3Reactions to ChangeAt any given point in our lives, we all go various changesSchoolFamilyPersonalWe have all been through change - but how do we think about and manage it?Dealing with the people issues, or soft side of technology, is an area that most technical people do not enjoy.Many technical people and managers naively believe that the users within the organization will gladly embrace a new system if it is built properly.Open up with marriage example -How many of you are married?How many have been married?How about those of you who know someone who is married?Write down changes in each area (that you are willing to share)Okay we have a context - explain my marriage (expectations from friends and parents, experiences different from others)SO - HOW DO WE REACT TO CHANGE?
4Managers & Technical People May Have The False Beliefs People want this change.Monday morning we’ll turn on the system and they’ll use it.A good training program will answer all of their questions and then they’ll love it.Our people have been through a lot of change – what’s one more change going to matter?We see the need for helping our people adjust, but we had to cut something.They have two choices. They can change or they can leave.
5In Reality, …Some people believe that it is easier to gain compliance than it is to gain acceptanceIt assumes that everyone will comply and that compliance is long lastingUnfortunately,The change may not occurPeople will comply for a time and then do things to get around the changeUsers will accept only a portion of the changeAnd the full benefits of the project (MOV) are never realized or only after a great deal of time and resources are expended
6Change ManagementAcceptance is much more powerful and longer lasting than complianceThis requires that employees be prepared properly before the system is implementedA company going green requires employees to give up individual printers and share printer servers. Losing entitlements can cause resentment.Change management helps smooth the transition and implementation of the new IT solutionDefined by the Gartner GroupThe transforming of the organization so it is aligned with the execution of a chosen corporate business strategy. It is the management of the human element in a large-scale change project.
7The Nature of ChangeWhether we view change as positive (anticipation) or negative (dread), there is a certain amount of stress that accompanies each change.Change has an Impact.Change is a Process.Change is Emotional.
8Assimilating ChangeOrganizations must deal with change as an individual would and manage within the change thresholdPositive (anticipation) or negative (dread) change causes stress and anxietyAssimilation is the process of adapting to change. How long it takes is a function of the impact of the changeNot assimilating fast enough or too many changes at once can lead to problems. Managing change is critical.To much change can lead to organizational dysfunctionInability to take advantage of new opportunitiesInability to solve current problemsCan eventually lead to an inability to make a profit
9Assimilating Change Change Threshold Assimilation of change required Assimilation is the process we use to adjust to positive or negative changes.Problems occur when we have to deal with too many changes or when we can’t assimilate to change fast enough.ChangeThresholdAssimilation of change requiredTime
10Assimilating ChangeLeavitt’s Model of Organizational Change suggest that changes in people, technology, task or organizational structure can influence or impact other areasThe four areas are interdependent – a change in one can result in a change in other areasImplementing a new IT system (technology) can lead to new roles and responsibilities (people) as well as impact the work they perform (tasks) and the structure of the organization (formal or informal)
11Impact of Organizational Change (Leavitt’s Model) PeopleStructureTechnologyTask
12Change Is a Process Kurt Lewin – Force Field Analysis / Change Theory Help to analyze and understand the forces for and against a particular plan or change initiativeFFA – technique for developing a big picture that involves all the forces in favor or against a particular changeDriving forces facilitate changeResisting forces act as barriers to changeBy understanding all these forces, one may enact strategies or decisions that take into account all of the various interests
13Change Is a Process The present state represents the status quo To change from the current state, there must be driving forces to initiate and motivate the changeThis requires an unfreezing or an altering of the current state’s habits, perceptions and stability (feeling of loss)The transition state or neutral zone can be a limbo or emotional wilderness for many individualsRushing individuals through the transition results in confusion and the resisting forces (emotional/psychological barriers) tend to push the individuals back to their present state or to escape (leave the organization)Staying too long in the transition state may lead to a compromise and only a portion of the change may be implemented
14Change is a Process Present Transition Desired State State State Driving ForcesResisting ForcesDesiredStateTransitionStatePresentStateUnfreezingChangingRefreezing -New Status QuoForce Field Analysis – Lewin, 1951
15Emotional Response to Change Change can also bring out emotional responsesAn well established equilibrium is upsetFive stages of grieving (Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, On Death and Dying) have been applied to handling changeManagement may be way ahead of others in the stages due to knowing about the change early on. They must have patience to let other reach the same stage.Sense of loss of status quoAcceptance – accept but not necessarily like the change, “deal with it”
16Five Stages of Grieving DenialShock and disbelief - Are you serious? This can’t be true!AngerBlaming others for the change - feel anger, don’t act on itBargainingAttempts to make deals to avoid the change, “we can work things out”Looks for ways to extend the status quoDepressionAdmits that change is inevitable and understands the impactRecognizes loss of the status quoAcceptanceComing to grips with the change, “deals with it”Moving on to the new state
17Emotional Responses to Change activeangerbargainingacceptancestabilitytestingdenialshockdepressionpassiveTimeElizabeth Kubler- Ross, 1969
18Reactions to Change Change may Be an ending Mean giving something up Be stressfulBe easier for those initiating the changeBe the basis for resistance and conflictChange the “rules for success”
19Change Management Plan To succeed with change, the key is to plan and manage the change and the associated transition effectivelyJust creating a change management plan sends a message that management cares about its employees and will take seriously their concernsThe project team and sponsor should address and be clear on several important areas
