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Reframing Organizations, 3rd ed.

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Presentation on theme: "Reframing Organizations, 3rd ed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reframing Organizations, 3rd ed.

2 Reframing Change: Training, Realigning, Negotiating and Grieving
Chapter 18 Reframing Change: Training, Realigning, Negotiating and Grieving

3 Reframing Change: Training, Realigning, Negotiating and Grieving
A Common Change Scenario: DDB Bank Reframing Organizational Change Change and Training Change and Realignment Change and Conflict Change and Loss Change Strategy Team Zebra: The Rest of the Story

4 A Common Change Scenario: Thomas Lo at DDB Bank
Profitable bank faced changing environment Thomas Lo recruited to improve service and innovate Lo introduced many changes, but six months later nothing was different Lo encountered lip service, passive resistance, but no overt conflict Familiar story: hopeful beginning, muddle middle, disappointing ending Change strategies that rely on only one or two frames usually fail

5 Table 18.1(a) Reframing Organizational Change
Frame Barriers to Change Essential Strategies Structural Loss of direction, clarity and stability; confusion, chaos Communicating, realigning, and renegotiating formal patterns and policies Human Resource Anxiety, uncertainty People feel incompetent and needy Training to develop new skills; Participation & involvement; Psychological support

6 Table 18.1(b) Reframing Organizational Change
Frame Barriers to Change Essential Strategies Political Disempowerment Conflict between winners & losers Create arenas for negotiating issues, forming new coalitions Symbolic Loss of meaning and purpose; clinging to the past Transition rituals; mourn past, celebrate future

7 Change and Training Change initiatives often fail because employees lack knowledge and skills People resist what they don’t understand, don’t know how to do, or don’t believe in Training, participation and support can increase understanding of why change is needed, as well as skills and confidence needed to implement

8 Change and Realignment
Structural change undermines existing patterns, creating ambiguity, confusion and resistance People don’t know how to get things done or who’s supposed to do what Change efforts need to anticipate structural issues, realign roles and relationships

9 Change and Conflict Change creates winners and losers
Winners support the change and fight for its implementation Losers resist, try to block change effort (and often succeed) Conflicts often are buried, where they smolder and become more unmanageable Successful change requires framing issues, building coalitions, and creating arenas where conflict can be surfaced and agreements negotiated

10 Change and Loss Loss of a cherished symbol produces loss – akin to losing a job or a loved one Change produces conflicting impulses: replay the past vs. plunge into the future Cultures create transition rituals to ease loss Ritual and ceremony are essential to successful change: celebrate or mourn the past and envision the future

11 Kotter: Stages of Effective Change
Create sense of urgency Pull together guiding team with need skills, credibility and connections Create uplifting vision and strategy Communicate vision and strategy through words, deeds, symbols Remove obstacles, empower people to move Create visible progress: early wins Persist when things get tough Nurture and shape new culture to support new ways

12 Reframing Kotter’s Change Model
Kotter stage Structural Human resource Political Symbolic Sense of urgency Involve, solicit input Network with key players Build power base Tell compelling story Build guiding team Coordina-tion strategy Team building Stack team with key players Put CEO on team Uplifting vision, strategy Implemen-tation plan Map political terrain Create vision rooted in past

13 Reframing Kotter’s Change Model
Kotter stage Structural Human resource Political Symbolic Communi-cate through words, deeds, symbols Build structures to support change process Meetings to communi-cate, get feedback Create arenas Build alliances Kickoff ceremonies Visible leadership Remove obstacles, empower Change old structures Training, support, resources Public hangings Early wins Plan for short-term victories Do what it takes to get wins Celebrate early progress

14 Reframing Kotter’s Change Model
Kotter stage Structural Human resource Political Symbolic Keep going when going gets tough Keep people on plan Revival meetings New cul-ture to support new ways Align structure to new culture Create “culture” team Broad involvement in creating new culture Mourn past Celebrate heroes Share stories

15 Team Zebra: The Rest of the Story
Top-down, Bottom-up Structural Design Learning and Training Areas for Venting Conflict Occasions for Letting Go and Celebrating Core values Encouraging rituals Anchoring vision Inventing ceremonies to keep spirit high

16 Conclusion Major organizational change inevitably generates four categories of issues Affects individuals’ ability to feel effective They need training, participation, support Change disrupts existing patterns Structure needs to be realigned Change creates conflict Need arenas to negotiate conflict, reach agreements Change creates loss of meaning for recipients Need transition rituals to mourn past and celebrate future

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