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Choose the best formal definition of psychology A.The scientific study of human nature B.The scientific study of theories and research methods C.The scientific.

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Presentation on theme: "Choose the best formal definition of psychology A.The scientific study of human nature B.The scientific study of theories and research methods C.The scientific."— Presentation transcript:

1 Choose the best formal definition of psychology A.The scientific study of human nature B.The scientific study of theories and research methods C.The scientific study of the process of learning and modifying behavioral reflexes D.The scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes E.The scientific study of groups of people

2 ) ________ is an example of a parasympathetic response. A) Promoting your sexual development B) Preparing for a competitive dance competition C) Monitoring the operation of the body's routine functioning D) Preparing yourself to fight an attacking dog E) Figuring out the answer to a difficult test question

3 This individual claimed that we could not prove that the mind existed, therefore it would be much too subjective to study A.Jean Piaget B.William James C.B. F. Skinner D.Sigmund Freud E.Wilhelm Wundt

4 6) Place theory argues that sounds of different frequencies induce vibration in different areas of the 6) _______ a. hammer. b. tympanic membrane. c. basilar membrane. d. auditory nerve. e. temporal lobe.

5 Which of the following could be an operational definition of “fear?” A.An intense fear or terror and dread when thinking about some threatening situation B.Panic C.A desire to avoid something D.Moving away from a stimulus E.Moving toward a stimulus

6 23) A recording of brain waves using electrodes placed on the scalp is called a A) EEG. B) RAS. C) GABA. D) MRI. E) PET.

7 A scientific study should begin with A.A controlled test B.A hypothesis C.Data collection D.Risk/gain assessment E.IRB proposal

8 2. As discrimination tasks with unpleasant stimuli become increasingly more difficult we can expect 2. _______ a) better learning to occur due to generalization. b) agitation due to experimental neurosis. c) intermittent reinforcement due to prompting. d) appetitive conditioning due to shaping. e) extinction due to extreme confusion.

9 4) Through the process of ________, we are able to interpret incoming sensory patterns. 4) _______ a. transduction b. sensation c. perception d. gustation e. kinesthesias

10 7. If your mom reminds you to pick up your little brother from soccer practice, and then you friend calls causing to you forget to pick up your brother, you would be said to be experiencing 7. _______ a. bias. b. absent-mindedness. c. misattribution. d. blocking. e. transience.

11 19) Ned is excited about going off to college, but he knows he will miss his mothers cooking. He is excited to meet new people, but he will miss his fiends from high school. He looks forward to having more freedom to do as he would like, but knows he will miss the safe environment of his old neighborhood. Ned is experiencing which of the following types of conflicts. A) avoidance-avoidance B) approach-approach C) approach-avoidance D) multiple approach-avoidance E) None of the above

12 13. Which part of memory has the smallest capacity? (That is, which part of memory is considered the "bottleneck" in the memory system). 13. ______ a. working memory b. explicit memory c. long-term memory d. implicit memory e. sensory memory

13 Why is it important that studies are replicated, especially if we already know the outcome of the study? A.To insure that the results are valid B.To insure that the experimenter bias did not influence the initial study C.To allow for a double-blind study by someone who has nothing to gain regardless of the outcome of the study D.To insure that the results did not occur simply by chance E.All of the Above

14 1. Negative reinforcement works best when the aversive stimulus 1. _______ a) imposes physical pain. b) is on a variable ratio schedule. c) is controlled by the person to be punished. d) is an operant. e) is imposed by natural or impersonal conditions.

15 16. We are always aware of ________ memory whereas ________ memory may be incidentally learned. 16. ______ a. semantic; episodic b. semantic; procedural c. episodic; semantic d. explicit; implicit e. implicit; explicit

16 25) What is the loss of muscle control often preceding a narcoleptic episode? A) cataplexy B) incontinent C) apnea D) catatonia E) None of the above

17 11) Perceptual constancy reflects the understanding of the perceiver that 11) ______ a. images can be interpreted in more than one way. b. objects remain the same despite changes in their appearance. c. our brain is readily fooled by sensory input. d. perceived boundaries are not a function of the stimulus. e. most objects readily change their shape, but not color.

18 5. According the Rescorla, we are most likely to pay attention to information that precedes the UCS only if 5. _______ a) one has noticed others who know what the UCS will predict. b) it also follows the UCS. c) it provides information about the UCR. d) it becomes a CR. e) it provides unique information about the UCS.

19 24) George is a swimmer, he made a bad turn during the last lab and his head and neck on the wall. He is now having trouble breathing, which of the following brain stem areas would be responsible for this function? A) pons B) thalamus C) reticular formation D) medulla E) cerebellum

20 18. Negative reinforcement involves 18. ______ a) pairing an old reflex with a new stimulus. b) the removal of an aversive stimulus. c) providing an unpleasant stimulus periodically during the day. d) the learning of a new response. e) decreasing the likelihood of certain future behaviors.

