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Introduction to Humanities Lecture 7a The Roman Republic By David Kelsey.

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1 Introduction to Humanities Lecture 7a The Roman Republic By David Kelsey

2 The Legend of Romulus & Remus The legend of Romulus & Remus: – Romulus and Remus were twin sons of Mars, god of war – Amulius, King Numitor’s wicked brother, stole the throne. He then ordered the infants Romulus and Remus set adrift down the Tiber river. – After being rescued they then subsequently avenged Amulius, killing him and restoring Numitor to the throne. – They fulfilled their destiny by establishing a mighty city on the seven hills by the Tiber. – Romulus later murders Remus after a dispute. Then Romulus raised an army and seized control of the lands, then founded Rome in 753 BC.

3 The Geography of Rome The Geography of Rome and Italy: – Italy is 750 miles north to south, averaging 120 miles across, Apennine mountains run from north to south… – Rome is located on a flat plain called the Po Valley which is ideal for farming – To the east is the Adriatic sea, to the west is the Tyrrhenian sea and the islands of Corsica and Sardinia with the island of Sicily to the south – Italy lies in the midst of the Mediterranean, making it an important center of trade and commerce Rome: – a central location in Italy, which aided in trade, it was also very defensible as it was located 18 miles inland on 7 hills

4 The Geography of Italy & Rome Source:

5 The Geography of Italy Source:

6 Greek influences The Greeks: – The Greeks colonized southern Italy and Sicily between 750 and 550 B.C. Naples and Tarentum and Sicily; The Greeks built walled cities; – The Greeks gave the Romans their alphabetic system of writing, their architecture, sculpture and literature. Roman culture was a continuation of Greek culture. – This is why Roman culture is called Greco-Roman

7 Differences in Values Differences in value: – The Greeks were everything the Romans weren’t: artistic, theoretic, intellectual, sophisticated and always seeking the good life. – The Romans were rigid, pragmatic, self righteous and stressed manly virtues, physical prowess and duty to the state. – The Romans saw themselves as destined for world leadership. They were no-nonsense practical people with values of thrift, honesty, loyalty and dedication to hard work. They weren’t interested in abstractions or theory. Duty to golden Rome was the noblest of all virtue.

8 The Etruscans The Etruscans: – Had settled north of Rome in Etruria – Established towns fortified by walls – After 650 B.C. the Etruscans controlled most of the peninsula, including Rome – By the beginning of the 6 th century, Rome began to emerge as a city; – By 575 B.C. the Etruscans had constructed the first street through Rome, the Sacred Way; The Etruscans also created temples, markets, shops, streets and houses – In 509 B.C. the Etruscan monarchy of Rome was overthrown: – the story is that the son of the Etruscan king had raped a Roman woman of great virtue who then proceeded to tell her family and subsequently commit suicide. In revenge the Roman nobles drove the king and his family from Rome… Impact of Etrusans on the Romans: – The Toga and short cloak – Their alphabet

9 Map of Early Rome Source of image:

10 The Roman Republic The Roman Republic: – 509-264 B.C. – The Romans had conquered all of Italy by 264 BC – For the first 100 years of Roman civilization it was engaged in almost continual conflict with its Italian neighbors including the Etruscans to the north and the Sabines, Volscians and Aequi to the east and south – By 338 B.C. Rome had controlled the plains of Latium; during the next 50 years the Romans were in conflict with the Samnites… – After conquering the Samnites, the Romans came into conflict with the Greek states in southern Italy. The Greek states hired a professional army. They sought the aid of the King of Epirus who with 20,000 troops defeated the Romans twice in 267 B.C. the King came back for a third battle and was easily defeated – The Romans then conquered the Etruscans to the north and by 264 B.C. controlled all of Italy except for the far north

11 Map of Rome after conquering Italy The Roman empire had conquered Italy by 264 BC. – By 264 B.C. the Romans had developed fortified towns at all strategic locations on the peninsula along with roads connecting them… – The latin peoples that were conquered were granted Roman citizenship; – The rest were made allies but were required to provide soldiers for Rome’s army. Image to right: map of Roman empire 264 B.C. Source of image:

12 Carthage Carthage: – After conquering Italy, the Romans came into conflict with Carthage – Carthage was founded in 800 B.C. – Carthage had a full aristocratic government including governors, generals who lead the military, a senate and judges who prevented tyranny – By the 3 rd century B.C. their empire included the coast of north Africa, southern Spain, Sadinia, Corsica and western Sicily. Image to right: Map of Carthage and Rome before the 1 st Punic War. Source of image: "First Punic War 264 BC" by Jon Platek, found on

