Presentation on theme: " Activating Prior Knowledge and Motivating Students to Read Making Reading Worthwhile."— Presentation transcript:
Activating Prior Knowledge and Motivating Students to Read Making Reading Worthwhile
Agenda Humor: The Traffic Stop Quiz Vocabulary “Jeopardy” PART I: Helping to Engage Students in Reading and Motivating Them to Read (Setting the Stage) PART II: Engaging Students with Reading
Vocabulary Jeopardy Divide into three teams, each with its own unique “sound” for a buzzer. Follow the rules of Jeopardy (review these if necessary) Have a scorekeeper
Motivation to Read MAIN PURPOSE OF TODAY’S DISCUSSION Getting students to read is the first task of all content area teachers How can we motivate students?
Self-Efficacy Self-Efficacy: students must believe that they are capable of doing a task before they can be motivated to do it What tasks might you have not undertaken (or were reluctant to undertake) because you did not believe you were capable of doing it?
Self-Efficacy Students must sometimes be shown that they can do the task (Zone of Proximal Development) Task may be just out of their ability at present (without the teacher’s help)
Self-Efficacy Self-Efficacy: Students’ first reaction to the reading of many academic texts—their learned ‘default’ to content area reading—is that the text is incomprehensible. They lack self-efficacy They have an external locus on control; they blame their inability to understand upon the author of the text and upon you, the teacher rather than upon themselves and the need for repeated efforts to develop understanding
Self-Efficacy Self-Efficacy: Teachers can help students develop self-efficacy in reading (and thus motivate them to read) through a variety of strategies
Helping Students Engage with Texts Most Important Pre-reading Questions for Students: What do I need to know? How well do I know this already? What knowledge helps me understand this material? What’s this all about? What’s its relevance in the “real” world?
Arousing Curiosity Arousing Curiosity and Activating Prior Knowledge are often synonymous We are curious about things when we anticipate what they might hold/reveal We are most curious about something when we have expectations about that thing:
Arousing Curiosity Example: Rubbernecking Why is it that virtually all of us want to slow down and look at accidents on the highway? And why is it that some people get angry when they see no accident or find out the accident was minor?
Arousing Curiosity Example: Horror Movies Why is it that many of us watch horror films when we know what the gruesome outcome is going to be and despite the fact that fear is one of the feelings all living creatures most dread? Why go to a movie that is likely to give you nightmares?
Arousing Curiosity Example: Mystery Novels Why is it that many of us seek out mystery novels instead of nonfiction texts, learning texts, self-help books when we know what the outcome will be (that the protagonist will, against all odds, figure it all out)? Why do we read multiple novels by the same author using the same conventions over and over?
Arousing Curiosity Example: Television Shows Why is it that many of us continue to watch mystery shows when a) they are stressful, b) we know that the ‘hero’ of the show can’t die or be caught (because the show would end)?
Arousing Curiosity Answer We do all of these things—and many more—because we are curious as to what is to come. We want to see how a problem is solved; we want to know the answers to complex problems. We want to live vicariously through the characters we see on the screen.
Arousing Curiosity – NOT Non-Example: Textbooks& Classroom Materials Students often equate textbooks as antithetical to mystery (arousing curiosity) even though these texts are full of useful and often interesting information. Textbooks present knowledge that was itself hard to find; they represent answers to complex problems. Some of the problem with disinterest is the way that teachers use textbooks and present them to students. - dead information devoid of ‘real world’ contexts
What to do Establishing a Problem Perspective Story Impressions Chain of Events prediction log Guided Imagery Anticipation Guides Imagine, Elaborate, Predict, Confirm (IEPC) ReQuest Setting the Stage – the classroom
Problem Perspectives Creating a Problem Perspective is synonymous with Problematizing a Text The idea behind problem perspectives is to get students to think in terms of the problem the reading addresses (the issue the reading is discussing). Everything, including all relevant knowledge, results from solutions to problems. Your job as a teacher—using problem perspectives—is to get students to consider the kind of problem confronted in the reading. Students should, ideally, be placed (guided) into taking on roles of those actually involved in the reading/issue. You can use the actual events or an analogy/metaphor.
Ordeal By Cheque SEE “Ordeal by Cheque” What “problems” does the story convey? What do you question in the story? How is the story a puzzle? Why do students almost always want a firm ‘answer’ to the story? This actual story from Vanity Fair (1923) is strong because it incorporates many of the attributes required for a reading to be interesting and requires readers to use a number of reading based strategies Prior knowledge Inference Problem-posing/solving
Problem Perspectives You are a passenger on the deck of a sinking Titanic. You are young, healthy, and have a small children back home on land who need you (for both financial and emotional support). What do you think and what do you do when you realize that there aren’t enough lifeboats and, at the same time hear the call of “women and children first.” What do you think and do when you see old women climbing aboard the only lifeboats?
