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CSL6805.01 Chapters 6 - 9.

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Presentation on theme: "CSL6805.01 Chapters 6 - 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 CSL Chapters 6 - 9

2 Agenda Chapters: 6, 7, 8 & 9 Experiential Group Exercises - Psychoanalytic approach, Adlerian approach, Psychodrama approach

3 Course Competencies Defining the origins of group counseling, including the leaders and time frames Applying specific theories of practice to group counseling Applying group dynamics and processes Modeling appropriate group techniques for use in schools, community, and organizational settings Providing and synthesizing the exchange of feedback between self and other leaders and group members

4 Psychoanalytic Approach
Contributions Sigmund Freud ( ) Austria Erik Erickson ( ) Germany-US:Boston Alexander Wolf – began working with groups in 1938 Influenced many other models of group work

5 Sigmund Freud Father of Psychoanalysis

6 Erik Erikson

7 Goal of Analytic Group Restructuring the client’s character and personality system Make unconscious conflicts conscious and examine them Reenact the family of origin in a symbolic way Historical past of each member is repeated in group Regressive-reconstructive approach Regression into each member’s past to achieve the therapeutic goal of personality reconstruction

8 Psychoanalytic Key Concepts
Influence of the past Experiences of first 6 years of life are seen as the roots of one’s conflicts in the present The Unconscious Thoughts, feelings, experiences kept out of awareness as a protection against anxiety Anxiety and ego defenses Anxiety is feeling of dread resulting from repressed feelings, memories, desires Ego defenses protect ego from threatening thoughts and feelings

9 Ego-Defense Mechanisms
Are normal behaviors which operate on an unconscious level and tend to deny or distort reality Members often manifest same defenses in a group that operate in their lives outside of the group Help the individual cope with anxiety and prevent the ego from being overwhelmed Have adaptive value if they do not become a style of life to avoid facing reality Defenses, if respected, can lead to greater self-understanding in a group setting

10 Ego-defense Mechanisms
Repression – distressed thoughts pushed into the unconscious Denial – suppresses reality in conscious Regression – return to less mature developmental level during severe stress Projection – attributing own unacceptable thoughts & feelings to others Displacement – redirection of some emotion from a real source to a substitute person or object Reaction formation – behaving in a manner that is opposite to one’s real feelings Rationalization – justify behavior

11 Transference and Countertransference
The member reacts to the therapist as he/she did to an earlier significant other This allows the member to experience feelings that would otherwise be inaccessible In groups, multiple transferences provide for re-enacting of past unfinished conflicts Analysis of transference—a hallmark of analytic groups Countertransference The reaction of group leader toward certain members that may interfere with objectivity; results in distorted perception Countertransference is something to understand and explore

12 Resistance Resistance
Anything that works against the progress of group therapy and prevents the production of unconscious material Analysis of Resistance Helps members to see ways they typically defend against anxiety These acts interfere with the ability to accept changes which could lead to a more satisfying life Applied to group therapy, resistance, if recognized can be the material to explore more deeply Resistance is not a negative force to be defeated, but something to understand and respect in members

13 Role of Group Therapist
Some roles and functions of group therapist: Roles depend greatly on therapist’s leadership style Contemporary approach emphasizes therapeutic alliance Leader helps members to understand their transference reactions within the group and encourages exploration Therapist helps members face and deal with resistances Helps members to view the group as a social microcosm To carry out their functions, leaders need to understand their own dynamics and countertransference

14 Psychoanalytic Techniques
Free Association Individual reports immediately without censoring any feelings or thoughts Interpretation Group therapist points out, explains, and teaches the meanings of whatever is revealed Dream Analysis Dreams are the “royal road to the unconscious” Dreams can be productively worked within a group setting Members can share and explore dreams in a group

15 Developmental Perspective
Developmental stages: Implications for group work it is essential to understand stages of life to understand repressed feelings Freud’s psychosexual theory Basic aspects of traditional Freudian theory Erikson’s psychosocial theory Understanding critical turning points at each of the stages of life

16 Evaluation of Psychoanalytic Group
Contributions and strengths of the approach Important to understand how past contributes to present problem Concept of understanding the functions of resistance Provides a conceptual framework to understand anxiety and defense Transference and multiple transferences in a group Importance of understanding countertransference Limitations of the approach Limitations based on long-term approach for many clients Critique of traditional analytic approach from feminist perspective The approach has not given full attention to social and cultural factors

