Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Civil War. Two Nations  The Case Against Slavery  Slavery violated basic foundation of US  Prejudice – unreasonable and unfavorable opinion of.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Civil War. Two Nations  The Case Against Slavery  Slavery violated basic foundation of US  Prejudice – unreasonable and unfavorable opinion of."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Civil War

2 Two Nations  The Case Against Slavery  Slavery violated basic foundation of US  Prejudice – unreasonable and unfavorable opinion of a group  Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beacher Stowe  Epitome of slavery and northerners feelings  Southern Views on Slavery  Spoke out against Northerners  Argued that leaders had slaves so cant be all bad

3 Annexation of Texas  1836 – Texans voted to annex(join) the US  South and Dems wanted to make it a slave state  North and Whigs didn’t want South to have more power  Thought annexing lead to war with Mexico  Santa Anna threatened in 1843  Annexation approved Feb 1845

4 War with Mexico  Dispute over Southern boarder  Pres. Polk wanted more than just Texas  Sent Ambassador Slidell to buy NM and CA for $30 mil  Mexico wouldn’t let him in  Polk sent 3000 troops under Zachery Taylor  Declared war May 13, 1846

5 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo  Feb 2, 1848  Four Concessions  Mexico loses TX to Rio Grande River  Mexico loses part of NM and CA  US pay 15 million  US pays damage claims of citizens (3 mil)  Five years later – Gadsden Purchase – NM & AZ (10mil)  Opened west for expansion  Left Mexicans bitter

6 Effects of the Missouri Compromise  Many problems since signed in 1820  Only dealt with states not territories  New Mexican territory was south of 36 degrees

7 Compromise of 1850  Clay Proposes a compromise  3 Key players  John Calhoun of SC  Daniel Webster of Mass.  Henry Clay of Kentucky

8  Clay proposes five laws to help with slavery 1. CA admitted as a free state 2. NM & UT can decide on slavery 3. Abolish sale of slaves, but not slavery in DC 4. TX would give up claim to NM for $10 mil 5. Fugitive Slave Act – All people required to help return any runaway slaves, slaves do not get jury trial

9 The Kansas-Nebraska Act  Sen. Stephen Douglas of Illinois  Wanted new states linked to Chicago by RR  Wanted to be president  2 new non slave states would anger South  January 1854  Popular sovereignty – let people in territory decide slavery  Wanted to repeal Missouri Compromise  Passed – north hated it, Douglas = sellout

10 The Creation of the Republican Party  Northerners were outraged by KNA  Created Republican Party to fight “Slave Power”

11  John Brown – God’s instrument to end slavery  May 24, 1856 killed 5 proslavery men and looted  Many more raids and counter raids “Bleeding Kansas”

12 Bleeding Sumner  Violence spread to the capitol  Charles Sumner gave speech on crimes in Kansas  Insulted the Southerners esp. Andrew Butler of SC  Preston Brooks, his nephew was mad  Approached Sumner’s desk and beat him with cane  Sumner never recovered  Northerners were outraged

13 The Dread Scott Decision  March 1857  Dread Scott filed against his master  Once lived in free areas = that made him free  Ruled 7 to 2 against Scott  Slavery are property not people, so cant sue  Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional  Cant be free just being in a free place

14 Lincoln-Douglas Debates  Stephen Douglas of Kansas-Nebraska Act  Douglas –Little Giant, short, stout, white supremacy  Competing against little known Abraham Lincoln  7 Debates  Lincoln – lawyer, tall, awkward, thin, quiet, plain clothes  Debated 2 ideas – majority rule and minority rights  Lincoln – slavery is bad, majority cant deny minority their rights  1858 – Douglas won senate seat

15 John Brown’s Raid  Oct 16, 1859 – attack on federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VA  Wanted to give weapons to slaves  Dreamed of huge uprising  Col. Robert E. Lee defended the arsenal  Killed half of Brown’s men  Brown was hanged  Seen as a martyr

