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Biological Bases of Behavior. Sophie had a bad fall while snowboarding. After being rushed to the hospital, she underwent a brain imaging technique where.

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Presentation on theme: "Biological Bases of Behavior. Sophie had a bad fall while snowboarding. After being rushed to the hospital, she underwent a brain imaging technique where."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biological Bases of Behavior

2 Sophie had a bad fall while snowboarding. After being rushed to the hospital, she underwent a brain imaging technique where still pictures of her brain were taken. Although everything appeared to be intact, her doctors were still unsure if Sophie's brain functioning was normal. Sophie received a(n): A.EEG B.PET scan C.MRI D.fMRI

3 Your life would be most immediately threatened if you suffered destruction of the: A.Thalamus B.Pons C.Medulla D.Cerebellum

4 A laboratory cat could be made to twitch its whiskers by direct stimulation of the _____________ lobes of its cerebral cortex. A.Temporal B.Frontal C.Parietal D.Occipital

5 If a picture of a comb is briefly flashed in the left visual field of a split-brain patient, she would most likely be able to: A.use her left hand to draw a picture of the comb. B.orally report what she saw. C.use her right hand to write the word "comb.“ D.use her right hand to draw a picture of the comb.

6 Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that travel across the: A.cell body. B.synaptic gap. C.myelin sheath. D.threshold.

7 Development

8 Five-year-old Tammy mistakenly believes that her short, wide glass contains less soda than her brother's tall, narrow glass. Actually, both glasses contain the same amount of soda. This illustrates that Tammy lacks the concept of: A.conservation. B.egocentrism. C.assimilation. D.object permanence.

9 Which of the following stages of development, in your opinion, presents the greatest challenges? A.Infancy B.Childhood C.Adolescence D.Early adulthood: becoming a parent E.Middle adulthood: midlife transition F.Late adulthood: 65 and beyond

10 Three-year-old Sara calls all four-legged animals “kitties.” Her tendency to fit all four-legged animals into her existing conception of a kitten illustrates the process of: A.object permanence. B.conservation. C.assimilation. D.accommodation.

11 Five-year-old Tammy mistakenly believes that her short, wide glass contains less soda than her brother's tall, narrow glass. Actually, both glasses contain the same amount of soda. This illustrates that Tammy lacks the concept of: A.conservation. B.egocentrism. C.assimilation. D.object permanence.

12 Children who spend their early years isolated from human contact and the sound of adult language are unable to develop adult language skills despite extensive training efforts later. This phenomenon provides evidence for the notion that: A. there is a critical period in language development. B. children are born with a language acquisition device. C. there are no fixed stages in language development. D. language skills are hereditary.

13 Research about parenting styles has found an association between authoritative parenting and positive outcomes in children. The key limitation to such studies is: A.they are not based on representative samples. B.they had too many control groups. C.they are based on correlations and “correlation does not mean causation.” D.parents never tell the truth.

14 Sensation and Perception

15 You find that you have to add 1 teaspoon of sugar to a cup of coffee that already has 5 teaspoons of sugar in it to notice the difference in sweetness. If you have a cup of coffee with 10 teaspoons of sugar in it, how many teaspoons would you have to add to notice the difference in sweetness at least half the time? A.1 B.2 C.4 D.5

16 Rods and cones are to vision as ___________ are to audition. A.eardrums B.pinnas C.hair cells D.cochleas

17 Although a few keys on the piano were broken, Shana couldn't prevent herself from mentally filling the missing notes of the familiar melodies. This best illustrates the principle of: A.proximity B.similarity C.continuity D.closure

18 Taking his first train ride, a child is amazed at how quickly the fence posts along the track are whizzing by, but the farm in the distance hardly seems to move. This best illustrates: A.Retinal disparity B.Relative motion parallax C.Size constancy D.Interposition

19 Learning

20 The sound of a sizzling frying pan causes Rob to salivate uncontrollably. The sound of the sizzling frying pan is a(n) ____________. A.US B.CS C.UR D.CR

21 An electric shock administered to the paw of a cat will elicit foot withdrawal. Before the shocks are presented, a green light is flashed. Eventually, the green light elicits foot withdrawal. The green light is the __________. A.UR B.CR C.US D.CS

22 In a series of learning trials, food is paired with a whistling sound. In a series of subsequent trials, the whistle continues to occur, but it is no longer paired with food. The researcher in this study is most likely studying ___________. A.Generalization B.Extinction C.Learned helplessness D.Spontaneous recovery