21Assess Willingness, Readiness, and Ability to Change Players involved in changeSponsorInitiating vs. sustaining sponsorA major portion of the organization’s ability and willingness to support the change rests with the sponsor’s commitment to the project and the associated change that will impact the organizationChange AgentsThe project manager and team make the change happenReport directly to the plan sponsorMust consider how change impacts the rest of the organization (loss of power, control, relationships)
22Assess Willingness, Readiness, and Ability to Change Targets of ChangeThe users, customers, etc.Must understandThe real impacts of the changeThe breadth of changeWhat’s over and what’s notWhether the rules for success have changedNew management now promotes based on performance and not seniority
23Develop or Adopt a Strategy for Change Rational–Empirical ApproachHow will change benefit a particular person or group identified as a target of the changeMessage must be consistent, accurate and timelySaying nothing can send the wrong messagePicture – vision as to how the organization will look or operate in the futurePurpose, - reason for the change, impact on entire organization (current poor service)Part to Play – involvement in the change, WIIFM (what’s in it for me)
24Develop or Adopt a Strategy for Change Normative-Reeducation ApproachFocuses on helping people redefine their existing social norms into a new set that supports the change effortPeople are social beings and human behavior can be changed by changing the social norms of a groupFocus on the core values, beliefs, and established relationships that make up the culture of the group rather than the individualThis approach can be very difficult and time consuming because the change agents and sponsor must study the existing values and beliefs of a groupNeed to unfreeze the current norms and set new norms to replace them
25Develop or Adopt a Strategy for Change Power-Coercive ApproachCompliance through the exercise of power, authority, rewards or threat of punishment for nonconformanceMay lead to employees looking for other employmentOthers may just wait out the storm and wait for the old ways to returnOTOH, the shock may wake up employees to reality and gain their acceptance. When time is of the essence, this approach can work if employees have no other optionsEnvironmental-Adaptive ApproachAlthough people may avoid disruption and loss, they can still adapt to changeCortez burned the boats when he heard grumbling from his men – forced to press onSwitch word processor over weekend so on Monday everyone is forced to use the new version
26Implement the Change Management Plan and Track Progress CommunicationWatch out for the rumor mill!Media is importantFace to face communication is generally preferable when delivering important or bad newsMust flow in both directions.What you don’t say is as important as what you do say!
27Evaluate Experience and Develop Lessons Learned Experiences should be documented and made available to other project teamsOverall success of the change management plan should be evaluatedHelp to determine the effectiveness of the different players or a particular change management strategy
28Best PracticesProvide consistent communication and involvement – WIIFM (What’s In It For Me)Determine support needs - where do people go for help and information?Measure and communicate progress (Quick Wins)Build the need for change (“Burning Platform”)Ensure visible, consistent sponsorshipAllow the disenchanted to ventListen, listen, … and listen some more
29Resistance and Conflict Resistance should be anticipated from the outset of the projectResistance can be either overt, in the form of memos, meetings, etc., or covert, in the form of sabotage, foot dragging, politicking, etc.Resistance can arise for many valid reasons.E.g., Response time of the system is too slow or lacks requested features and functionalityResistance due to cultural or behavioral reasons is harder to rationalize, but still can keep a project from reaching its intended goal
30Why Do People Resist Change? People may perceive the change as requiring more time and energy than they are willing to invest.People may feel that a change will mean giving up something that is familiar, comfortable, and predictable.People may be annoyed with the disruption caused by the change, even if they know that it will be beneficial in the long run.People may believe that the change is being imposed on them externally, and their egos will not tolerate being told what to do.People may resist because of the way the decision to change was announced or because it was forced on them.
31Conflict ManagementFocuses on preventing, managing, or resolving conflicts.It is important to identify potential conflicts as early as possible so that the conflict can be addressed.Although conflict can be positive and help form new ideas and establish commitment, negative conflict left unresolved can lead to damaged relationships, mistrust, unresolved issues, continued stress, dysfunctional behavior, and low productivity and morale.
32Although conflict is one of the things most of us dislike intensely, it is inevitable. Most often when we try to avoid conflict, it will nevertheless seek us out. Some people wrongly hope that conflict will go away if it is ignored. In fact, conflict ignored is more likely to get worse, which can significantly reduce project performance. The best way to reduce conflict is to confront it.(Verma, 1998, p. 367)
33Types of Conflict Traditional View All conflict should be avoided “Why can’t we all just get along?”Contemporary ViewConflict is inevitable and naturalPositive conflict stimulates ideas“Let’s agree to disagree!”Negative conflict can be damagingInteractionist ViewConflict is necessary for performance“Devil’s advocate”Stir the pot to encourage positive conflictTough to manage properly
34Types of ConflictVerma points out that conflict within projects can fit into one, or a combination, of three categoriesConflicts associated with the goals, objectives or specifications of the projectConflicts associated with the administration, management structures or underlying philosophies of the projectConflicts associated with the interpersonal relationships among people based on work ethics, styles, egos or personalities
35Approaches to Conflict AvoidanceRetreat, withdraw, or ignore conflictCooling off period may be a wise moveAccommodationAppease the parties in conflict, may be only useful in the short-termForcingDominant authority resolves conflict, useful when time critical decision is needed
36Approaches to Conflict CompromiseInvolves aspects of forcing and accomodationBargaining – important aspect of a project may be compromised (e.g., quality standards compromised to meet project schedule)CollaborationConfronting and attempting to solve the problem by incorporating different ideas, viewpoints, and perspectives.Requires time and sincere desire to work out a mutually acceptable solution
37Approach to Conflict Situation Each conflict situation is unique and the choice of an approach to resolve conflict depends on:Type of conflict and its relative importance to the project.Time pressure to resolve the conflict.Position of power or authority of the parties involved.Whether the emphasis is on maintaining the goals, objectives of the project or maintaining relationships.