16 Election of 1860  Dem Party met to choose nominee  Slavery was main issue  Southern delegates left to choose own nominee  Whig and American Parties met in Baltimore  Became Constitutional Union Party  Republicans met in Chicago  Chose Abraham Lincoln  Election showed N/S line  Lincoln’s name not on most Southern ballots  Won 39% of vote and 180 Electoral votes

17

18 Lower South Secedes  Mad that Lincoln won without any southern votes  Southerners wanted to leave the Union  Secessionists – thought who wanted South to secede  States choose to join so can choose to leave  South Carolina leaves December 20, 1860  6 more joined  Confederate States of America  President Jefferson Davis

19 The War Starts – Last Minute Compromises Fail  Many believe secession was illegal  Tried to compromise over slavery  Lincoln – secession was wrong but slavery couldn’t expand  Had to focus on laws of country

20 Fort Sumter  Charleston, SC April 1861  SC left union but troops still at Sumter  Confederate Forces wouldn’t allow supplies in  Tried to resupply for weeks  Gen Beauregard took by force  Beginning of Civil War

21 The Upper South Secedes  Lincoln had to respond to Sumter  Called for volunteers for the Army  Upper South (VA, NC, TN, AR) left

22 Strengths of the North  2x Railroad  2x manufacturing  More money  Functions government  2/3rds of pop lived there  Could have army and maintain economy  Fighting evil

23 Strengths of the South  Most trained officers  Had to maintain defense to win  Moral preservation

24 Union Military Strategies  Navel blockade of South  Use troops and gun boats on Mississippi River  Gen Winfield Scott’s plan – Anaconda Plan  Seized Confed capital of Richmond

25 Confederate War Strategies  Prepare and wait  War of attrition – one side inflicts losses until other gives up  Stopped export of cotton  Thought Europe would miss it and aid them  Europe turned to India cotton  Blockade let nothing out  No exports = no money = no weapons

26 Tactics and Technology  Old style war wasn't going to work  New bullets went straighter  Rifles sent bullets 5x further  Shells- devices that exploded in air or against something  Canister – shell filled with bullets

27 The Battle of Antietam  General Robert E. Lee wanted to invade North  Antietam, Maryland September 17  South outnumbered more than 2 to 1  In 3 hours losses – Union 12000, Confed 14000

28 Politics in the South Mobilizing for War  Lee calls for draft  3 yrs of service for white males 18-35  Age range became 50 years old  Gov took control of economy  1/10 th of farmers product given to the Gov  Male slaves could be seized for military

29 The North’s Mobilization  Financial Measures  1861 – 1 st federal income tax passed  Tax on liquor, tobacco, medicine, newspaper  Most taxes repealed after war  Congress created National currency = greenbacks  Not backed by gold  Opposition to the War  Had draft, too  Riots against it  Copperheads – Dems who opposed war and republican power

30 Emancipation and The War  Lincoln and Slavery  Didn’t think it was his duty to end slavery  Saw it as a war time strategy  Emancipation Proclamation  January 1 st, 1863  Freed the slaves  Reaction to Proclamation  Upset only freed slaves in Confed areas controlled by Union  South condemned it  Europe saw it as a chance to get away from the South

31 African Americans Join the War  The Contraband Issue  Left behind slaves taken by Union Army  Contraband – captured items became property of taker  Union Army employed newly freed slaves  African American Soldiers  1865 – 180,000 AAs in the Union Army  ½ were freed Southern Slaves  All black regiments formed

32 The Hardships of War Changes  E.P and black troops changed slaves in the South  Escaped or hindered plantation work  Men off fighting, women were running things

33 The Southern Economy  Food shortages  Less people farming because off fighting  Looting and riots at bakeries  Industrial manufacturing did grow to make weapons  Mostly women workers  Inflation made profiteers rich