21 3) Damage to the ________ would be expected to impair your ability to name three exciting news events that occurred after this damage to your brain. A) hippocampus B) corpus callosum C) reticular formation D) hypothalamus E) thalamus

22 13) experimenters have found by using virtual reality goggles that children as young as ________ may show evidence of depth perception. 13) ______ a. 2 months b. 12 months c. 2 weeks d. 2 years e. 6 months

23 5) ________ was the author of The Interpretation of Dreams (1900). A) James B) Broca C) Freud D) Hall E) Darwin

24 4) You and your brother have the same parents but look very different. The difference in your looks is an expression of your different A) genotypes. B) habitats. C) environmental selections. D) neurons. E) phenotypes.

25 24) Which of the following statements is true? 5) _______ a. The environment will always influence how our genes display themselves. b. Humans have evolved from monkeys. c. According to an evolutionary psychologist, nurture is more important that nature. d. The is no way for parents to select the gender of their future child. e. Our genes always influence our environment.

26 5) A drug that mimics the effects of neurotransmitters, thus enhancing production is called a A) antagonist. B) hormone. C) endorphin. D) neurotransmitter. E) agonist.

27 3) A maximum level of sexual arousal is reached during the ________ phase of the human sexual response cycle. A) orgasm B) plateau C)resolution D) excitement E) climax

28 6. ________ is a procedure for changing behavior by reinforcing responses that approach the desired goal. 6. _______ a) Shaping b) Molding c) Natural selection d) Counterconditioning e) Behavioral analysis

29 8) The ________ is a limbic region that ultimately controls the endocrine system. A) adrenal cortex B) pituitary gland C) reticular formation D) amygdala E) hypothalamus

30 12) According to the work of Stephen Kosslyn, he found that when participants were asked about objects A) most individuals are easily hypnotizable. B) they took the same amount of time to respond regardless of how large or small the detail asked for was. C) it took tem no longer to respond regardless of whether or not they had to rotate and object. D) they took longer to respond as the details asked for became smaller. E) it took them longer to rotate objects in space.

31 12) Alfred works in a laboratory at The University of Freud, he runs rats through mazes to determine how long it will take them to form a cognitive map. Alfred is primarily working the the field of A) Experimental Psychology. B) Industrial/Organizational Psychology. C) Applied Psychology. D) School Psychology. E) Engineering Psychology.

32 7) If you attribute your success on an an exam to your study habits, you are using ________ to explain your performance. A) external locus of control B) internal locus of control C) unconscious motivation D) preconscious motivation E) intrinsic motivation

33 16) Sleep apnea is A) common in premature infants. B) associated with high blood oxygen levels. C) a lower respiratory sleep disorder. D) a common cause of insomnia. E) a surgical technique that can prevent loud snoring.

34 10. New information is related to older memory information during the memory process of 10. ______ a. rehearsing. b. elaboration. c. encoding. d. storage. e. retrieval.

35 13) Hearing a bird sing involves the transfer of auditory information from the ear through the spinal cord, then the reticular activating system, then to the ________ which will direct messages to the auditory cortex. A) Broca's area B) the pons C) the auditory hemisphere D) the hypothalamus E) the thalamus

36 8) The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a type of ________ test. A) personality B) aptitude C) achievement D) projection E) intelligence

37 12) The sympathetic nervous system A) only operates during times of low stress. B) prepares the body to cope with a dangerous situation. C) permits people to react with empathy to tragic situations. D) keeps rage and death instincts under control. E) inhibits the release of hormones.

38 16) Randomization A) reduces experimenter bias. B) must be used with great caution. C) is a good way to define the dependent variable. D) is difficult to achieve in research. E) ensures that studies can be replicated.

39 8. You are baby sitting one Friday evening and after the children are in bed you decide to watch the movie 'Scream'. After watching the movie you are sure that you hear sounds coming from the basement and are frightened that there may be a killer in the house. In reality the chances that someone has broken into the house are no better than they were before you watched the film, however your are still scared. This is an example of which of the following a. hindsight bias. b. confirmation bias. c. an anchoring bias. d. the availability heuristic. e. divergent thinking.

40 19) A scientist who is skeptical about a particular study can decide to run that study in their laboratory. This would represent ________ the original research study. A) rearranging B) referencing C) reanalyzing D) replicating E) reconfiguring

41 18) A Necker cube is an example of a(n) 18) ______ a. Gestalt creation. b. phosphene. c. mental set. d. ambiguous figure. e. pheromone.

42 19. Judy has cancer and is receiving chemotherapy at a local hospital. Her parents notice that she now rejects food that she willingly ate last week (before chemotherapy). Through the process of ________, the food is now acting as ________. 19. ______ a) negative reinforcement; conditioned stimulus b) aversive conditioning; conditioned stimulus c) appetitive conditioning; conditioned stimulus d) operant conditioning; negative reinforcer e) conditioned reinforcement; unconditioned response

43 18) A key step in the Integrated Anger Management program is to A) rid oneself of unrealistic goals. B) eliminate most sources of anger. C) use anger in a healthy way. D) learn to express safely anger. E) understand the purpose of anger.

