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Kagan Cooperative Learning

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1 Kagan Cooperative Learning
By, Dr. Spencer Kagan and Miguel Kagan Chapter 12: PIES

2 Let’s Take An Up Close Look at

3 Not that kind of PIES Silly…

4 Positive Interdependence
Cooperative learning when properly implemented, is a powerful instructional approach resulting in a spectrum of positive outcomes. Notice the caveat: When properly implemented. Research, theory, and years of implementation have drawn the conclusion that consistent success depends on four basic principles: Positive Interdependence Individual Accountability Equal Participation Simultaneous Interaction


6 Group Work is NOT Cooperative Learning!
The PIES principles distinguish cooperative learning from group work. If any of the PIES principles are not present, we are merely doing group work. The PIES principles define true learning. Group work produces hit or miss results. True cooperative learning produces consistent gains for all learners.

7 Positive correlation: Are students on the same side?
Positive interdependence is the most well-established principle in the study of cooperation. When positive interdependence is in place, individuals are almost certain to cooperate. In the absence of positive interdependence, they may or may not cooperate. Question 1: Positive correlation: Are students on the same side? Question 2: Interdependence: Does the task require working together?

8 Question 1: Positive correlation: Are students on the same side?
When there is a positive correlation among outcomes, participants almost certainly work together. They cooperate, help each other, and encourage each other. In class, if I know your success will somehow benefit me, naturally I hope you will do well and I will encourage, help, and tutor you. When there is a positive correlation among outcomes, we sense we’re on the same side.

9 Question 2: Interdependence: Does the task require working together?
The word interdependence refers to how the task is structured. If a task is structured so no one of us can do it alone, but we can do it by working together, then we are interdependent.

10 Degrees of Interdependence
Strong Interdependence: The contribution of each team member is necessary for the success of the team. The task is impossible without help. Intermediate Interdependence: The contribution of each team member does contribute to the success of the team, but a team member could succeed on his/her own. Week Interdependence: The contribution of each team member may contribute to the success of the team. Degrees of Interdependence

11 None of us is as smart as all of us.
Positive Interdependence Increases Cooperation None of us is as smart as all of us. A husband and wife combine their money to buy a house neither alone could afford. The basketball player passes the ball so a teammate can shoot a basket, and their team is more likely to win. The workplace team pools knowledge and brainstorms solutions to come up with a better procedure or product. The author gives her paper to the editor, knowing the editor can catch errors the author could not.


13 3 Things To Be Careful With
Negative Interdependence Among Teams: Rewarding top teams based on performance may create positive interdependence within teams, but create the opposite among teams. All teams achieving a predetermined goal can be rewarded. Pitfalls of Team Rewards: If not used carefully, extrinsic team rewards may erode the intrinsically rewarding teamwork process. Group Grades: There are so many problems with group grades that they should never be used. Chapters 15 and 16 provide better and fair ways to grade and motivate students.

14 T.E.A.M. Together Everyone Achieves More
Structures create positive interdependence. They include shared team goals so students cooperate for mutual benefit. Together Everyone Achieves More Positive interdependence is created by situations in which teammates pool knowledge or skills for mutual benefit. Tasks that call for a range of knowledge or skills that no single individual possesses encourage mutual helping.

15 Tasks Make the task challenging, so that the
sheer volume or difficulty of the task requires the participation and cooperation of all Division of labor is used to accomplish difficult tasks. Assign roles to each student. Teammates then come together to synthesize their combined knowledge into a presentation Limit each student’s access to specific resources to structure for cooperation

16 Structures Create Interdependence
Rules and Structures Foster Positive Interdependence Rules too can increase interdependence. For example, to increase helping and encouragement, we might institute a rule that states the team cannot progress to a new learning center or task until all teammates have completed a task or have displayed mastery. Structures Create Interdependence Method Sample Structure Varied Knowledge or Skills Jigsaw Challenging Task Team Projects Division of Labor Co-op Co-op Roles 4S Brainstorming Resource Access Rules Talking Chips

17 Is individual, public performance required?
In the cooperative classroom, there is an “I” in team, and that “I” stands for Individual Accountability. In the cooperative classroom, students work together as a team to create and to learn, but ultimately every individual student is responsible for his or her own performance. Individual accountability boosts achievement. Question 3: Is individual, public performance required?

18 Is individual, public performance required?
Question 3: Is individual, public performance required? Three Components of Individual Accountability Individual accountability is created by putting in place three components: Individual. The performance is done without help. 2. Public. Someone witnesses the performance. 3. Required. The performance is required.