17 Adlerian Group Counseling
Inspired by Freudian psychoanalysis Founded by Alfred Adler ( ) Austria; US Rudolf Dreikurs popularized Adler’s work in US Alfred Adler

18 Alfred Adler’s Individual Psychology
Overview A phenomenological approach Social interest is stressed Birth order and sibling relationships Therapy as teaching, informing, and encouraging Basic mistakes in the individual’s private logic The therapeutic relationship—a collaborative partnership

19 The Phenomenological Approach
Adlerians attempt to view the world from the client’s subjective frame of reference How life is in reality is less important than how the individual believes life to be It is not the childhood experiences that are crucial—it is our present interpretation of these events that matters One’s subjective view includes beliefs, perceptions, and conclusions Adlerian group leaders strive to understand the member’s world

20 Social Interest Adler’s most significant and distinctive concept
Refers to an individual’s attitude toward and awareness of being a part of the human community Mental health is measured by the degree to which we successfully share with others and are concerned with their welfare Happiness and success are largely related to social connectedness Community feeling involves the sense of being connected to all of humanity Living entails the courage to face life’s problems

21 Birth Order Adler’s five psychological positions:
1) Oldest child—receives more attention, until dethroned 2) Second of only two—behaves as if in a race; often opposite to first child 3) Middle—often feels squeezed out 4) Youngest—the baby and pampered 5) Only—does not learn to share or cooperate with other children; learns to deal with adults

22 Style of Life Lifestyle is the story of our life
Private logic provides the lenses through which we view the world (beliefs about self, others, and the world) Fictional finalism is the imagined central goal of perfection that gives unity to our personality It is not childhood events that shape us, but our interpretation of these events We can reframe childhood experiences and consciously create a new style of life

23 Nature of maladjustment
A person has a mistaken opinion of himself or herself and of the world. A person engages in abnormal behavior to protect his or her opinion of self (e.g., when threatened with failure and insecurity) Inferiority complex: The individual is overwhelmed by a sense of inadequacy, hopelessness Superiority Complex: very high opinion of self, quick to argue personal solutions to problems are right Family constellation: Mediates the genetic and constitutional factors brought by the child and the cultural factors that influence the child. Safeguarding: Symptoms are developed for the purpose of safeguarding the fictional goal. The person becomes self-centered rather than other-centered The individual is unconscious of these events

24 Inferiority Feelings Inferiority feelings are based on our assessment that is subjective Sense of inferiority is not a negative factor Basic inferiority is springboard for mastering our environment To compensate, we strive for superiority Group members are encouraged to talk about feelings of inferiority

25 Role of Group Leader Adlerians stress an egalitarian and personal relationship Adlerian leaders develop collaborative relationships Leaders have the function of creating a structure that promotes: open interaction involvement nonjudgmental acceptance confrontation commitment

26 Stages of an Adlerian Group
Stage 1: Creating and maintaining good relationships Laying the foundation for cohesiveness and connection Stage 2: Analysis and assessment: Exploring individual’s dynamics Early recollections as an assessment procedure Identifying a pattern of basic mistakes Stage 3: Awareness and insight Gaining insight Interpretation done in a collaborative way Stage 4: Reorientation and reeducation A time for correcting faulty beliefs about self, life, and others Members encouraged to act “as if” they were who they wanted to be Encouragement is essential during this stage

27 Encouragement Encouragement is the most powerful method available for changing a person’s beliefs – a basic aspect of all stages but essential during reorientation (stage 4). Helps build self-confidence and stimulates courage Discouragement is the basic condition that prevents people from functioning Through encouragement, members experience their own inner resources and power to choose for themselves and direct their lives Members are encouraged to recognize that they have the power to choose and to act differently

28 How an Adlerian does Therapy
Comprehensive Assessment using: Family Constellation-questionnaire-social world assessment Early Reflections-single incidents from childhood Lifestyle Assessment-develop targets for therapy by identifying major successes and mistakes in the client’s life “The Question” -- If I had a magic wand that would eliminate your symptom immediately, what would be different in your life?”

29 What Clients do in Therapy
Explore private logic-concepts about self, others, & life – philosophy lifestyle is based upon Discover purposes of behavior or symptoms and basic mistakes associated with their coping Learn how to correct faulty assumptions & conclusions

30 Phases Stage # Stage Tasks to be accomplished Support 1 Empathy & Relationship Provide warmth, empathy, and acceptance. Generate hope, reassurance, and encouragement. Establish a cooperative, collaborative relationship. 2 Information Gather relevant information: Elicit details of presenting problem & life tasks. Explore early childhood influences and memories. Encouragement 3 Clarification Clarify vague thinking with Socratic questioning. Evaluate consequences of ideas and actions. Correct mistaken ideas about self and others. 4 Help generate alternatives. Stimulate movement in a new direction, away from life style. Clarifying new feelings about effort and results.