13 The First Punic War 264-241 BC – Began when Rome intervened in a struggle between 2 Sicilian cities; the Carthaginians considered this part of their empire and so attacked Rome – The war was fought to gain control of Sicily – The Romans developed a navy to end the war more quickly – A long struggle with both sides losing battles in North Africa and Sicily – The Carthaginians had difficulty finding mercenaries to maintain their effort in the war – In 242 B.C., a Roman fleet defeated the Carthaginian navy off the coast of Sicily and the war quickly comes to an end – As a result, Carthage gives up all rights to Sicily and must pay a tax to Rome – 3 years later Rome conquers the Carthaginian territories of Sardinia and Corsica

14 The Second Punic War The Second Punic War: – Following the first Punic War, the emperor Hamilcar Barca leads Carthage to a recovery Their empire is extended to Spain They again build a strong land army – In 221 B.C. Hamilcar’s son Hannibal takes control of Carthage – In 218 B.C., Saguntum, a Carthaginian Spanish state, made an alliance with Rome In response Hannibal attacks Saguntum The Romans then declare war on Carthage Hannibal: Source:

15 Roman territory before the 2 nd Punic War Source:

16 The Second Punic War with Carthage The Second Punic War: – 218-201 BC – Hannibal attacks Rome in Italy – Hannibal enters the continent from Southern Spain and crosses the Alps with an army of 35000 men, 6000 horses and elephants and advanced into northern Italy. – Hannibals forces defeat the Romans at the Trebia river upon which he adds 1000’s of Gauls to his army – At Lake Trasimene in Etruria, Hannibal again defeats the Romans – In 216 B.C. the Romans and Carthaginians meet at Cannae. Hannibal’s army devastates the Roman army…

17 Hannibal’s march in the Second Punic War Hannibal’s march: Source of image: "Hannibal route of invasion-en" by Abalg + traduction made by Pinpin. Found on

18 The Second Punic War After Hannibal’s march: – Hannibal doesn’t have the men left or supplies needed to lay siege to the Roman cities, including Rome itself – So Rome makes a recovery The Romans begin to re-conquer some of the Italian cities the Romans also had pushed Carthage out of Spain by 206 B.C. – In 204 B.C. the Roman general Scipio lead the Roman army from Sicily into north Africa and forced the Carthaginians to recall Hannibal from Italy. – At the battle of Zama in 202 B.C. Scipio decisively defeats Hannibal and the war is over – After the battle of Zama, Hannibal escapes and later kills himself. His final words “Let us free Rome of her dread of one old man.” – A peace treaty is signed in 201 B.C. – Carthage loses Spain and it becomes a Roman province.

19 Battles fought during the 2 nd Punic War Source:

20 The Roman Empire after the 2 nd Punic War Source:

21 The Third Punic War The Third Punic War: – Begins in 149 BC – Marcus Porcius Cato, senator, consul and censor was the prime instigator of the third punic war After delivering a speech to the senate he always concluded by saying ‘and Carthage must be destroyed’ – Carthage was unprepared for the fight – Like armed robbery, Carthage was captured, demolished and the area sown with salt – The territory of Carthage is made a province of Rome called Africa

22 Roman Imperialism Roman Imperialism: – The Second Macedonian war occurs between 200-196 BC. The Roman army helps Greece win the war against the Macedonian army thereby freeing the greek city states.. – Macedonia is made a Roman province in 148 B.C. – In 146 B.C. some of the Greek states rise in revolt against Rome’s restrictive policies. So Rome destroys the city of Corinth, the leader of the revolt. Greece was then placed under the control of the Roman governor of Macedonia. – In 133 B.C. the king of Pergamum deeds his kingdom to Rome – Rome now controls the Mediterranean

23 Map of Roman Empire after Imperialism Source:

24 Politics during the Republic Key People in Roman Politics: – 2 consuls were elected annually. The 2 consuls administered the government and lead the army into battle. The consuls had imperium, meaning executive authority… – In 366 B.C. the office of Praetor was created. The Praetor also possessed imperium and could govern Rome or lead the army when the consuls weren’t available. – The Praetor was primarily in charge the Roman legal system though… In 242 B.C. a second Praetor was added to judge cases which involved non-citizens. As the Roman empire grew, additional Praetors were added. – The office of Quaestors assisted in the administration of financial affairs. – The office of Aediles supervised the public games and the city’s grain supply.

25 More on politics during the republic More on Politics during the republic: – The Senate: consisted of about 300 men who served for life. Couldn’t create law Only advised the consuls and praetors. Consisted of respected and wise aristocrats so their advice had nearly the force of law – The Centuriate assembly: The wealthiest Romans Elected the consuls and praetors Could pass laws – The Council of Plebs was created in 471 B.C. to speak on behalf of the poor.

