Presentation on theme: "Trope is a figure of speech in which the use of a word or a phrase other than in its literal meaning, changes the meaning of a sentence. The word trope."— Presentation transcript:
Trope is a figure of speech in which the use of a word or a phrase other than in its literal meaning, changes the meaning of a sentence. The word trope comes from Greek tropos meaning turn. That is, turning the meaning of a sentence another way by the use of a word(s). There are many kinds of tropes in the English language.
When there is a change in the usual order of words for effect, then it’s called a scheme. Schemes deal with word order, letters, syntax and sounds whereas trope deals with modifying the meaning of a word. Scheme comes from Greek schēma meaning “form” or “shape”.
When the same word is used at the beginning of each clause, sentence or line; that’s anaphora. “Singing the song of procreation, Singing the need of superb children and therein superb grown people, Singing the muscular urge and the blending…” - Walt Whitman. Anaphora has been used in poetry for centuries, especially by Elizabethan and Romantic poets. Anaphora creates parallelism, lends rhythm to the lines, and stresses the word or the phrase that is being repeated. It’s a good way to intensify emotions in verse or prose by repeating a certain poignant emotional stanza. The word anaphora comes from Greek meaning carrying back.
The Tyger by William Blake “What the hammer? what the chain? In what furnace was thy brain? What the anvil? what dread grasp Dare its deadly terrors clasp?” Birds of Passage (Leaves of Grass) byWalt Whitman “O you daughters of the West! O you young and elder daughters! O you mothers and you wives! Never must you be divided, in our ranks you move united, Pioneers! O pioneers!”
When conjunctions (and, or, but, so, yet, for) are used in close succession even when they are not required, then it’s called polysyndeton. It is usually used for emphasis and rhythm. For example: He came and bowed and laughed and dropped into a chair. The word polysyndeton comes from Greek polysyndetos meaning “bound together”.
In Another Country by Ernest Hemingway “There was much game hanging outside the shops, and the snow powdered in the fur of the foxes and the wind blew their tails. The deer hung stiff and heavy and empty, and small birds blew in the wind and the wind turned their feathers. It was a cold fall and the wind came down from the mountains.” Me Imperturbe by Walt Whitman “Me toward the Mexican Sea, or in the Mannahatta, or the Tennessee, or far north, or inland, A river man, or a man of the woods, or of any farm-life in These States, or of the coast, or the lakes, or Kanada…”
When you repeat letters or consonants to create rhythm or harmony, that’s called alliteration. Beowulf (author unknown) “Then, one after one, there woke to him, to the chieftain of clansmen, children four: Heorogar, then Hrothgar, then Halga brave; and I heard that -- was --'s queen, the Heathoscylfing's helpmate dear.” The Man with a Hoe by Edwin Markham “Who loosened and let down this brutal jaw? Whose was the hand that slanted back this brow? Whose breath blew out the light within this brain? Alliteration in The Thorn by William Wordsworth “Like rock or stone, it is o'ergrown, With lichens to the very top, And hung with heavy tufts of moss, A melancholy crop…”
Something that on the surface is its literal self but which also has another meaning or even several meanings. For example, a sword may be a sword and also symbolize justice. A symbol may be said to embody an idea. For instance, consider the stop sign. It is literally a metal octagon painted red with white streaks. However, everyone on American roads will be safer if we understand that this object also represents the act of coming to a complete stop- -an idea hard to encompass briefly without some sort of symbolic substitute. To identify symbols, keep in mind that symbols are often given great emphasis in a story. Look for events, objects, or settings to which the writer has given a great deal of emphasis. Look for objects, people, or words that reappear throughout the story.
w hen the author places two themes, characters, phrases, words, or situations together for the purpose of comparison or contrast or inference. For instance, in film, you have a shot of a very thin man, dressed shabbily, looking down. Then you cut to an overhead shot looking down and on a table you see an empty bowl, clean. The viewer would create meaning between these two shots, the man is hungry and has no food to eat. Ex: “Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee.”
A word or phrase used in an easy, informal style of writing or speaking. It is usually more appropriate in speech than formal writing. Colloquialisms appear often in literature since they provide a sense of actual conversation and use the pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary of everyday speech. “I says, 'What's this call, this sperit?' An' I says, 'It's love. I love people so much I'm fit to bust, sometimes.‘” (Steinbeck).