31 Adlerian Brief Group Therapy
Adlerian group counseling lends itself to brief interventions and time-limited formats Adlerian brief therapy is concise, deliberate, direct, effective, efficient, focused, planned, purposeful, and time-limited Some key principles of brief group work: Need for rapid establishment of strong therapeutic alliance Need for clear problem focus and goal alignment Rapid assessment is a must Active and directive interventions Focused on strengths and abilities of members A focus on both present and future Tailoring treatment to fit the unique needs of each member

32 Adlerian in Multicultural Context
Adlerian theory well suited to working with culturally diverse clients Approach gives emphasis to the person-in-the-environment Adlerians’ interest in social interest, in pursuing meaning in life, in belonging, and in the collective spirit fits well with group process Adlerian concepts and methods lend themselves to the creation of a healing community Various methods can be used to create a healing community Healing community is created by leaders who possess skills in winning cooperation, encouraging others, and establishing clear expectations

33 Evaluation of Adlerian Approach
Contributions and strengths of the approach The use of early recollections as a key to understanding one’s story The holistic nature of this approach The freedom allowed to Adlerian therapists to practice in unique ways Adlerian concepts have group applications in many settings Adlerian ideas are found in many other therapeutic approaches Limitations of the approach Unless Adlerian group leaders are well trained, they can make mistakes in interpreting members’ dynamics

34 Psychodrama Based on theories and methodology of J.L. Moreno ( ) Romania; Austria; US (1925) New York: Columbia Created in mid 1930s by J.L. Moreno and later developed by his wife, Zerka Moreno Complex method utilized by highly trained practitioners; offers tools for an integrative approach to group counseling

35 Psychodrama

36 Psychodrama An action approach to group therapy in which clients explore their problems through role playing, enacting situations using various dramatic devices to gain insight, discover their own creativity, and develop behavioral skills. Scenes are played in the here-and-now, even though they might have originated in a memory or anticipated event.

37 Key Concepts of Psychodrama
Creativity - generated through active experimentation Spontaneity – response to a new situation or a novel response to an old situation; involves reflection Working in the present moment – assign new meaning to events of the past Encounter – understanding others’ viewpoints through role reversal and other techniques Tele – the degree of preference a member has toward others; two-way flow of feeling between people

38 Key Concepts Surplus reality – reflect the dimensions of events that do not occur in actuality Catharsis – natural release of emotions and attitudes Insight – cognitive shift connecting awareness of emotional experience with an understanding Reality testing – trying out behaviors Role theory – examine roles we play, negotiate them, and choose different ways to play the roles

39 Basic Components of Psychodrama
The protagonist The person who is the focus of the enactment Protagonist selects the event to be explored Auxiliary egos Other members who take part in the enactment The audience Others in the group who observe and participate The stage The area where the psychodrama enactment occurs

40 Phases of Psychodrama The warm-up phase
Initial activities to increase involvement of entire group. Ex. Dyads to share conflicts they are experiencing; go-around technique Aimed at establishing an atmosphere of spontaneity The action phase Involves the enactment and working through of a past or present situation or of an anticipated event Protagonist is encouraged to move into action Theme is “Don’t tell us, show us” The sharing and discussion phase Sharing involves statements about oneself Discussion of the process comes after personal sharing

41 Techniques in Psychodrama
Self-presentation – protagonist gives a self-portrait to introduce the situation Role reversal – protagonist takes on the part of another personality portrayed in the drama; involves looking at oneself through another individual’s eyes Double – stands to the side of protagonist and says the words that aren’t spoken Soliloquy – verbalize thoughts or feelings Empty chair – talk to someone not there

42 Techniques Replay – redoing an action
Mirror technique – another member mirrors the protagonist’s postures, gestures, words; fosters self-reflection; must be used with discretion Future projection – increases awareness of available options for future encounters Magic shop – exchange one characteristic for another one already possessed Role training – experiment with new behaviors in the safety of the group

43 Evaluation of Psychodrama
Contributions and strengths of psychodrama An action-oriented approach Active techniques that foster direct experience Provides alternative ways of dealing with life’s problems Can be integrated with other therapies Promotes catharsis, healing, and self-understanding Limitations of psychodrama Need to exercise caution in using techniques Essential that group leader receives training and supervision Leaders need to know themselves

44 Existentialism Philosophers Soren Kierkegaard (1813 -1855) Denmark
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 – 1900) Germany Martin Heidegger ( ) Germany Jean-Paul Sarte ( ) France Simone de Beauvoir (1908 – 1986) France Victor Frankl ( ) Austria Existential approach in US Rollo May James Bugental Irvin Yalom

45 What existentialism is …
A philosophical view that emphasizes the importance of existence, including one's responsibility for one's own psychological existence.