34 The Northern Economy  Industry got bigger, especially war related  Women workers paid less = more profit

35 Prison Camps  Captured prisoners treated well over all  Andersonville – 26 acre field to hold 10,000 men  35,000 housed, 100 a day died

36 Medical Care  1/4 th soldiers didn’t survive  Disease killed most  3x more likely to die in camp than battle  Doctors didn’t clean instruments  Clara Barton  Collected supplies for the field  “Angel of the battlefield”  Founded the Red Cross  4000 women became field nurses  Set up sanitation commission to clean camps

37 The Battle of Gettysburg  Union had low morale due to huge losses  South was short on supplies marching North  Wanted win on Union land  Needed shoes – supply in Gettysburg, PA

38 July 1, 1863  Gunfire drew both sides units to town  Gen George Meade – new Union Gen arrived  Armies took up position on hills 4 miles long  Union line – Cemetery Ridge  Confed line – Seminary Ridge

39 July 2, 1863  Confed attacked at 4pm instead of 6am  Fought into the night  When out of ammo, used bayonets

40 July 3, 1863  Early morning scuffle  1pm – 150 Confed cannons started firing  Infantry rushed center of Union line  Pickett's Charge – 15000 Confeds mile long, 3 deep  Union fired canister shells  30 min later – no men left  Losses – Union 23000, Confed 28000  Lee lost 1/3 rd of his army  Bloodiest battle of the Civil War

41 Importance of 1863  July 4, 1863 – turning day of the war  Lee’s army was small and shrinking  Union kept taking Confed forts  Calls for peace began

42 The Gettysburg Address  Nov 19, 1863 – 15,000 came  Dedication of cemetery  Featured Edward Everett – famous Public Speaker  Gave 2 hour intro to Pres. Lincoln  Lincoln spoke for 2 minutes  War was terrible & Union needed to be restored

43 Grant Takes Command - 1864  South’s strategies – hold on, especially to Richmond  Election in Nov, thought Lincoln would be replaced  Lincoln put Grant in control of Army

44 Sherman in Georgia  Same plan as Grant’s  Had 98000 troops  Plan to seize Atlanta

45 The Capture of Atlanta  Opponent was Gen Joseph Johnston  Tried to hold Sherman back until November  By July, Union 3 miles from ATL  Pres. Davis replaced Johnston with Hood  Engaged Union but soon retreated to ATL  After month of Siege, Sherman won

46 Sherman Marches to the Sea  Plan to capture Savannah  Burned down Atlanta and left  Made 300 mile path of destruction  December 21, entered city

47 The Election of 1864  Lincoln assumed he’d be beaten  Had to fight Fremont for Republican nomination  Dems chose Gen. George McClellan  Lincoln won 212 of 233 EV

48 A New Birth of Freedom  Feb 1865 – 13 th Amendment passed  Ended slavery forever

49 The End of the War Sherman Moves North  Left Savannah for SC  SC seen as heart of rebellion  Wanted to destroy resources and crush South’s will  Demolished everything in its way  Feb 17 – Columbia burned down

50 Surrender at Appomattox  Desertions rose rapidly  Lee and 35000 went to meet Johnston’s troops  Lee disbanded and told to fight as guerrillas  Lee and Grant met in a private home  Talked briefly – weather, families  Surrender Terms  South Soldiers can go home  Won’t be tried as long as they obey laws  Freed soldiers in camps

51 Lincoln Is Assassinated  Southern troops surrender through Aprils  Southern conspirators lead by John Wilkes Booth  Plan – kidnap Lincoln in exchange for Confed prisoners  Unsuccessful so plan changed to murder

52  April 14, 1865 @ Ford’s Theater  Shot Lincoln and jumped to stage, broke leg, ran

53  Refused to surrender and was shot  Lincoln died the next day  Funeral Train – 14 days to Springfield, IL


Download ppt "The Civil War. Two Nations  The Case Against Slavery  Slavery violated basic foundation of US  Prejudice – unreasonable and unfavorable opinion of."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google