2DefinitionGothic (goth-IK): a literary style usually portrayed fantastic tales dealing with horror, despair, the grotesque and other “dark” subjects. Gothic literature was named for the apparent influence of the dark gothic architecture of the period on the genre. Also, many of these Gothic tales took places in such “gothic” surroundings. open may people's eyes to the possible uses of the supernatural in literature. Charles Dickens was one of the first to incorperate this approach into his literature
3Gothic Elements Murder Death Suicide Ghosts Demons Gloomy settings Family secretsDungeonsCursesTortureVampiresSpiritsCastlesTombsTerrorAs you copy this chart down, also write down a specific example from A Tale of Two Cities that Dickens incorperated.
4A few more Gothic elements (Again, as you copy these down, write down a specific instance from A Tale of Two Cities.)Damsel in distress (frequently faints in horror)Secret corridors, passageways, or roomsAncestral cursesRuined castles with graveyards nearbySleep, dream, death-like states
5Metonymy of gloom and terror The metonymy of gloom and horror.Metonymy is a subtype of metaphor, in which something (like rain) is used to stand for something else (like sorrow). For example, the film industry likes to use metonymy as a quick shorthand, so we often notice that it is raining in funeral scenes.
6Note the following metonymies that suggest mystery, danger, or the supernatural wind, especially howlingsighs, moans, howls, eerie soundsrain, especially blowingclanking chainsdoors grating on rusty hingesgusts of wind blowing out lightsfootsteps approachingdoors suddenly slamming shutlights in abandoned roomscrazed laughtercharacters trapped in a roombaying of distant dogs (or wolves?)ruins of buildingsthunder and lightning
7Importance of SettingThe setting is greatly influential in Gothic novels. It not only evokes the atmosphere of horror and dread, but also portrays the deterioration of its world. The decaying, ruined scenery implies that at one time there was a thriving world. At one time the abbey, castle, or landscape was something treasured and appreciated. Now, all that lasts is the decaying shell of a once thriving dwelling.
8Archetypal Characters The Gothic hero becomes a sort of archetype as we find that there is a pattern to his characterization. There is always the protagonist, usually isolated either voluntarily or involuntarily. Then there is the villain, who is the epitome of evil, either by his (usually a man) own fall from grace, or by some implicit malevolence. The Wanderer, found in many Gothic tales, is the epitome of isolation as he wanders the earth in perpetual exile, usually a form of divine punishment.
9Basic Plot Structure for a Gothic Novel Action in the Gothic novel tends to take place at night, or at least in a claustrophobic, sunless environment.ascent (up a mountain high staircase);descent (into a dungeon, cave, underground chambers or labyrinth) or falling off a precipice; secret passage; hidden doors;the pursued maiden and the threat or rape or abduction;physical decay, skulls, cemeteries, and other images of death; ghosts; revenge; family curse; blood and gore; torture; the Doppelganger (evil twin or double); demonic possession; masking/shape-changing; black magic; madness; incest and other broken sexual taboos.
10Other Gothic Novels The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1831) by Victor Hugo The Fall of the House of Usher (1839) by Edgar Allan Poe"The Tell-Tale Heart" (1843) by Edgar Allan Poe (Full text at Wikisource)The Monkey's Paw (1902 by W. W. Jacobs (Full text at Project Gutenberg)
11Modern Gothic NovelsThe Phantom of the Opera (1910) by Gaston Leroux (Full text at Project Gutenberg)"The Lottery" (1951) by Shirley JacksonI am Legend (1954) by Richard MathesonThe Chocolate War (1974) By Robert CormierInterview with the Vampire (1976) by Anne RiceThe Shining (1977) by Stephen KingThe Little Friend (2002) by Donna TarttShutter Island (2003) by Dennis LehaneThe Thirteenth Tale (2006) by Diane Setterfield
12Other Gothic Writers Anne Rice Edgar Allan Poe Joyce Carol Oates Stephen KingStephanie Meyer