44 21. Randomization 21. ______ a. is a good way to define the dependent variable. b. reduces experimenter bias. c. must be used with great caution. d. ensures that studies can be replicated. e. is difficult to achieve in research.

45 20) A theory is A) an unsupported opinion. B) a testable explanation for the data. C) a statement that has not been supported with facts. D) the opposite of a fact. E) a possible conclusion

46 10) Which of the following does not happen during REM sleep? A) sleep walking B) sleep paralysis C) vivid images and thoughts D) dreams E) All of the above occur in REM sleep

47 6. A heuristic is BEST described as a 6. _______ a. schema. b. step-by-step procedure. c. rule of thumb. d. time-consuming process that guarantees success. e. categorization process from general to specific.

48 16. Which of the following is true of the difference between operant and classical conditioning? 16. ______ a) Classical conditioning is used to learn new useful behaviors. b) Classical conditioning requires a stimulus that follows the UCR. c) Food is presented after the response in classical conditioning. d) Operant conditioning involves the modification of an old reflex. e) Food is presented before the response in classical conditioning.

49 21) Empirical research is important because it A) tests theories by using good scientific practices. B) allows psychology to use data to drive it's conclusions. C) allows psychology to rely on more than just speculation. D) can eliminate the flaws of pseudoscience. E) All of the above are correct.

50 15) Which of the following is NOT true of daydreams? A) They occur more often in those with fantasy prone personalities. B) They magnify unwanted thoughts or obsessions. C) They are under our control. D) They are most common in young adults. E) They help us to creatively confront and solve problems.

51 22) Which of the following processes are involved in natural selection, the driving force behind evolution? A) Al l are correct B) The offspring of some individuals survive in greater numbers than do those of others. C) Individuals best adapted to the environment have a survival advantage. D) Individuals that are poorly adapted tend to have fewer offspring. E) Some individuals reproduce more successfully than others.

52 1) The principle that predict when parents of newborn's hear their children crying but siblings sleep through the night. 1) _______ a. difference threshold b. Weber's law c. absolute threshold d. signal detection theory e. sensory adaptation

53 13) Which of the following is a definition of consciousness suggested by the Core Concept of this section? A) Consciousness allows us to respond reflexively, without thinking. B) Consciousness controls the autonomic nervous system. C) Consciousness makes us more alert. D) Consciousness processes information serially. E) All levels of consciousness are essentially the same.

54 A study in which participation is NOT voluntary and informed is said to involve A.A double-blind control B.Debriefing C.Deception D.Vivisection E.Counter conditioning

55 20) Sleep apnea can be dangerous for adults because it A) can cause a migraine. B) causes lower back pain. C) can reduce heart rate. D) causes a loss of muscle tone. E) elevates blood pressure, which in turn stresses the heart.

56 21) People with emotional intelligence A) are extremely emotionally responsive B) are extremely intelligent. C) know how to control their emotional responses. D) feel no emotions. E) can always deceive a polygrapher.

57 23) Which two factors are emphasized by the two-factor theory of emotion? A) biological arousal and cognitive interpretation B) biological arousal and subjective feelings C) cognitive interpretation and behavioral expression D) subjective feelings and cognitive interpretation E) subjective feelings and behavioral expression

58 5) Loudness is determined by sound 5) _______ a. pitch. b. speed. c. amplitude. d. frequency. e. quality.

59 Dr. Dolin wants to test the effects his new “wonder drug,” which he believes provides individuals with an abundance of memory ability. He gives 50 males the drug while 50 males receive a placebo. His patients do not know whether they are taking the placebo or drug. Then, he has one of his research assistants use a test to measure the memory of all of the test subjects. This would be said to A.Be a correlational study B.Be a double-blind study C.Be a study with no control group D.Have 2 independent variables E.Be difficult to replicate

60 21. If a set of data has a relatively low variability, this means that 2. _______ a) the scores in the data set are statistically significant. b) the scores in the data set have a negative correlation. c) the scores in the data set have a zero correlation. d) the scores in the data set a closely clustered around the mean. e) the scores in the data set are extremely diverse.

61 21) Who objected most strenuously to defining psychology as the science of consciousness? A) the Freudians B) the cognitive psychologists C) the behaviorists D) the humanists E) the neurologists

62 In an experiment, the factor that is controlled by the experimenter is the A.Independent Variable B.Control Group C.Experimental Group D.Dependent Variable E.Hypothesis

63 9) A(n) percept consists of ________ in combination with ________. 9) _______ a. stimulus; a receptor b. afterimage; a motor response c. receptor; a sensory pathway d. sensation; associated meaning e. phosgene; associated meaning

64 16) The process of ________ involves starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities. A) emotion B) self-actualization C) motivation D) arousal E) drive

65 3) The deepest point in the sleep cycle, when brain waves activity is the slowest, occurs in A) REM sleep, about one hour after falling asleep. B) Stage 4, about a half hour after falling asleep. C) REM sleep, about one hour before waking up. D) Stage 1, about three hours after falling asleep. E) Stage 4, about two hours before waking up.