Problem Perspectives You are Robert Oppenheimer in 1942. You have the unique power to create what will be the world’s most powerful and destructive weapon, the nuclear bomb. You know that this weapon could be the proverbial “game changer” in World War II, but you soon come to realize that for the weapon to be used most effectively, it will be dropped on a large, populous city full of civilians. You also know that, once unleashed, this weapon will change the future in dramatic ways, many of them negative. What goes through your mind? Do you have any doubts about whether or not to participate in the Manhattan Project? Do you feel any lingering guilt for your actions?
Problem Perspectives Social Studies or Language Arts: If you lived in 1930s-1940s Germany, would YOU have been a Nazi, have worked at a concentration camp, have turned in Jews in your neighborhood? Science: Thinking in terms of past “scientific” beliefs, why was the creation of the scientific method so important and what did it do to separate random phenomena from true theory? Similarly, why is the placebo affect and double- blind studies important for the creation of new medications? Health and Politics: You are a politician weighing the relative pros and cons of putting health risk labels and/or additional taxes on such things as cigarettes, high-calorie and high-fat foods, alcohol, etc.? What must you consider? What would you decide and why? Math & Science: You are working with the class above. How can you use math, statistics, survey research, etc. to help them make their case or at least have data on which to make their case?
Problem Perspectives Other Problem Perspectives Check out the Rethinking Schools website for additional ways to problematize a text or a lesson.Rethinking Schools
Anticipation Guides Anticipation guides are supposed to help prepare students for reading and build anticipation for what is to come. They can take a number of forms: true/ false questions likely/unlikely questions magic squares, etc. T-Charts and modified T-Charts
Anticipation Guides Rules to Follow: 1) Know the material students will be reading—get from it the major themes, vocabulary, ideas, etc. 2) Write these ideas in short, clear statements 3) Put the statements/ideas in a format that will elicit anticipation and prediction (make a game of it whenever possible) 4) If appropriate, discuss students’ predictions before they read the text 5) Assign the text 6) Contrast anticipation/prediction with reality/outcome
Story Impressions Story or ReadingWhat student thinks will happen List of Clues: characters, setting, themes, etc. (often a good place to include content-relevant vocabulary) Student’s predictions… Story Impressions serve a number of purposes: 1)They help problematize a text (making a game or mystery out of a reading); 2)They give students relevant vocabulary terms up front; 3)Allow students to bring in their prior knowledge of a text, genre, content area, etc.; 4)Allows group work, whole class work, and even competition.
Story Impressions THE TELL-TALE HEARTStory Impressions "cunning" narrator dispassionate crime old man "vulture eye" dissimulation stealthy shriek dismemberment concealment interred floorboard police schizophrenia hideous heart panic confession STUDENTS GUESS WHAT HAPPENS BASED UPON THE ‘CLUES’ YOU PROVIDE (via vocabulary from the text)
Story Impressions THE TELL-TALE HEARTStory Impressions "cunning" narrator dispassionate crime old man "vulture eye" dissimulation stealthy shriek dismemberment concealment interred floorboard police schizophrenia hideous heart panic confession I think the story is probably about a murder because it mentions crime, a madman (schizophrenia), and a shriek, The madman isn't angry--the word dispassionate--but someone who is really crazy doesn't do things out of passion anyway. The madman hates the old guy's vulture eye, maybe because it reminds him of something bad from the past. He plans a way to kill the old guy and he must be sneaky. Once he kills the old guy, he cuts up the body to hide the crime, burying him under the floor. The police come. He confesses to the police because he panics and he knows that he has an evil heart--that he's not a good person.
Story Impressions Whether or not students ‘get’ the story completely right is irrelevant so long as they use the clues they are given wisely. -Misconstruing the actual text can be another venue/topic of discussion (think about how such clues can lead students astray) -“Debrief” or revisit the story impression after reading the actual text -compare and contrast who was closest -justify why one had their original impression - debate which ending would be best (from original or from students)
Chain of Events Chain of events logs use actual events from the reading to help students: a) Understand the reading; b) Understand the vocabulary; c) Predict what the outcome might be. Event 1 Event 2 Event 3 Event 4 Event 5 Predictions A subset of Story Impressions are Chain of Events Logs
Chain of Events Story ChainText Prediction Deep south Depression Black man White rape “victim” Honest lawyer Innocent children Black housekeeper/mother figure Racist townspeople Fear of the “other” Injustice Taking revenge Silent surprise hero
Chain of Events With a Partner(s), Create a Chain of Events Log Think of a context or issue in your area. Using a piece of chart paper, write down a chain of events log for a reading in that content. Remember that your goal is to try to reinforce vocabulary while also helping students create a prediction.