23 Which of the following is a good example of stimulus discrimination? A.your dog runs into the kitchen when you take out the can opener, but not when you take out the blender B.your nephew squeals excitedly at the sound of any song by the Wiggles C.you no longer wake up when your alarm clock goes off each morning D.after being bitten by your neighbor's dachshund, you are now afraid of every dog that you encounter

24 While driving along, you hear the final song from your senior prom. You immediately experience a strong, positive emotional response, despite not having heard that song or having thought of your senior prom for several years. This emotional reaction is similar to which of the following classical conditioning concepts? A.Extinction B.Spontaneous recovery C.Generalization D.Discrimination

25 If you wanted to put Little Albert's fear response to the white rat through the process of extinction, which of the following should you do? A.give him candy whenever he encounters the white rat B.take away the loud noise whenever he approaches the white rat C.repeatedly present the white rat without the loud noise D.pair the white rat with the sound of the voice of Little Albert's mother

26 Lori gets a backache every day, but if she sits in a hot bath, then the pain goes away. So, she decides to take a hot bath every day. She has learned to do this through ____________. A.Positive reinforcement B.Negative reinforcement C.Positive punishment D.Negative punishment

27 The more often Matthew is scolded following a temper tantrum, the more frequently he loses his temper. In this case, the scolding serves as a ________ for Matthew's temper tantrums. A.Negative reinforcer B.Conditioned stimulus C.Positive reinforcer D.Punishment

28 The more often Matthew is scolded following a temper tantrum, the more frequently he loses his temper. In this case, the scolding serves as a ________ for Matthew's temper tantrums. A.negative reinforcer B.conditioned stimulus C.positive reinforcer D.punishment

29 Positive reinforcement ____________ the rate of responding, whereas negative reinforcement ____________ the rate of responding. A.decreases; increases B.increases; decreases C.increases; increases D.decreases; decreases

30 Which of the following is NOT an example of punishment? A.your parents take away your telephone privileges because you failed your algebra test B.your coach makes you run extra sprints after practice because you showed up late for practice C.the referee of your soccer match presents you with a yellow card when you slide tackle an opponent from behind D.you take medication to get rid of a migraine headache

31 The points that you are given for responding correctly to this question are good examples of which of the following? A.Primary reinforcers B.Secondary reinforcers C.Tertiary reinforcers D.Pity points

32 Luana edits manuscripts for a publisher and is paid $18 for every three pages she edits. Luana is reinforced on a ________ schedule. A.FR B.VR C.FI D.VI

33 Memory

34 Your recollection of how to use your clicker is an example of ____________ memory, whereas your recollection of the events from your first day of class this semester is an example of ____________ memory. A.procedural; semantic B.semantic; procedural C.procedural; episodic D.episodic; semantic

35 Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle without any conscious recollection that one can do so best illustrates ________ memory. A.explicit B.flashbulb C.implicit D.sensory

36 When an eyewitness to a robbery is asked to describe what happened, which test of memory is being used? A.recognition B.rehearsal C.recall D.relearning

37 Jerry suffered a brain injury when a steel beam fell on his head. He cannot remember anything that has happened since the accident. Jerry is experiencing ____________ amnesia. A.retrograde B.anterograde C.retroactive D.proactive

38 © 2009, Mark A. Laumakis, Ph.D. Intelligence and Intelligence Assessment

39 © 2009, Mark A. Laumakis, Ph.D. A teacher grades by giving men C's and women A's. This method is: A.reliable. B.valid. C.both reliable and valid. D.neither reliable nor valid.

40 © 2009, Mark A. Laumakis, Ph.D. If Marcie's mental age is 10 and her chronological age is 8, then her IQ is: A.80 B.50 C.125 D.What! There ’ s math in this course?

41 © 2009, Mark A. Laumakis, Ph.D. Correlations between the IQ scores of identical twins reared together are higher than the correlations between IQ scores of identical twins reared apart. This finding suggests that __________ influences IQ scores. A.genes B.environment C.gender D.bacon intake

42 © 2009, Mark A. Laumakis, Ph.D. It can be inferred from twin studies that differences between: A.DZ twins are most likely the product of environmental factors. B.MZ twins are most likely the product of environmental factors. C.MZ twins and DZ twins are most likely the product of environmental factors. D.MZ twins are most likely the product of genetic factors.