66 14) Annie is working on a new perfume. her perfume has hints of lavender and rose. She has just added some more lavender, there is just enough for her to detect the change. This is an example of a 14) ______ a. transduction. b. Fechner's Law. c. absolute threshold. d. sensory receptors. e. just noticeable difference.

67 16) Which of the following best illustrates the idea that perception is not an exact internal copy of the world, but also based on one's experience in the world? 16) ______ a. the Ponzo illusion b. bottom-up processing c. a bright light d. jumping in response to a pinprick e. the sound of a familiar tune

68 18) According to Freud, which of the following is likely to be found in one's unconscious? A) sexual urges B) a person's internment at a P.O.W. camp C) powerfully negative memories from childhood D) threatening impulses E) All of the above are examples of thoughts Freud would suggest we hold in our unconscious.

69 Which of the following correlations shows the strongest relationship between two variables? A.+0.4 B.+0.38 C.–0.7 D.+0.05 E.–0.64

70 22) Which of the following statements is true regarding addiction? A) The reinforcing nature of drugs ensures low addiction rates. B) Some psychologists suggest that treating addiction as a disease ignores the social and economic factors that surround the problem. C) Research has proven conclusively that addiction is a brain disease. D) Most public health professionals view addiction as a character weakness. E) The cycle of addiction is most efficiently broken with a combination of punishment for relapses.

71 17) The most complex and highly developed sense for humans is 17) ______ a. sight. b. pain. c. hearing. d. taste. e. touch.

72 20) Which of the following situations is NOT processed primarily by the limbic system? 1) _______ a. You are feeling hungry because you have not eaten since yesterday. b. You remember how your grandmother's living room looked. c. You are trying to reason through a logic problem in math class. d. You feel aroused by the good-looking person sitting next to you. e. You get angry and want to hit a person who has just bumped into you.

73 14) According to Freud, the manifest content of a dream refers to A) the setting of the dream. B) whether the dream is in color or black and white. C) the story line of the dream. D) the symbolic meaning of the dream. E) the emotional tone of the dream.

74 21) All of the following are examples of descriptive Statistics except for 2) _______ a. range. b. median. c. mode. d. statistical significance. e. mean.

75 Which of the following sets of factors is ALL associated with the indicated perspective? A.Memory, personality, environment: Behaviorist Perspective B.Changes through the life span, changes as the result of mental illness, changes as the result of social pressure: Developmental Perspective C.Mental health, mental disorder, mental imagery: Trait Perspective D.Neuroscience, evolutionary/socio-biological psychology, genetics: Biological Perspective E.Sensation, perception, memory: Psychoanalytic Perspective

76 23) Damage to the ________ would impair our ability to plan and reason. 4) _______ a. spinal cord b. cerebral cortex c. autonomic nervous system d. limbic system e. hypothalamus

77 3. Intermittent reinforcement is particularly effective for maintaining behavior because such reinforcement 3. _______ a) has frequency and generalizability. b) has discriminability and consistency. c) produces resistance to extinction. d) has predictability and physicality. e) has popularity and generosity.

78 22) The two factors that determine the likelihood of engaging in behavior, according to Rotter's social-learning theory, are ________. A) want and need B) desire and love C) expectation and value D) nature and nurture E) time and money

79 8. ________ was a dietician be training, but during an experiment testing the salivary gland of dogs, he discovered ________ conditioning. 8. _______ a) Watson; observational b) Pavlov; classical c) Bandura; insight d) Skinner; operant e) Pavlov; operant

80 2. Because of the limited capacity of ________, it is unsafe to talk on a cell phone while driving on a freeway during rush-hour. 2. _______ a. echoic memory b. procedural memory c. episodic memory d. working memory e. sensory memory

81 24) Which of the following functions would be considered a non conscious process? A) telling your Mother you love her B) digesting the cheeseburger you ate for lunch C) studying for your psychology exam D) painting a picture of a landscape E) All of the above are non conscious processes

82 17) Robert Plutchik believes that A) only individuals with a similar cultural background can recognize one another's facial expressions. B) there are 8 universal facial expressions that combine to form many other emotional responses. C) facial expressions are learned primarily as a result of modeling our parents facial expressions. D) there are no universally recognized facial expressions. E) Eckman is correct when proposing the idea of seven universal facial expressions.

83 Psychology is different from other disciplines, such as psychiatry, which deal with people because A.Psychology focuses on mental disorder B.Psychology is a broader field, covering all aspects of behavior and mental processes C.Psychologists must have doctoral degrees D.Psychologists do research E.Psychologists have medical degrees

84 12. If Pavlov's dogs had been adopted by a nice family after the experiments ended and they eventually stopped salivating to a bell, but then suddenly when the door bell rang they began salivating again they would be demonstrating 12. ______ a) a neutral response. b) stimulus discrimination. c) spontaneous recovery. d) an unconditioned response. e) extinction.