Guided Imagery The purpose of guided imagery is to help students visualize what they are reading. This is especially good for visual learners & math & science (manipulables and seeing ‘real world’ applications of theories) Guided imagery is similar to a problem perspective—it helps students ‘take on’ the perspective in which the problem arose
Guided Imagery Close your eyes. You are flying with your best friend and about six other people in a small airplane, heading from Jacksonville to the Bahamas. You're flying at 15,000 feet over the turquoise waters of the Caribbean on this beautiful sunny day. You are daydreaming about your dream vacation while staring at the waves far below. You are brought back to reality when you hear a gasp. Looking up, you see people pointing at the pilot, who is slumped over the controls. Everyone seems paralyzed by fear as the pilot's body sways with the mild turbulence. What are your first thoughts? What is the first thing you do? What do you do when you realize that YOU must take charge? What problems must you solve, and in what order?
Imagine, Elaborate, Predict, Confirm (IEPC) This strategy largely incorporates aspects from the other strategies (all in one larger task/activity). IEPC: You, the teacher, ‘set the stage’ for the reading to come with enough details to help students begin to ‘see’ the scene or issue. This is generally best done as a large group or whole-class activity - Students Imagine the scene, setting, characters, problem, etc. - Students then Elaborate on what they imagined, providing a rationale or prior knowledge to help each other build the scene/setting, context - Students Predict what will likely happen in the text or the context of the text ahead - Students Confirm (after reading) their predictions—or they examine how and why their predictions were incorrect
ReQuest This strategy is, essentially, modeling good prediction and comprehension strategies for your students. Originally designed as a one-on-one reading strategy, it can easily (and best) be used in larger groups.
ReQuest Teacher and students read a text passage silently Teacher closes book; students ask questions about the materials (modeling good reading) Teacher and student(s) exchange roles Same procedure as before, but this time students ask questions about text and to predict what is to come.
ReQuest Activity 1) Read the first passage (paragraph) silently. When reading, mark up the text or write down any questions you may have (what the reading means, what you think comes next, where you agree or disagree with the author, etc.). When done look up. 2) As a class, ask the teacher any questions about that text or what he thinks is to come in the chapter. 3) Reverse the process with the second passage.
ReQuest Activity: Ask the Teacher In the Revolutionary War, almost every important Indian nation fought on the side of the British. The British signed for peace and went home; the Indians were already home, and so they continued fighting the Americans on the frontier, in a set of desperate holding operations. Washington's war- enfeebled militia could not drive them back. After scouting forces were demolished one after the other, he tried to follow a policy of conciliation. His Secretary of War, Henry Knox, said: "The Indians being the prior occupants, possess the right of the soil." His Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, said in 1791 that where Indians lived within state boundaries they should not be interfered with, and that the government should remove white settlers who tried to encroach on them. Howard Zinn, A People's History of the United States: 1492-Present
ReQuest Activity: Your Turn QUESTIONS about the text: 1) Reading this basic Physics text, can someone describe for me, verbally or in graphic form, this concept? 2) What do you think that the following text will elaborate upon? What will the following text include? 3) How might the authors elaborate upon this concept to explain other concepts? What might those other concepts be?
ReQuest Activity: Your Turn Questions about the text: 1) Without me giving you any other information, does anyone know to what this definition relates? Whose law? 2) What kind of "law" is this talking about? 3) Can anyone represent this graphically or explain it in layman's terms?
Anticipation: Setting the Stage Building anticipation can sometimes be best done through the actual classroom environment. Like all of us, students respond to their environment. Setting the stage for your lesson/content can help engage students in content and reading.
Anticipation: Classrooms My ELA Example Research, Interviewing, and Writing: The Family Tree and Autobiography Classroom examples of family trees on walls—student-created and instructor-created (my own tree as a model) Students’ childhood and family photos (scanned and reproduced in larger format). Photos hung on walls (side-by- side) just below ceiling level. - my own (often embarrassing) childhood, adolescent, and adult photos
Anticipation: Classroom Think of ways you can create a ‘feel’ or setting in your own classroom depending upon your content Remember: creativity almost always pays off, even if not outwardly (teenagers may be reluctant to ‘buy in’ to your classroom scene openly; they will, however, be more likely to delve into the materials and do the work (readings)
Anticipation: Classroom Class/Reading ContentClass Setup History: The Cold WarPropaganda Posters, Fallout Shelter signs, national flags, pictures (Khrushchev, Kennedy) English: The Great GatsbyFlapper dress, men’s old suit, 1920’s music, photos of old car, mansions, imagery Math: GeometryGeometry in use (construction, planning), formulas, geometric shapes Science: BiologyTerrariums, aquariums, photos (Body Worlds), slides of tissues, plants, genetic abnormalities… Science: Forensics ELA: Murder/mystery History: Famous murder/assassination, etc. Crime scene tape, ‘chalk’ outline, lights, fake blood, crime scene photos, sounds, coveralls,
Vocabulary Game Rules: One student comes to the front of the class as the Guinea Pig He/She cannot see which word another volunteer selects Each student, in order, must try to think of a one-word synonym/definition of the chosen word (not containing the word or any part of the word) Student, using the word wall, must try to get the word from the clues given Last person to give successful clue is next participant