen if the top person goes awry? Mozi’s answer:the same process as the ConfuciansBUT pays less attention to the leader as a personThe leader: chosen by God on High (a personal deity), i.e. the supernatural power
28 I.3.9. Mozi’s Religious Views Tribal/ barbarous beliefsbefore Zhou Dynasty e.g. Hsia, Shang Dynastyin the Book of Poetry & the Book of DocumentsThe Lord on High上帝a personal deity:Creates, love, cares allOther ghosts & spirits:to take personal revenge upon enemiesTo protect their families/ friends/ those who helped them
29 I.3.9. Mozi’s Religious Views Since early Zhou peopleno such a personal deitythe Confucians: agnosticismto revitalized the old religious rites (li) by imbuing them with new interpretations (with the ideas like ren, yi)Mozi:back to the simple, pietistic, and fear-ridden faith of antiquityInstrumental/ Purposefulmen will be frightened to do wrongWill be persuaded to love and benefit one another
30 I.3.9. Mozi’s Religious Views (M ch.31) “If we could only make all the people in the world believe that the ghosts and spirits have the power to reward the worthy and punish the wicked, then how could there be any disorder in the world?”(M ch.31) “The way to determine whether something exists or not is to find out whether people actually know from the evidence of their own ears and eyes whether it exists, and us this as a standard. If someone has actually seen it and heard it, then we must assume that it exists… If from antiquity to today, from the beginning of mankind to the present, there have been people who have seen ghostlike and spiritlike beings and heard their voices, then how can we say they do not exist?...“…Therefore Mozi said: Even in deep valleys, the broad forests, the dark and distant places where no one lives, you must not fail to act with sincerity, for the ghosts and spirits will see you even there!”“是與天下之所以察知有與無之道者,必以眾之耳目之實知有與亡為儀者也,請惑聞之見之,則必以為有…自古以及今,生民以來者,亦有嘗見鬼神之物,聞鬼神之聲,則鬼神何謂無乎?”
31 I “Universal Love”兼愛Famous and original among all Chinese thoughts.An ideal: more noble than any other philosophical ideasConfucianism:relational love, starting with the family & extend outMozi:men should love everyone equally, for all are the creatures and people of God
32 I “Universal Love”(M ch.16) “When we inquire into the causes of various harms (at the present time), what do we find has produced them?... They come rather from hating others and trying to injure them. And when we set out to classify and describe those men who hate and injure others, shall we say that their actions are motivated by universality or partiality? Surely we must answer by partiality, and it is this partiality in their dealings with one another that gives rise to all the great harms in the world. Therefore we know that partiality is wrong…Therefore, Mozi said: Partiality should be replaced by universality…“…If men were to regard the states of others as they regard their own, then who would raise up his state to attack the state of another?... If men were to regard the families of others as they regard their own, then who would raise up his family to overthrow that of another?... Now when states and cities do not attack and make war on each other and families and individuals do not overthrow or injure on one another… Surely it is a benefit.”
33 I “Universal Love”兼愛“姑嘗本原若眾害之所自生.必曰,從惡人賊人生.分冬乎天下惡人與賊人者,兼與別與?即必曰,別也.然即之交別者,果生天下之大害者也,是故別非也…故子墨子曰:兼以易別…藉為人之國若為其國,夫誰獨舉其國以攻入之國者哉.為彼者由為己也,為人之家若為其家.夫誰獨舉其家以亂人之家者哉.為彼猶為己也…即必曰:天下之利也…”
34 I.3.10. Discussion on Universal Love: Mozi’s Criteria of Argument Qn: What good is the doctrine of universal love?An: It will bring the greatest benefit to the largest number of people. [criteria 3 : applicability– useful & beneficial]Qn: Can it be put into practice?An: Yes, this is proved by the fact that it was actually practiced by the sage king of antiquity. [criteria 1: origin]Qn: How is it to be put into practice?An: The rulers can be persuaded of its usefulness, and they in turn will enforce it among the people by laws and coercion.
