4Positive Interdependence Cooperative learning when properly implemented, is a powerful instructional approach resulting in a spectrum of positive outcomes. Notice the caveat: When properly implemented. Research, theory, and years of implementation have drawn the conclusion that consistent success depends on four basic principles:Positive InterdependenceIndividual AccountabilityEqual ParticipationSimultaneous Interaction
6Group Work is NOT Cooperative Learning! The PIES principles distinguish cooperative learning from group work. If any of the PIESprinciples are not present, we are merely doing group work. The PIES principles definetrue learning. Group work produces hit or miss results. True cooperative learningproduces consistent gains for all learners.
7Positive correlation: Are students on the same side? Positive interdependence is the most well-established principle in the study ofcooperation. When positive interdependence is in place, individuals are almostcertain to cooperate. In the absence of positive interdependence, they may ormay not cooperate.Question 1:Positive correlation: Are students on the same side?Question 2:Interdependence: Does the task require working together?
8Question 1: Positive correlation: Are students on the same side? When there is a positive correlation among outcomes, participantsalmost certainly work together. They cooperate, help each other, andencourage each other. In class, if I know your success will somehowbenefit me, naturally I hope you will do well and I will encourage, help,and tutor you.When there is a positive correlation among outcomes, we sense we’reon the same side.
9Question 2: Interdependence: Does the task require working together? The word interdependence refers to how the task is structured. If atask is structured so no one of us can do it alone, but we can do itby working together, then we are interdependent.
10Degrees of Interdependence Strong Interdependence:The contribution of each team member is necessary for the success of the team. The task is impossible without help.Intermediate Interdependence:The contribution of each team member does contribute to the success of the team, but a team member could succeed on his/her own.Week Interdependence:The contribution of each team member may contribute to the success of the team.Degrees of Interdependence
11None of us is as smart as all of us. Positive Interdependence Increases CooperationNone of us is as smart as all of us.A husband and wife combine their money to buy a house neither alone could afford.The basketball player passes the ball so a teammate can shoot a basket, and their team is more likely to win.The workplace team pools knowledge and brainstorms solutions to come up with a better procedure or product.The author gives her paper to the editor, knowing the editor can catch errors the author could not.
133 Things To Be Careful With Negative Interdependence Among Teams: Rewarding top teams based onperformance may create positive interdependence within teams, but createthe opposite among teams. All teams achieving a predetermined goal canbe rewarded.Pitfalls of Team Rewards: If not used carefully, extrinsic team rewardsmay erode the intrinsically rewarding teamwork process.Group Grades: There are so many problems with group grades that theyshould never be used. Chapters 15 and 16provide better and fair ways to gradeand motivate students.
14T.E.A.M. Together Everyone Achieves More Structures create positive interdependence. They include shared team goals so students cooperate for mutual benefit.TogetherEveryoneAchievesMorePositive interdependence is created by situations in which teammates pool knowledge or skills for mutual benefit.Tasks that call for a range of knowledge or skills that no single individual possesses encourage mutual helping.
15Tasks Make the task challenging, so that the sheer volume or difficulty of the taskrequires the participation and cooperationof allDivision of labor is used to accomplishdifficult tasks. Assign roles to eachstudent. Teammates then come togetherto synthesize their combined knowledgeinto a presentationLimit each student’s access to specificresources to structure for cooperation
16Structures Create Interdependence Rules and Structures Foster Positive InterdependenceRules too can increase interdependence. For example, to increase helping and encouragement, we might institute a rule that states the team cannot progress to a new learning center or task until all teammates have completed a task or have displayed mastery.Structures Create InterdependenceMethodSample StructureVaried Knowledge or SkillsJigsawChallenging TaskTeam ProjectsDivision of LaborCo-op Co-opRoles4S BrainstormingResource AccessRulesTalking Chips
17Is individual, public performance required? In the cooperative classroom, there is an “I” in team, and that “I” stands forIndividual Accountability. In the cooperative classroom, students work togetheras a team to create and to learn, but ultimately every individual student isresponsible for his or her own performance.Individual accountability boosts achievement.Question 3:Is individual, public performance required?
18Is individual, public performance required? Question 3:Is individual, public performance required?Three Components of Individual AccountabilityIndividual accountability is created by putting in place three components:Individual. The performance is done without help.2. Public. Someone witnesses the performance.3. Required. The performance is required.