43 Emotion, Stress, and Health

44 Ten-year-old Vito tells his friend, “ When you notice that your knees knock, your hands sweat, and your stomach is in knots, then you really get scared. ” This statement best illustrates the: A.the James-Lange theory. B.the Cannon-Bard theory. C.the opponent-process theory. D.the Schachter two-factor theory.

45 Astrid was emotionally aroused by a TV horror movie. She became extremely angry when her younger brother momentarily blocked her view of the screen. When her movie viewing was interrupted by a phone call from her boyfriend, however, she experienced unusually intense romantic feelings. Astrid's different emotional reactions to her brother and her boyfriend are best explained by the: A.Schachter two-factor theory. B.James-Lange theory. C.Cannon-Bard theory. D.adaptation-level theory.

46 As her professor distributed the mathematics test to the class, Blair's heart started to pound and her palms began to sweat. These physiological reactions were activated by her ________ nervous system. A.sympathetic B.central C.somatic D.parasympathetic

47 After overcoming the initial shock of having her car stolen, Maria calls the police for help and begins to question possible witnesses. At this point, Maria is most likely in the ________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome. A.alarm B.resistance C.exhaustion D.adjustment

48 Personality

49 What is your current belief about the relative contributions of nature (genetics) and nurture (environment) to personality? I believe that personality is about ______ nature and about ______ nurture. A.100%; 0% B.80%; 20% C.60%; 40% D.40%; 60% E.20%; 80% F.0%; 100%

50 Unconsciously motivated by miserliness, Mr. Rioja refused to send his son money to buy the books he needs for his college courses. In defending his actions, Mr. Rioja explained that “parental financial aid prevents teenagers from developing into mature, independent adults.” Mr. Rioja's explanation is an example of: A.reaction formation B.projection C.displacement D.rationalization

51 A religious leader who attempts to overcome his hidden doubts with intense expressions of spiritual certainty illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of: A.reaction formation. B.projection. C.repression. D.displacement.

52 A student in your class is very studious and hard- working. She is never late for class and she always turns in assignments on time. It is likely that she would score high on which of the following dimensions of the big- five model of personality? A.Openness to experience B.Conscientiousness C.Extraversion D.Agreeableness E.Neuroticism

53 Psychopathology The Study of Mental Disorders

54 Which of the following individuals is experiencing problems to the degree that these problems are causing an impairment in functioning? A.Joe, who has a hard time getting out of bed on Mondays, but makes it to work anyway B.Karen, who gets up an hour earlier than necessary each day to alphabetize the items in her kitchen C.Larry, who experiences intense anxiety in social situations, but still manages to work as a waiter D.Mike, whose drinking has progressed to the point that his wife has left him, he's lost his job, and he is homeless

55 Which of the following individuals is experiencing problems to the degree that these problems are causing an impairment in functioning? A.Joe, who has a hard time getting out of bed on Mondays, but makes it to work anyway B.Karen, who gets up an hour earlier than necessary each day to alphabetize the items in her kitchen C.Larry, who experiences intense anxiety in social situations, but still manages to work as a waiter D.Mike, whose drinking has progressed to the point that his wife has left him, he's lost his job, and he is homeless

56 Which of the following factors do you think plays the largest role in causing psychological disorders? A.Biological factors B.Psychological factors C.Sociocultural factors D.Other factors

57 Of which of the following are you most afraid? A.Heights B.Flying C.Dogs D.Insects E.Bridges F.Spiders G.Snakes H.Public speaking

58 Elizabeth suffers from sudden anxiety attacks that produce overwhelming feelings of dread. These attacks become so intense that she is afraid of leaving her house. What disorder would a clinician likely diagnose her as having? A.Generalized anxiety disorder B.Panic disorder with agoraphobia C.Panic disorder without agoraphobia D.Social phobia

59 Schizophrenia is most likely to be characterized by: A.disorganized and fragmented thinking. B.a lack of guilt feelings. C.alternating between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism. D.periodic intervals of uncontrollable violence.

60 If you THINK that there are aliens in your attic, it's a(n) __________; if you SEE them, it's a(n) _____________. A.delusion; hallucination B.hallucination; delusion C.hallucination; hallucination D.delusion; delusion

61 After several weeks of feeling apathetic and dissatisfied with his life, Mark has suddenly become extremely cheerful and so talkative he can't be interrupted. He seems to need less sleep and becomes irritated when his friends tell him to slow down. Mark's behavior is indicative of: A.a severe form of depression. B.OCD. C.agoraphobia. D.bipolar disorder.