35 I.3.11 Against Confucians非儒: (unreasonable/ illogical rituals in daily practices) (M. ch.39) “(Confucian) code of rites says: “Mourning for a father or mother should last three years; for a wife or eldest son, three years; for a paternal uncle, brother, or younger son, one year; and for other close relatives, five months.” Now if the length of the mourning period is determined by the degree of kinship, then close relatives should be mourned for a long period and distant relative for a short one. Yet the Confucians mourn the same length of time for a wife or eldest son as for a father or mother…“…And in the length of the mourning period is determined by the degree of honor due, then this means that the wife and eldest son are honored the same as the father and mother, while paternal uncles and brothers are placed on the same level as younger sons. What could be more perverse than this?...“When a Confucian takes a wife, he goes to fetch her in person. Wearing a formal black robe, he acts as his own coachman, holding the reins and handing her the cord by which to pull herself up into the carriage, as though he were escorting an honored parent…
36 I.3.11 Against Confucians(M. ch.39) “…The wedding ceremonies are conducted with as much solemnity as the sacrifices to the ancestors. High and low are turned upside down, and parents are disregarded and scorned. Parents are brought down to the level of the wife and the wife is exalted at the expense of service to the parents. How could such conduct be called filial? …“..The Confucians say: ‘One takes a wife in order that she may aid in the sacrifices to the ancestors, and the son who is born of the union will in time become responsible for maintaining the ancestral temple. Therefore the wife and son are highly regarded.’ But we reply that this is false and misleading…
37 I.3.11 Against Confucians(ch.39) “A man’s uncles and older brothers may maintain the temple of the ancestors for many years, and yet when they die the Confucian will mourn for them only one year. The wives of his brother may aid in the sacrifices to the ancestors, and yet when they die he will not mourn for them at all. It is obvious, therefore, that the Confucians do not mourn three years for wives and eldest sons because wives and eldest sons maintain or aid in the sacrifices…“Such concern for one’s wife and son is a troublesome involvement, and in addition the Confucians try to pretend that it is for the sake of their parents. In order to favor those whom they feel the most partiality for, they slight those whom they should respect the most. Is this not the height of perversity?....”
38 I.4.1 Popularity of Moism According to Mencius 6.9: “The words of Yang Zhu and Mo Ti fill the Empire. The teachings current in the Empire are those of either the school of Yang or the school of Mo. Yang advocates everyone for himself, which amounts to a denial of one’s prince; Mo advocates love without discrimination, which amounts to a denial of one’s father. To ignore one’s father on the one hand, and one’s prince on the other, is to be no different from the beasts.”楊朱,墨翟之言盈天下.天下之言不歸楊,則歸墨.楊氏為我,是無君也;墨氏兼愛,是無父也.無君無父,是禽獸也.
39 I.4.2 The Decline of Moism Works of the 3th century B.C.: Mo-ism & Confucianism = the most important philosophical schoolsFrom the 2th century B.C. on (after the unification of the empire under the Chin秦) :not much of the Moist school
40 I.4.2 The Decline of Moism 1. Mozi’s ideas: 2. Mencius Merely practical/ instrumentalinadequate for an entire system of moral philosophy2. Menciuscommented heavily on the prevalence of Moism3. After Mozi’s death:The upper class/wealthy reject Mozi’s frugality and plain livingThe educated (Confucians) reject the ancient legends and religious beliefsThe common people: (before or after Mozi): hold retribution of the spirits
41 I.4.2 End of Moism The Zhuangzi --ch 10, “Tian-jia天下” “(The Mohist philosophy has) no singing in life, no mourning in death, 生不歌,死无服”“It causes the people to be anxious, to be sorrowful, and its ways are hard to follow “(Zhuangzi,)Remains in Moism, almost identical with traditional Confucianism:emphasis upon selecting and promoting worthy men to officeupon the welfare of the common people
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