85 13. One of the best therapy strategies for eliminating conditioned fears involves combining ________ in a process known as ________, first described by Mary Cover Jones. 13. ______ a) extinction and relaxation; counterconditioning b) conditioned and unconditioned responses; discrimination c) primary and secondary reinforcers; social learning d) arousal and stress reduction; shaping e) negative and positive reinforcement; aversion

86 Which of the following psychological perspectives would be most likely to examine humans’ genetic makeup and how that may influence behavior? A.Socio-cultural B.Biological C.Psychodynamic D.Behavioral E.Cognitive

87 17. The findings of Wolfgang Kohler oppose the statements of behaviorists, because 17. ______ a) animals are going beyond simple reward/ punishment behaviors. b) the rats received food as a reinforcer. c) the rats were demonstrating reflexive responses. d) the rats behaviors were influenced by their environment. e) All of the above are correct

88 20. One likely difference between a psychiatrist and psychologist is that a psychiatrist would tend to use more 1. _______ a) talk therapy when dealing with clients having difficulties. b) cognitive therapy when dealing with clients irrational thoughts. c) medicine to treat those suffering from mental illness. d) research than psychologists. e) behavioral modification with their clients.

89 The American Psychological Association guidelines state that research participants must A.Be paid or rewarded for their participation B.Never be deceived under any circumstances C.Never participate in blind research D.Be debriefed after the study if the research involves deception E.Waive their right to privacy if they volunteer for a study

90 22. In purely evolutionary terms, which one would be a measure of your own success as an organism? 3. _______ a) your intellectual accomplishments b) the length of your life c) the number of children you have d) the attractiveness of the individual you marry e) the contributions you made to the happiness of humanity

91 24. Experiments showing facilitated communication to be effective were similar to the experiment that exposed Clever Hans. Specifically, what did both experimental procedures have in common? 5. _______ a) In both situations, correct answers were given about half of the time. b) They proved that someone was purposely trying to provide false results for the studies. c) Neither Von Osten nor the facilitators could see the questions. d) Both Hans and the autistic children were given incentives for producing correct answers. e) Neither the horse nor the autistic children could see the questions.

92 1. During the memory process of ________, we select, identify the correct format for the memory system. 1. _______ a. processing b. storage c. retrieval d. access e. encoding

93 Which of the following best illustrates the job of an Engineering psychologist? A.A person who designs wheelchairs that are easier to maneuver for those with physical restrictions B.A person who drives a train C.A person who produces personality tests D.A person who works in a hospital helping individuals who have been in an accident to recover lost skills E.A person who creates a work schedule that will maximize the productiveness of employees

94 18) Sleep and dreaming is regulated by the A) hippocampus. B) amygdala. C) the pons. D) pituitary gland. E) thalamus.

95 7) Suppose that you are working in a sleep laboratory where you are monitoring a subject's sleep recording during the night. As the night progresses, you would expect that A) Stage 1 continuously appears. B) the four-stage cycle gradually lengthens. C) Stage 3 and Stage 4 sleep periods lengthen. D) dreaming becomes less frequent. E) REM periods become longer.

96 5. Absent-mindedness in a college student would typically involve 5. _______ a. a failure of iconic memory. b. trying to study while watching television. c. a failure to encode a stimulus event. d. a failure to connect new input to previously stored information. e. an old memory making it difficult to recall a newer one.

97 9. According to Freud, those individuals who had been held in concentration camps during word war II would ________ these memories because they are too painful to remember. 9. _______ a. repress b. project c. ignore d. remember e. displace

98 11) You are sleeping and are suddenly startled by the fire alarm in your house going off, almost immediately you are awake and ready to find your family to help them outside. Which of the flowing areas of the brain stem would most likely be responsible for your speedy alert behavior? A) medulla B) pons C) reticular formation D) brain stem E) cerebellum

99 8) ________ refers to the fact that we do not know how the brain combines features into a single percept. What do we call this lack of knowledge. 8) _______ a. The uncertainty principle b. Combinatory confusion c. Gestalt perception d. The binding problem e. Sensorimotor flux

100 11. The ________ theory claims that establishing more connections with long-term memories makes information more meaningful and memorable and thus easier to recall. 11. ______ a. distributed learning b. levels-of-processing c. engram d. spatial analyses e. mood-congruent

101 12. Many individuals can remember an entire sentence that is read to them even though it exceeds the amount of information we can generally hold in short-term memory. They do this by 12. ______ a. using long-term memory. b. employing the method of Loci. c. using their sketch pad. d. using sensory memory. e. using the phonological loop.

102 14) Secretions from the thyroid gland control A) uterine contractions. B) breast milk excretion. C) stress reaction. D) sperm production. E) metabolism.