62 Which of the following disorders did you find MOST interesting to learn something about? A.Phobias B.Panic disorder C.OCD D.Major depressive disorder E.Bipolar disorder F.Schizophrenia G.Substance use disorders H.Childhood disorders

63 Treatment of Psychopathology

64 The SSRIs, such as Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft, A.increase the release of serotonin into the synapse. B.increase post-synaptic sensitivity to serotonin. C.limit the reuptake of serotonin in the synapse. D.are a highly effective class of medications for schizophrenia.

65 ECT has been found to be an effective treatment for _____________. A.eating disorders B.anxiety disorders C.schizophrenia D.severe depression

66 With ________, the therapist replaces a fearful response with a relaxation response. A.systematic desensitization B.free association C.aversive conditioning D.transference

67 Social Psychology Social Influence Social Thinking: Attributions

68 The presence of others would ENHANCE the performance of which of the following individuals? A.Joe, an expert juggler, who has been juggling for ten years B.Cassie, a third grader who has been playing the piano for ten days C.Jeremy, an expert golfer, who has been playing tennis for about three weeks D.Tracy, a dental hygienist, who is working on her first patient of her career today

69 According to Zajonc, the presence of others would ENHANCE the performance of which of the following individuals? A.Joe, an expert juggler, who has been juggling for ten years B.Cassie, a third grader who has been playing the piano for ten days C.Jeremy, an expert golfer, who has been playing tennis for about three weeks D.Tracy, a dental hygienist, who is working on her first patient of her career today

70 Expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates: A.group polarization. B.social facilitation. C.the bystander effect. D.the mere exposure effect.

71 What percentage of the time do you think that individuals would go along with the obviously incorrect answer in Asch's study? A.Less than 10% of the time B.10-25% of the time C.25-50% of the time D.50-75% of the time E.More than 75% of the time

72 Sherif’s research utilizing the autokinetic effect methodology demonstrated the tendency for people to conform to the opinions of others in _____________ situations. A.competitive B.obvious C.ambiguous D.erotic

73 When would you stop? A.Slight B.Moderate C.Strong D.Very strong E.Intense F.Extreme G.Danger H.XXX

74 What percentage of Milgram's participants do you think would go all the way to the end of shock generator, delivering the maximum shock to the learner? A.Less than 10% B.10-25% C.25-50% D.50-75% E.More than 75%

75 Milgram’s Results

76 Another View of Milgram’s Results

77 Social Psychology Research Summary Researcher What He DidWhat He Found Triplett Studying social facilitation, he had children reel fishing line, either alone or with a partner Most children did better with a partner present, but some did worse Zajonc Proposed a resolution to persistent mixed findings in social facilitation research, beginning with Triplett Suggested that presence of others increases arousal, which enhances dominant, well- learned responses but negatively affects novel responses Sherif Using the autokinetic effect as his methodology, studied how people are influenced by others in ambiguous social situations Found that estimates of the movement of the dot on the wall converged in group setting, demonstrating that people are influenced by other in ambiguous social situations Asch Studied conformity in situations with an obvious correct answer; asked true participant to match a line with a series of three other lines, after hearing incorrect responses from his confederates Found that true participants misjudged the length of the line about 37% of the time, with increasing likelihood of going along with incorrect answer as number of confederates rose to about 6-7 confederates Milgram Used deception to study obedience to authority by “teachers” in a study that was supposedly about “learning;” “teachers” shocked “learner” and were ordered to continue doing so, even after “learner” no longer responded and might actually be dead 65% of participant “teachers” continued to deliver shocks all the way to the end of the shock generator device, at which point there were no additional shocks to deliver

78 If someone redid Milgram's study today, what do you think would happen? A.More people would go to the very end of the shock generator B.Fewer people would go to the very end of the shock generator C.About the same percentage of people would go to the very end of the shock generator

79 In this replication of Milgram's study, who would be more likely to deliver the maximum shock level? A.Men B.Women

80 Your professor might be making the fundamental attribution error if she came up with which of the following explanations for the poor performance of her class on the first exam? A.“My students are lazy. If they had studied, they wouldn’t have done so poorly.” B.“I’m a terrible teacher. I know I should have sold Avon products instead.” C.“The students were probably just distracted on the first exam because I walked around the room singing 'Beat It.'” D.“If I had made an easier test, then they would’ve done better.”

81 Milgram's study with the "teacher" and the "learner" was about _______. A.memory B.discrimination C.obedience D.learning


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