26 Family Order Family order: – The family was the basis of Roman society – The head of the family was called the paterfamilias – The Paterfamilias had unlimited power – When a father died his sons became the Paterfamilias of their own families – Families were grouped into gentes, those bearing the same ancestors and the same family name.

27 Social Class The structure of Social classes: – Patricians: Families who were descended from the original senators from the beginnings of Roman history. The aristocratic wealthy Only Patricians could be Consuls, Praetors, members of the senate or the assembly – Plebians: The majority of Romans… The poor and vulnerable Consisted in addition of non-patrician large landowners, less wealthy land owners, artisans, merchants and farmers Considered citizens but didn’t possess the full rights that the Patricians did

28 Conflict between Plebians and Patricians Conflict between Plebians and Patricians: – The Plebians did not possess the same rights as Patricians – Only Patricians could hold government offices. – In addition, intermarriage between Plebs and Patricians was not permitted. – But the Plebians wanted political equality. – In 494 the Plebians revolted by withdrawing physically from Rome.

29 Resolving the conflict between Plebs & Patricians Resolving the conflict between Plebs & Patricians: – The Patricians responded by creating two new offices of Tribune of the Plebs. Protected the Plebians against arrest by Patrician officials. – The council of the Plebs was also created in 471 B.C. The council proposed law to the Tribunes who then could pass the law But these laws only applied to Plebs The Twelve tables of Law: – Published in 450 B.C. after the Plebs demanded equality before the law – Included legal procedures for going to court, laws on family and divorce, harm to others…

30 Greco-Roman culture Greco-Roman culture: – Beginning in the 3 rd century BC Greek culture began to have a heavy influence on Roman culture – Greek merchants and artisans traveled to Rome and spread Greek thought and practice – After the Roman conquests of the Hellenistic kingdoms, many Greek manuscripts and art were shipped back to Rome. – Greek slaves – Wealthy Romans hired Greek tutors and sent their sons to Athens to study. – Horace: “Captive Greece took captive her rude conqueror.” – Romans studied Greek literature, philosophy, art and religion

31 Roman art Roman art: – As Rome began to conquer the Greek world, Roman sculpture became an extension of the Hellenstic style… – With their no-nonsense approach to reality, the Romans insisted upon an exactitude that included every blemish. – Roman sculpture was naturalistic not idealistic… – By the 2 nd century B.C., most of the sculptors in the Empire were Greeks, often slaves – Greek statues were imported to Rome – Portraiture is one of the only themes that uniquely characterize Roman sculpture – Also would often produce sculpture in relief, in recognition of important figures such as Marcus Aurelius

32 Roman sculpture Altar of Augustan Peace: – An altar in Rome dedicated to the Roman goddess of peace – Commissioned in 13 BC by the Roman senate to honor the return of Augustus from Gaul Source: The Arch of Constantine: – Next to the Coliseum in Rome – Commissioned in 315 AD by the Roman senate to honor Constantine for his victory at the battle of Milivan Bridge Source:

33 Roman portraiture 2 examples of Roman portraiture: – In each example we see an almost harshly realistic portrait, which is like the Hellenistic style… – The first sculpture is of an anonymous elderly man and dates to the 1 st century B.C. – The second sculpture is a portrait bust of a bearded man dating to sometime around 30 BC. It again depicts a naturalistic style Source of images: &

34 Religion during the Roman Republic Religion during the Roman Republic: – The religion of the republic was polytheistic, including a pantheon of Gods – Now known as Paganism – It consisted of household Gods and earthly spirits – Pagan means country dweller; it is used to describe people who followed the old Roman religion

35 The Importance of Ritual Ritual: – Romans worshipped the Gods because humans were thought to be totally dependent on them. – Ritual was important for establishing a good relationship with the Gods – If the ritual was performed correctly Romans would obtain ‘Peace with the Gods’. – The college of pontiffs: Maintained the right relationship between the state and the Gods Performed all public religious acts. The head of the College was the Pontifex Maximus. This person controlled the state religion. Beginning with Julius Caesar, all emperors held this position until 381 AD

36 The Roman Pantheon of Gods More on Roman religion: The Romans adopted the Gods of other religions – The Greek pantheon of Gods were given Roman names Aphrodite (represented beauty and love) became Venus (bringer of good fortune) Athena (goddess of wisdom) became Minerva (goddess of learning and handicrafts) Poseidon (god of the sea) became Neptune (god of water) Zeus (head God) became Jupiter (governor of the world and gods.) – Jupiter was the patron deity of Rome… The Egyptians and Persians: – Egypt contributed Isis (nature and magic) – The Persians contributed Ahuramazda (lord of life), and Ahriman, (lord of death)

37 The Roman Pantheon of Gods The Roman Pantheon of Gods: Source:

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