46 Existentialism Philosophical thought, worldview, rather than a model of group therapy Rejects deterministic views of traditional psychoanalysis and behaviorism and emphasizes our freedom to choose what to make of our circumstances

47 Phenomenological Approach
Therapy is a journey taken by therapist and client into the world as perceived and experienced by the client. Effort to help clients examine how they have answered life’s existential questions and to challenge them to revise their answers and begin to live authentically.

48 Purpose of Existential Group
Self-exploration with these goals: Enabling members to become truthful with themselves Widening their perspectives on themselves and the world around them Clarifying what gives meaning to their present and future life Successfully negotiating and coming to terms with past, present, & future crises Understanding themselves and others better and learning better ways of communicating

49 Key Concepts Self-awareness Self-determination and responsibility
Existential anxiety Death and nonbeing Search for meaning Search for authenticity Aloneness/relatedness

50 Self-Awareness Through self-awareness we come to recognize the responsibility associated with the freedom to choose and to act Awareness is realizing that: We are finite—time is limited We have the potential, the choice, to act or not to act Meaning is not automatic—we must seek it We are subject to loneliness, meaninglessness, emptiness, guilt, and isolation We are subject to the deterministic forces of sociocultural conditions and limitations, but we are still able to choose based on our awareness of these limiting factors

51 Self-determination and personal responsibility
Existence is a given, but we do not have a fixed essence As self-determining beings, we are free to choose among alternatives and therefore responsible for directing our lives and shaping our destinies. Viktor Frankl – freedom can never be taken from us because we can choose our attitude toward any given set of circumstances.

52 Existential Anxiety Existential anxiety is normal—life cannot be lived, nor can death be faced, without anxiety Anxiety can be a stimulus for growth as we become aware of and accept our freedom We can blunt our anxiety by creating the illusion that there is security in life Anxiety is basic to living with awareness and being fully alive If we have the courage to face ourselves and life, we may be frightened, but we will be able to change Existential therapy does not aim to eliminate anxiety, but to encourage members to develop the courage to face life squarely Once facing our anxiety, it is essential to make a commitment to action

53 Death and Nonbeing Death is essential to the discovery of meaning and purpose in life. Life has meaning because it must end, and life is enhanced when we take seriously the reality of the life we do have. When we accept the reality of our eventual death, we realize that we do have choices and accept the responsibility for how we are living.

54 The Search for Meaning Lack of meaning is major source of existential stress and anxiety Finding meaning in life is a by-product of a commitment to creating, loving, and working Struggle to find sense of significance and purpose in life is part of human existence “The will to meaning” is our primary striving Life is not meaningful in itself; the individual must create and discover meaning The group experience can assist members in finding new meaning in their lives

55 Search for Authenticity
We are true to ourselves Doing what is worthwhile as we see it It is a process and not an end result When we lead an authentic existence, we are constantly becoming the person we are capable of becoming. Existential guilt is the realization that we are falling short of becoming what we could become.

56 Alone and Relatedness We are ultimately alone, even though we have friends. Only we can give a sense of meaning to our lives and decide how we will live. We have a choice of experiencing our aloneness and try to find meaning. Because of an awareness of our aloneness, some of us try to avoid it with casual relationships and frantic activities.

57 Existential Therapeutic Relationship
Therapy is a journey taken by facilitator and members The person-to-person relationship is key The relationship demands that therapists be in contact with their own phenomenological world The core of the therapeutic relationship Respect and faith in the members’ potential to cope Sharing reactions with genuine concern and empathy There are no set techniques in this approach, rather understanding is of central importance

58 Evaluation of Existential Approach
Contributions and strengths of the approach This approach stresses that techniques follow understanding Minimization of misusing techniques Approach provides a framework for understanding key universal human struggles that can be explored in a group context Limitations of the approach Not highly relevant for people who want immediate solutions or relief from symptoms Existential group therapist needs a great deal of maturity, wisdom, life experience, and training

59 “He who has a why to live for can bear with almost any how.”
~ Nietzsche

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