19 Accountability For What? Accountability To Whom?
Accountability To Whom? For What? Accountability For What? Accountability To Whom? Students may be accountable to a partner, a team, the class, and/or the teacher. Reports home create accountability to parents. In Numbered Heads Together, before students put their heads together, each student independently writes his or her best answer to share with the team. Thus, each is held accountable to teammates. Further, when a student’s number is called, that student must share the team’s answer, so they are held accountable to the teacher and the class as well. Depending on the structure and the content, students are held accountable for different things. For example, in Paraphrase Passport, the right to speak is earned by paraphrasing the previous speaker. This structure holds students accountable for empathetic listening. Talking Chips hold students accountable for participating. In a Rally Table of prime numbers, learners are held accountable for listing prime numbers.

20 Me Before We Students write own responses prior to teaming up
Students create own products to share with classmates Structures: Showdown, Numbered Heads Together, Placemat Consensus

21 Me During We Color-code individual contributions Assign mini topics
Students fill in own worksheets, create own product Structures: Rally Coach, Team Mind-Mapping, Talking Chips, Jot Thoughts

22 Me After We Students turn in individual worksheets
Students take tests, quizzes after team interaction Structures: Team-Pair-Solo, Numbered Heads Together Me After We


24 Accountability Requires Support
Individual accountability must be coupled with positive interdependence; otherwise it will backfire. A student can be held accountable by calling on them publicly, but without the support, they can fail publicly also and may soon dread class, content and the teacher. Learning and change come about best by a combination of pressure and support.

25 Is participation approximately equal?
The “E” of PIES is the simplest of the four principles: We structure so that students participate about equally. Participation is an integral part of the learning process. Students learn by interacting with the content and with fellow students. For equitable educational outcomes, we need participation to be relatively equal. Question 4: Is participation approximately equal?

26 Question 4: Is participation approximately equal?
Structure for equal participation. It does not occur magically. Six approaches to equalize participation are: 1) turn taking, 2) time allocation, 3) think and write time, 4) rules, 5) individual accountability, and 6) roles.

27 Six Approaches to Equalizing Participation Individual Accountability
How Sample Structures Turn Taking Every student receives an equal turn Round Table Time Allocation Every student receives the same amount of time. Timed Pair Share Think Time Students are given the opportunity to formulate own ideas. Think-Pair-Share Rules Rules of engagement establish guidelines for equal participation. Talking Chips Individual Accountability Students are held accountable for participation Showdown Role Assignment Students participate by filling a unique or rotating role. 4S Brainstorming

28 What percent of students are overtly interacting at once?
Active engagement increases student learning. If students are off task, they are less likely to learn. If students are only occasionally engaged, they learn less than when they are regularly engaged. Simultaneous interaction is the most powerful tool we have for increasing active engagement. Question 5: What percent of students are overtly interacting at once?

29 Question 5: What percent of students are overtly interacting at once?
A simple look at the mathematics reveals the staggering difference in amount of overt active engagement during traditional instruction and cooperative learning structures…

30 Percent Actively Engaged at Once Student Participation Time per Hour
Simultaneous Interaction Increases Engagement and Participation Structure Percent Actively Engaged at Once Student Participation Time per Hour Whole Class Q&A 1 in 30 (3.33%) 2 minutes per student Round Robin 1 in 4 (25%) 15 minutes per student Rally Robin 1 in 2 (50%) 30 minutes per student

31 Time for Three-Minute Student Presentations
Simultaneous Interaction Saves Time We can engage more students at a time, and thus get more accomplished more quickly. Time for Three-Minute Student Presentations In a class of 30 students Structure Required Class Time Student Presentation Student presents to class. 90 minutes Timed Round Robin Student presents to teammates 12 minutes Timed Pair Share Student presents to partner 6 minutes

32 Simultaneous Response Modes and Sharing
Answer Boards Thumbs Up or Down Choral Practice Greater engagement and accountability are achieved with simultaneous responses vs. calling on one student.

33 Addressing Objections to Simultaneity
OBJECTION: The teacher won’t hear everything and wrong answers will be said I OBJECT! Solutions: Team Answer Slates Students check answers with another classroom source Teacher walks around for authentic assessment The probability of a correction opportunity is far greater with simultaneous interaction

34 Cooperative learning consistently produces powerful gains
when the research-based and classroom-proven PIES principles are in place. Kagan Structures implement PIES. Any teacher can easily learn some simple structures and be confident he/she is implementing good cooperative learning.

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