19Accountability For What? Accountability To Whom? Accountability To Whom? For What?Accountability For What?Accountability To Whom?Students may be accountable to a partner, a team, the class, and/or the teacher. Reports home create accountability to parents. In Numbered Heads Together, before students put their heads together, each student independently writes his or her best answer to share with the team. Thus, each is held accountable to teammates. Further, when a student’s number is called, that student must share the team’s answer, so they are held accountable to the teacher and the class as well.Depending on the structure and the content, students are held accountable for different things. For example, in Paraphrase Passport, the right to speak is earned by paraphrasing the previous speaker. This structure holds students accountable for empathetic listening. Talking Chips hold students accountable for participating. In a Rally Table of prime numbers, learners are held accountable for listing prime numbers.
20Me Before We Students write own responses prior to teaming up Students create own products to share with classmatesStructures: Showdown, Numbered Heads Together, Placemat Consensus
21Me During We Color-code individual contributions Assign mini topics Students fill in own worksheets, create own productStructures: Rally Coach, Team Mind-Mapping, Talking Chips, Jot Thoughts
22Me After We Students turn in individual worksheets Students take tests, quizzes after team interactionStructures: Team-Pair-Solo, Numbered Heads TogetherMe After We
24Accountability Requires Support Individual accountability must be coupled with positive interdependence;otherwise it will backfire.A student can be held accountable by calling onthem publicly, but without the support, theycan fail publicly also and may soon dread class,content and the teacher.Learning and change come about best by acombination of pressure and support.
25Is participation approximately equal? The “E” of PIES is the simplest of the four principles: We structure so thatstudents participate about equally. Participation is an integral part of thelearning process. Students learn by interacting with the content and withfellow students. For equitable educational outcomes, we need participationto be relatively equal.Question 4:Is participation approximately equal?
26Question 4: Is participation approximately equal? Structure for equal participation. It does not occur magically. Six approachesto equalize participation are: 1) turn taking, 2) time allocation, 3) think andwrite time, 4) rules, 5) individual accountability, and 6) roles.
27Six Approaches to Equalizing Participation Individual Accountability HowSample StructuresTurn TakingEvery student receives an equal turnRound TableTime AllocationEvery student receives the same amount of time.Timed Pair ShareThink TimeStudents are given the opportunity to formulate own ideas.Think-Pair-ShareRulesRules of engagement establish guidelines for equal participation.Talking ChipsIndividual AccountabilityStudents are held accountable for participationShowdownRole AssignmentStudents participate by filling a unique or rotating role.4S Brainstorming
28What percent of students are overtly interacting at once? Active engagement increases student learning. If students are off task, theyare less likely to learn. If students are only occasionally engaged, they learn lessthan when they are regularly engaged. Simultaneous interaction is the mostpowerful tool we have for increasing active engagement.Question 5:What percent of students are overtly interactingat once?
29Question 5: What percent of students are overtly interacting at once? A simple look at the mathematics reveals the staggering difference in amountof overt active engagement during traditional instruction and cooperativelearning structures…
30Percent Actively Engaged at Once Student Participation Time per Hour Simultaneous Interaction IncreasesEngagement and ParticipationStructurePercent Actively Engaged at OnceStudent Participation Time per HourWhole Class Q&A1 in 30 (3.33%)2 minutes per studentRound Robin1 in 4 (25%)15 minutes per studentRally Robin1 in 2 (50%)30 minutes per student
31Time for Three-Minute Student Presentations Simultaneous Interaction Saves TimeWe can engage more students at a time, and thus get more accomplished more quickly.Time for Three-Minute Student PresentationsIn a class of 30 studentsStructureRequired Class TimeStudent PresentationStudent presents to class.90 minutesTimed Round RobinStudent presents to teammates12 minutesTimed Pair ShareStudent presents to partner6 minutes
32Simultaneous Response Modes and Sharing Answer BoardsThumbs Up or DownChoral PracticeGreater engagement and accountability are achieved withsimultaneous responses vs. calling on one student.
33Addressing Objections to Simultaneity OBJECTION: The teacher won’t hear everything and wrong answers will be saidI OBJECT!Solutions:Team Answer SlatesStudents check answers with another classroom sourceTeacher walks around for authentic assessmentThe probability of a correction opportunity is far greater with simultaneous interaction
34Cooperative learning consistently produces powerful gains when the research-based and classroom-proven PIESprinciples are in place. Kagan Structures implement PIES.Any teacher can easily learn some simple structures andbe confident he/she is implementing good cooperative learning.