Presentation on theme: "10/22/2008 – FTI Universitas Budi Luhur 1 Jim Michael Widi, S.Kom."— Presentation transcript:
10/22/2008 – FTI Universitas Budi Luhur 1 Jim Michael Widi, S.Kom.
An Entrepreneur is a person who is willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation.invention innovation Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations or revitalizing mature organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response to identified opportunities. organizations businesses Entrepreneurship is often a difficult undertaking, as a vast majority of new businesses fail. Entrepreneurial activities are substantially different depending on the type of organization that is being started. 10/22/2008 – FTI Universitas Budi Luhur 2 Jim Michael Widi, S.Kom.
Entrepreneurship forces "creative destruction" across markets and industries, simultaneously creating new products and business models. In this way, creative destruction is largely responsible for the dynamism of industries and long-run economic growth.creative destructionbusiness modelseconomic growth 10/22/2008 – FTI Universitas Budi Luhur Jim Michael Widi, S.Kom. 3
For Frank H. Knight (1967) and Peter Drucker (1970) entrepreneurship is about taking risk. The behavior of the entrepreneur reflects a kind of person willing to put his or her career and financial security on the line and take risks in the name of an idea, spending much time as well as capital on an uncertain venture. Knight classified three types of uncertainty.Frank H. KnightPeter Druckerrisk capital Risk, which is measurable statistically (such as the probability of drawing a red color ball from a jar containing 5 red balls and 5 white balls). Ambiguity, which is hard to measure statistically (such as the probability of drawing a red ball from a jar containing 5 red balls but with an unknown number of white balls). True Uncertainty or Knight an Uncertainty, which is impossible to estimate or predict statistically (such as the probability of drawing a red ball from a jar whose number of red balls is unknown as well as the number of other colored balls). 10/22/2008 – FTI Universitas Budi Luhur Jim Michael Widi, S.Kom. 4
David McClelland (1961) described the entrepreneur as primarily motivated by an overwhelming need for achievement and strong urge to build. David McClelland Collins and Moore (1970) studied 150 entrepreneurs and concluded that they are tough, pragmatic people driven by needs of independence and achievement. They seldom are willing to submit to authority. Bird (1992) sees entrepreneurs as mercurial, that is, prone to insights, brainstorms, deceptions, ingeniousness and resourcefulness. they are cunning, opportunistic, creative, and unsentimental. Cooper, Woo, & Dunkelberg (1988) argue that entrepreneurs exhibit extreme optimism in their decision-making processes. In a study of 2004 entrepreneurs they report that 81% indicate their personal odds of success as greater than 70% and a remarkable 33% seeing odds of success of 10 out of 10. 10/22/2008 – FTI Universitas Budi Luhur 5 Jim Michael Widi, S.Kom.
Busenitz and Barney (1997) claim entrepreneurs are prone to overconfidence and over generalisations. Cole (1959) found there are four types of entrepreneur: the innovator, the calculating inventor, the over-optimistic promoter, and the organization builder. These types are not related to the personality but to the type of opportunity the entrepreneur faces. Jon Fisher (2008) found entrepreneurs to be opportunistic favoring a liquidity event in the shortest amount of time. Jon Fisher An entrepreneur is a person who has possession over a company, enterprise, or venture, and assumes significant accountability for the inherent risks and the outcome. The term is a loanword from French and was first defined by the Irish economist Richard Cantillon. enterpriseventureloanwordFrenchRichard Cantillon Entrepreneur in English is a term applied to the type of personality who is willing to take upon herself or himself a new venture or enterprise and accepts full responsibility for the outcome. In common understanding it is taken as describing a dynamic personality. 10/22/2008 – FTI Universitas Budi Luhur 6 Jim Michael Widi, S.Kom.
An Entrepreneur is an individual who efficiently and effectively combines factors of production. Those factors include land (natural resources), labor (human input into production using available resources), capital (any type of equipment used in production i.e. machinery), intelligence, knowledge, and creativity. factors of productionland Entrepreneurship is often difficult and tricky, as many new ventures fail. Entrepreneur is often synonymous with founder. Most commonly, the term entrepreneur applies to someone who creates value by offering a product or service. Entrepreneurs often have strong beliefs about a market opportunity and organize their resources effectively to accomplish an outcome that changes existing interactions. Entrepreneurship Business entrepreneurs are viewed as fundamentally important in the capitalistic society. Some distinguish business entrepreneurs as either "political entrepreneurs" or "market entrepreneurs," while social entrepreneurs' principal objectives include the creation of a social and/or environmental benefit. capitalisticpolitical entrepreneurssocial entrepreneurs Business entrepreneurs who adhere to Cultural Creative values are defined as innerpreneurs as their principal objectives include personal development and social change.Cultural Creative 10/22/2008 – FTI Universitas Budi Luhur 7 Jim Michael Widi, S.Kom.