103 14. Professors who offer only a final exam grade for the entire semester grade are forgetting the operant conditioning principle that 14. ______ a) a single test may not assess what an individuals knows about a given subject. b) students cognitive abilities should be studies more deeply. c) contingencies of reinforcement must occur with more frequency to motivate behavior. d) students may learn become conditioned to fear an exam because it causes anxiety. e) All of the above are correct

104 Which of the following measures of central tendencies is most affected by extreme scores? A.Mean B.Correlation C.Mode D.Frequency Distribution E.Median

105 According to the evolutionary approach to psychology, behavioral and mental _____ should be a primary focus of psychology. A.Observation B.Growth C.Conflicts D.Adaptiveness E.Structures

106 14. Usually about 500 people attend the annual exquisite Irish food festival. This year however about 5000 people have attended because the word has spread that the boiled cabbage last year was "out of this world". Kelly who is organizing the event knows that there is usually 500 people there, while she knows more people are in attendance she estimates the crowd to be about 1000 people. She is probably underestimating the crowd due to 14. ______ a. the representativeness heuristic. b. mental set. c. cognitive maps. d. the anchoring bias. e. self-imposed limitations.

107 2) The sensory pathways carry information 2) _______ a. from the sense organs to the brain. b. from the muscles to the brain. c. from the brain to the sense organs. d. from the central nervous system to the autonomic nervous system. e. from the brain to the muscles.

108 15. ________ occurs when memories are retrievable, but they are associated with the wrong time, place, or person. 15. ______ a. Bias b. Misattribution c. Repression d. Priming e. Interference.

109 Ted is seeing a humanistic psychologist for therapy. His psychologist is most likely to focus on A.Cultural guidelines that shaped Ted’s personality B.How Ted’s parents shaped his behavior C.Striving for growth and developing potential D.The conflict between personal desires and social restrictions E.Ted’s unconscious resentment of his siblings

110 19) Nerve impulses that carry information travel along ________ to specialized processing areas in the brain. 19) ______ a. vestibular canals b. nerve endings c. photoreceptors d. olfactory epithelium e. sensory pathways

111 10) Nerve fibers that interconnect the left side of the brain to the right side of the body (and vice versa) cross over the brain midline at the A) hypothalamus. B) brain stem. C) amygdala. D) cerebrum. E) thalamus.

112 17. Wendell is a great surfer but he never considers surfing as a career, instead he goes into accounting which he has no real passion for, Wendell is exhibiting 17. ______ a. functional fixedness. b. a heuristic. c. self-imposed limitations. d. an error identifying the problem. e. a algorithm.

113 17) All of the following can be helpful in treating insomnia except A) associating one's bedroom with sleeping only (not studying, watching television, etc.). B) having parents of newborn infants go about their normal day instead of trying not to make any noise while the child is sleeping. C) trying to reduce levels of stress on a daily basis. D) using cognitive-behavioral therapy to get to sleep faster. E) All of the above would be useful in reducing insomnia

114 18. Place the following stages regarding language development in the correct order. 18. ______ a. babbling, one-word, two-word, telegraphic b. one-word, two-word, babbling, telegraphic c. babbling, two-word, one-word, telegraphic d. one-word, babbling, two-word, telegraphic e. babbling, one-word, telegraphic, two-word

115 19. The sensory register for vision is called ________ memory, whereas the sensory register for hearing is called ________ memory. 19. ______ a. explicit; implicit b. olfactory; auditory c. declarative; procedural d. iconic; echoic e. implicit; explicit

116 4) The pattern of human physiological processes seems to be controlled by an internal "biological clock" that is A) coordinated by neurons in the hypothalamus. B) set on a 12-hour cycle. C) identical for all people. D) unaffected by the world's daylight-dark cycles. E) unrelated to work schedules and travel.

117 22. You are holding an ice cube in your left hand. You touch it and find that it is hard and slick and cold. Soon the coldness becomes painful. Most of this information is processed by the ________, held in the ________ lobe. 22. ______ a. somatosensory; frontal b. motor; frontal c. association; parietal d. visual; occipital e. somatosensory; parietal

118 6) Which of the following is true of dreams? A) Men dream about men twice as often as they dream of women. B) Americans seldom dream of being naked in public. C) Adults are more likely than children to dream of large, threatening animals. D) Male dreams are more likely to feature friendly exchanges rather than hostility. E) Men are equally likely to dream of children than are women.

119 24. Using the Premack principle, once you have finished studying for your next biology test you should 24. ______ a. study for a different test. b. do something you enjoy. c. work on your biology homework assignment. d. teach the biology material to a friend or classmate. e. not study for at least two hours.

120 9) The drug ________ has a greater negative effect on health than does all the other psychoactive drugs combined. A) heroin B) alcohol C) PCP D) LSD E) nicotine

121 12) Shannon reads Jason the words 'folk,' 'soak,' and 'joke.' Then she asks him, "What do you call the white of an egg?" He replies by saying, "Yolk," when the correct answer is albumen (or simply, egg white). Jason gave an incorrect answer due to 12) ______ a. a perceptual set. b. closure. c. a perceptual illusion. d. bottom-up processing. e. the law of common fate.

122 7) In terms of sound waves, frequency refers to the 7) _______ a. physical strength of the wave as determined by the listener. b. loudness of the sound. c. relative complexity of the wave form. d. number of vibrations the wave completes in a given time. e. peak-to-valley height of the wave.