An allusion is an indirect reference to a well-known person, place, book, event, movies, fictional character, television show, cartoon characters etc. With the help of an allusion, the author can, in a few words, make numerous associations between two things. He is the Shakespeare of our class. Immediately, ‘he’ takes on the qualities of Shakespeare, which are remembered until today. Biblical allusion in Master of Ballantrae by Robert Louis Stevenson ‘"There!" says she, and taking the most unwomanly oaths upon her tongue, bade me begone and carry it to the Judas who had sent me. It was the first time I had heard the name applied to Mr. Henry; I was staggered besides at her sudden vehemence of word and manner, and got forth from the room, under this shower of curses, like a beaten dog.’ It is believed that Judas Iscariot betrayed Jesus.
A figure of speech in which two fundamentally unlike things are explicitly compared, usually in a phrase introduced by like or as. A simile tells us, in part, what a metaphor merely nudges us into thinking.... "Life is like an onion: You peel it off one layer at a time, and sometimes you weep.“ -Carl Sandburg "She dealt with moral problems as a cleaver deals with meat.“- James Joyce, "The Boarding House" My father grumbles like a bear in the mornings. Good coffee is like friendship: rich and warm and strong
A figure of speech in which an inanimate object is personified, by attributing human traits and qualities to it. Oreo: Milk’s favorite cookie. The camera loves me. Opportunity knocked on the door. The sun played hide and seek with the clouds. Lightning danced across the sky. The flowers were crying for my attention. My computer hates me.
A way of indicating or hinting at what will come later. Foreshadowing can be subtle, like storm clouds on the horizon suggesting that danger is coming, or more direct, such as Romeo and Juliet talking about wanting to die rather than live without each other. Foreshadowing adds dramatic tension to a story by building anticipation about what might happen next. Authors use foreshadowing to create suspense or to convey information that helps readers understand what comes later. Foreshadowing can make extraordinary, even fanciful events seem more believable; if the text foreshadows something, the reader feels prepared for the events when they happen.
Are there phrases about the future? Is there a change happening in the weather, the setting, or the mood? Are there objects or scenic elements that suggest something happy, sad, dangerous, exciting, etc.? Do characters or the narrator observe something in the background that might be a hint about something to come later?
Imagery allows a writer to show a writer what she means instead of just telling someone. Makes use of the 5 senses to paint a picture for the reader, not just telling. The hot July sun beat relentlessly down, casting an orange glare over the farm buildings, the fields, the pond. Even the usually cool green willows bordering the pond hung wilted and dry. Our sun- baked backs ached for relief. We quickly pulled off our sweaty clothes and plunged into the pond, but the tepid water only stifled us and we soon climbed onto the brown, dusty bank. Our parched throats longed for something cool--a strawberry ice, a tall frosted glass of lemonade. We pulled on our clothes, crackling underbrush, the sharp briars pulling at our damp jeans, until we reached the watermelon patch. As we began to cut open the nearest melon, we could smell the pungent skin mingling with the dusty odor of the dry earth. Suddenly, the melon gave way with a crack, revealing the deep, pink sweetness inside.
When an attribute of, or something associated with, the thing being described is used Examples of metonymy The truck hit me from behind. (The truck hit my car from behind.) The press has made my life hell. (Journalists) Today, we will be performing Shakespeare. (a play of Shakespeare) Obama has launched an attack. (America) I couldn’t catch his tongue. (language) The Pentagon has made an announcement. (The U.S. Dept. of Defense) They will reach the sceptred isles by sunset. (Britian) The White House is certain of the positive outcome of its actions. (The President and his staff) Metonymy between a thing and its contents I didn’t like that book. (the contents of the book) He has brains. (what is inside his brain – intelligence)
1) Strong verbs show instead of tell Example: The tiger ate the antelope. The tiger devoured the antelope. Example: The Buffalo injured the hunter. The Buffalo gored the hunter. 2) Single verbs show better than verb/adverb combinations. Example: He uses time wisely when writing essays. He maximized time when writing essays. Example: The lion ferociously ate the gazelle. The lion gobbled the gazelle (note the use of alliteration). 3) Be verbs (am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been) suck the life out of your writing! Example: He was bludgeoned by the boxer. The boxer bludgeoned him. Example: The pedestrian was run over by the school bus. The school bus ran over the pedestrian. 4) Have/has/had combined with a noun encourage readers to wedge their head in a vice. Example: I had an argument with the referee. I argued with the referee Example: I had dinner with the sheriff. I dined with the sheriff.