An entrepreneur is someone who attempts to organize resources in new and more valuable ways and accepts full responsibility for the outcome. Entrepreneurs have many of the same character traits as leaders, similar to the early great man theories of leadership; however trait-based theories of entrepreneurship are increasingly being called into question. Entrepreneursleadersgreat man theories Entrepreneurs are often contrasted with managers and administrators who are said to be more methodical and less prone to risk-taking. An Entrepreneur is a person who is willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation.invention innovation 10/22/2008 – FTI Universitas Budi Luhur 8 Jim Michael Widi, S.Kom.
The entrepreneur has an enthusiastic vision, the driving force of an enterprise. The entrepreneur's vision is usually supported by an interlocked collection of specific ideas not available to the marketplace. The overall blueprint to realize the vision is clear, however details may be incomplete, flexible, and evolving. The entrepreneur promotes the vision with enthusiastic passion. With persistence and determination, the entrepreneur develops strategies to change the vision into reality. The entrepreneur takes the initial responsibility to cause a vision to become a success. Entrepreneurs take prudent risks. They assess costs, market/customer needs and persuade others to join and help. An entrepreneur is usually a positive thinker and a decision maker. An entrepreneur needs inspiration, motivation and sensibility. 10/22/2008 – FTI Universitas Budi Luhur Jim Michael Widi, S.Kom. 9
Develop new markets. Under the modern concept of marketing, markets are people who are willing and able to satisfy their needs. In Economics, this is called effective demand. Entrepreneurs are resourceful and creative. They can create customers or buyers. This makes entrepreneurs different from ordinary businessmen who only perform traditional functions of management like planning, organization, and coordination. Discover new sources of materials. Entrepreneurs are never satisfied with traditional or existing sources of materials. Due to their innovative nature, they persist on discovering new sources of materials to improve their enterprises. In business, those who can develop new sources of materials enjoy a comparative advantage in terms of supply, cost and quality. Mobilize capital resources. Entrepreneurs are the organizers and coordinators of the major factors of production, such as land labor and capital. They properly mix these factors of production to create goods and service. Capital resources, from a layman's view, refer to money. However, in economics, capital resources represent machines, buildings, and other physical productive resources. Entrepreneurs have initiative and self-confidence in accumulating and mobilizing capital resources for new business or business expansion. 10/22/2008 – FTI Universitas Budi Luhur Jim Michael Widi, S.Kom. 10
Introduce new technologies, new industries and new products. Aside from being innovators and reasonable risk-takers, entrepreneurs take advantage of business opportunities, and transform these into profits. So, they introduce something new or something different. Such entrepreneurial spirit has greatly contributed to the modernization of economies. Every year, there are new technologies and new products. All of these are intended to satisfy human needs in a more convenient and pleasant way. Create employment. The biggest employer is the private business sector. Millions of jobs are provided by the factories, service industries, agricultural enterprises, and the numerous small-scale businesses. For instance, the super department stores like SM, Uniwide, Robinson and others employ thousands of workers. Likewise giant corporations like SMC, Ayala and Soriano group of companies are great job creators. Such massive employment has multiplier and accelerator effects in the whole economy. More jobs mean more incomes. This increases demand for goods and services. This stimulates production. Again, more production requires more employment. 10/22/2008 – FTI Universitas Budi Luhur Jim Michael Widi, S.Kom. 11
Every successful entrepreneur brings about benefits not only for himself/ herself but for the municipality, region or country as a whole. The benefits that can be derived from entrepreneurial activities are as follows: Enormous personal financial gain Self-employment, offering more job satisfaction and flexibility of the work force Employment for others, often in better jobs Development of more industries, especially in rural areas or regions disadvantaged by economic changes, for example due to globalization effects Encouragement of the processing of local materials into finished goods for domestic consumption as well as for export Income generation and increased economic growth Healthy competition thus encourages higher quality products 10/22/2008 – FTI Universitas Budi Luhur Jim Michael Widi, S.Kom. 12
More goods and services available Development of new markets Promotion of the use of modern technology in small-scale manufacturing to enhance higher productivity Encouragement of more researches/ studies and development of modern machines and equipment for domestic consumption Development of entrepreneurial qualities and attitudes among potential entrepreneurs to bring about significant changes in the rural areas Freedom from the dependency on the jobs offered by others The ability to have great accomplishments Reduction of the informal economy Emigration of talent may be stopped by a better domestic entrepreneurship climate 10/22/2008 – FTI Universitas Budi Luhur Jim Michael Widi, S.Kom. 13