123 1) The ________ memory system is linked to an emotion processing system that functions at an conscious level. A) working B) implicit C) explicit D) retroactive E) long-term

124 2) From an evolutionary perspective, which part of our brain is the oldest and looks much the same as any other lower order animal? A) frontal lobe B) cerebral cortex C) limbic system D) brain stem E) parietal lobe

125 2) The notion that some arousal can facilitate performance but that too much arousal inhibits behavior is known as the A) two-factor theory. B) display rules theory. C) notion of homeostasis. D) inverted "U" function. E) James-Lange theory of emotion.

126 6) The "master gland" is a term that refers to the A) thyroid gland. B) thalamus. C) pituitary gland. D) adrenal gland. E) hypothalamus.

127 15) The process of ________ is responsible for the conversion of physical energy to neural impulses. 15) ______ a. psychophysics b. plasticity c. adaptation d. transduction e. absolute threshold

128 5) In animal experiments. those who received lesions to the amygdala were found to A) have induced anxiety and fear. B) suffer from impaired spatial ability. C) have decreased capacity for language. D) have an increased appetite. E) have a decreased level of fear.

129 6) Which of the following hormones is often associated with depression? A) steroids B) serotonin C) epinephrine D) acetylcholine E) norepinephrine

130 9) ________ is an arousal state that is adaptive for coping with important emergency situations. A) Motivation B) Homeostasis C) Emotion D) Instinct E) Perception

131 17) The genetic structure you inherited from your parents is referred to as your A) phenotype. B) genetic hardiness. C) genotype. D) genomic identity. E) chromotype.

132 11) The role of the limbic system in emotion is to A) dampen emotional arousal. B) arouse the whole brain simultaneously when we are aroused. C) trigger the internal and external behaviors involved in emotions. D) integrates the hormonal and neural emotional aspects. E) makes a person's heart race when aroused.

133 10) Interior designers use the principle of illusions to create 'space' in an otherwise small room by 10) ______ a. using many decorative accessories. b. painting it in light colors. c. painting it in dark colors. d. hanging draperies the same colors as the walls to make the walls appear longer. e. placing much furniture in the room to give it a cozy feeling.

134 9) Our ability to breathe is controlled by the ________ which is located within the ________. A) pons; forebrain B) medulla; brainstem C) brain stem; medulla D) cerebellum; midbrain E) thalamus; forebrain

135 3) Frequency theory ALONE would best describe how a person can hear pitches of 3) _______ a. 8300 Hz. b. 5200Hz. c. 4800 Hz. d. 2200 Hz. e. 890 Hz.

136 In an experiment to test the impact a sports drink had on amount of energy, individuals were given either water or a sports drink. They then watched a television show about basketball for 30 minutes and then were assessed on a number of physical tasks. The independent variable is ________ and the dependent variable is ________. A.The amount of energy; the type of drink B.The water; the sports drink C.The sports drink; the water D.The type of drink; the amount of energy E.TV show; drink

137 9. Which one of the following is a conditioned reinforcer for most people? 9. _______ a) food b) sex c) a sharp pain in the back d) money e) water

138 7. When your alarm clock rings loudly until you turn it off, it is acting as a 7. _______ a) negative punishment. b) positive reinforcer. c) unconditioned stimulus. d) positive punishment. e) negative reinforcement.

139 14) Which of the following factors may contribute to eating disorders in young people? A) trying to reach an unrealistic goal of thinness B) seeing models who are extremely thin C) the ability to have some control over their lives D) being told they look good when they are thin E) All of the above

140 4. For Pavlov, a tone is to food as 4. _______ a) a neutral stimulus (NS) is to an conditioned response (CR). b) an orienting response (OR) is to a conditioned stimulus (CS). c) an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is to an unconditioned response (UCR). d) a conditioned stimulus (CS) is to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). e) a conditioned response (CR) is to an operant stimulus (OS).

141 22) John Dewey is well-known for founding which of the following areas of study within psychology? 3) _______ a. Gestalt Psychology b. learning by listening to lectures c. progressive education which emphasizes learning by "doing" d. memorization of facts e. insight learning

142 11. If Tyler is given an allowance of $5.00 on every Friday for doing his chores, we should expect that he will 11. ______ a) never know when he will be rewarded. b) not do many chores until just before allowance time. c) keep doing his chores, even when he no longer receives allowance. d) do his chores to prevent punishment by his parents. e) work hard consistently throughout the week.

143 15) Which two components are part of Schacter and Singer's theory of emotion? A) our emotional and physical state B) the situations we are currently in, and the environment in which we were raised C) our physical and and psychological state D) our physical state and the situation we are in E) our physical state and the last time we felt a given emotion

144 7) Hormones are chemicals secreted into the bloodstream by A) neurotransmitters. B) axon terminals. C) endocrine glands. D) synapses. E) dendritic terminals.

145 15. The fact that taste aversions ________ poses a problem for classical conditioning theory. 15. ______ a) part of our biological make-up b) are difficult to measure c) not consistent d) learned through observation e) generalizable

146 4. Highly emotional memories such as those which many prisoner's of war have experienced may cause post- traumatic stress disorder. Recent research has found which brain structure to play a significant role in these emotional memories? 4. _______ a. hypothalamus b. pituitary c. reticular activating system d. pons e. amygdala

147 20) In almost all cultures, women tend to ________ than men. A) show more anger during conflicts B) use different emotional display rules C) hide more emotions D) be more emotional E) show more sadness

148 24) A person who is trying to hide their true feelings will A) tend to blink more frequently. B) become more aroused. C) show a forced smile. D) show dilation of the pupils. E) end to speak more rapidly.

149 23. Wavelength translates into ________ while intensity will affect the ________ of what we see. 4. _______ a) amplitude; color b) color; brightness c) amplitude; brightness d) brightness; color e) None of the above

150 The occurrence of daytime sleep attacks is a symptom of A) narcolepsy. B) sleep paralysis. C) insomnia. D) sleep apnea. E) daytime sleepiness.

151 2) ________ is(are) the leading cause of preventable disease. A) Risky sexual practices B) Smoking C) Morphine addiction D) Alcohol abuse E) Barbiturate overdose

152 10. Jenna walks into her science class laboratory, and she immediately feels queasy. Today is the day her class is dissecting frogs and she is sickened by the smell of the formaldehyde. However, after an hour Jenna is no longer sickened because of 10. ______ a) operant conditioning. b) spontaneous recovery. c) her reflexes. d) habituation. e) classical conditioning.

153 25) ________ is caused by a drop in blood plasma levels, while ________ results from water moving through the cell walls of your body and escaping in the form of sweat, urine, feces and moisture in your breath. A) Volumetric thirst; hunger B) Hunger; thirst C) Hunger; osmotic thirst D) Thirst; hunger E) Volumetric thirst; osmotic thirst

154 23. Which of the following is NOT a monocular cue for depth perception? 23. ______ a. interposition b. retinal disparity c. relative motion d. relative size e. relative height

155 8) Individuals may be drawn to stimulants for their euphoric capabilities, however they side effects of stimulants may include A) decreased memory. B) convulsions. C) dehydration. D) high addiction rates. E) All of the above

156 3. Your friend Edward is lost and needs your help finding the mall, you find out where he is and then guide him verbally to his destination. Your ability to give Edward good directions to the mall is based on a 3. _______ a. hindsight bias. b. prototype. c. hierarchy. d. cognitive map. e. mental set.

157 11) The ________ argues that we sleep in order to conserve energy. A) evolutionary theory B) Freudian view C) homeostatic D) activation-synthesis theory E) clinical psychology view

158 19) Which of the following is true of hypnosis? A) Hypnotic analgesia is blocked by naloxone. B) Hypnosis is accompanied by delta wave activity of the brain. C) Hypnosis is a form of non-REM sleep. D) Hypnosis is a state of awareness associated with relaxation and susceptibility. E) Hypnosis is a form of REM sleep.

159 20. A behavioral psychologist studying the causes of alcohol usage would most likely 20. ______ a. determine patterns of alcohol usage within different cultures. b. measure brain changes following alcohol consumption. c. observe how people behave after consuming alcohol. d. ask people why they consume alcohol. e. ask people how they feel while they are consuming alcohol.

160 23) According to cognitive neuroscience, A) the consciousness mind has little access to the larger world of mental activity in the unconscious. B) consciousness does not exist. C) consciousness has no relation to the brain. D) creativity arises from altered states of consciousness. E) consciousness is a product of the brain.

161 13) Jenny does not want to exercise, but she also does not want to be out of shape for the upcoming tennis season. She is struggling through ________ conflict. A) avoidance-avoidance B) multiple approach-avoidance C) approach-avoidance D) approach-approach E) None of the above

162 10) Overjustification is most likely to occur when A) Marcia is asked out to her senior prom. B) Peter receives a trip to Hawaii for being named Salesman Of The Year. C) Bobby walks his dog, Tiger. D) Jan is punished for refusing to set the dinner table. E) Cindy is given a trophy for riding her bicycle.

163 4) According to the evolutionary theory, the goal of both sexes is to A) reduce anger and stress. B) create as many offspring as possible. C) achieve orgasm. D) get a consistent amount of nightly sleep. E) eat until full.

164 Which of the following correlation coefficients would a statistician know, at first glance is a mistake? A.0.0 B.+1.1 C.+1.0 D.–0.7 E.–0.2

165 Dr. Sutherland measures the blood pressure of 50 women. She has 25 women exercise three times per week for eight weeks. She instructs the other 25 women to not exercise at all. After eight weeks, Dr. Sutherland measures the blood pressure of all 50 women again. She finds that the blood pressure decreased for the exercising women, but not for the others. Which of the following could NOT be a confounding/extraneous variable? A.The blood pressure at the end of the study B.The women’s blood pressure at the start of the study C.The dietary habits of each woman during the study D.The amount of stress in each woman’s life E.The age of each woman who participated


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