Presentation on theme: "Developmental Theory September 3 rd 2008. What is Development? Development includes all the physical and psychological changes a human being undergoes."— Presentation transcript:
What is Development? Development includes all the physical and psychological changes a human being undergoes in a lifetime. Developmental Psychology- The discipline concerned with the scientific study of changes in human behaviors and mental activities that occur over a lifetime.
Educational Ideologies of Human Development Existential Traditional Romantic Progressive
Existential Ideology A philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness and isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent universe, regards human existence as unexplainable, and stresses freedom of choice and responsibility for the consequences of one's acts. The following slides with reference to answers.com
Existentialism: History The movement had its origins in the 19th century via Kierkegaard NietzscheKierkegaard Nietzsche In the 1940s and 1950s, French philosophers such as Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir wrote scholarly and fictional works that helped to popularize themes associated with existentialism, including "dread, boredom, alienation, the absurd, freedom, commitment, [and] nothingness". Jean-Paul SartreSimone de Beauvoir 
Existentialism: Links to Psychological Theory Existential Psychology: branch of psychology was initiated by Viktor Frankl (who had studied with Freud and Jung when young).Then early in his career he was sent to a Nazi concentration camp where he survived from 1941 through 1945. In the camps he mentally re-wrote his first book whose manuscript had been confiscated at the time of his arrest. He called his theory Logotherapy and the book was Man's Search for Meaning. Viktor FranklFreudJungLogotherapyMan's Search for Meaning Speaking at a seminar in Anaheim, California in the early 1990s, Frankl stated that in the camps he would, at times, pretend to himself that he was actually in the future, remembering his experiences and noting how he was able to survive them. His years of suffering took him to the conclusion that even in the worst imaginable of circumstances, life can be assigned a worthwhile meaning. This conclusion was the heart of Frankl's psychological orientation. Logotherapy asserts that all human beings have a will to find meaning, and that serious behavioural problems develop when they cannot find it. The therapy helps patients handle the responsibility of choices and the pain of unavoidable suffering by helping them decide to give life meaning.Logotherapy
Existentialism: Implications Implications for therapy of anxiety disorders Implications for differentiation in the classroom
Traditional Ideology The retention of time tested methodology in educational curriculum
Romanticism Ideology Characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual's expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism, and rebellion against established social rules and conventions. Hallmark Features: 1) placing emotion and intuition before (or at least on an equal footing with) reason; 2) a belief that there are crucial areas of experience neglected by the rational mind; 3) a belief in the general importance of the individual, the personal and the subjective.
Progressive Ideology Progressive education was a pluralistic phenomenon, embracing industrial training, agricultural education, and social education as well as the new techniques of instruction advanced by educational theorists. Postulates of the movement were that children learn best in those experiences in which they have a vital interest and that modes of behavior are most easily learned by actual performance. The progressives insisted, therefore, that education must be a continuous reconstruction of living experience based on activity directed by the child. The recognition of individual differences was also considered crucial. Progressive education opposed formalized authoritarian procedure and fostered reorganization of classroom practice and curriculum as well as new attitudes toward individual students
Progressivism: History Jean Jacques Rousseau Johann Pestalozzi Friedrich Froebel Late 19 th to Mid 20 th Century John Dewey
Progressivism: Implications John Dewey (1896) maintained that schools should reflect the life of the society. He suggested that the schools take on such responsibilities as the acculturation of immigrants in addition to merely teaching academic skills. Dewey also proposed a number of specific curricular changes that had strong impact on subsequent reformers. Montessori schools
Romanticism: History Swept European and American culture between about 1775 and 1830 Differing opinions about authorship
Philosophical Considerations of Human Development Post-modernism Rationalism Empiricism Constructivism
Post Modernism claims that it is impossible to make grand statementsabout the structures of society or about historic causation, because everything we perceive, express, and interpret is influenced by our gender, class, and culture; knowledge is partial and situated, and no one interpretation is superior to another
Post Modernism Implications Since the focus of the classroom, in postmodern education, becomes the student's construction of knowledge, they shift away from a teacher-centered classroom to a more student-centered environment A student-centered classroom in this context is likely to have minimal structure. It usually involves opportunities for social interaction, independent investigations and study, and the expression of creativity, as well as provision for different learning styles. There, students create knowledge, and are no longer forced to bow to the subjugation of traditional objective "knowledge
Rationalism 1. The theory that the exercise of reason, rather than experience, authority, or spiritual revelation, provides the primary basis for knowledge.
Empiricism The theory that all concepts emanate from experience and that all statements claiming to express knowledge must be based on experience rather than on theory. Valid statements must be based on what can be proved to exist, not on what appears to exist. Must come to an empirical conclusion
Constructivism Theorize about and investigate how human beings create systems for meaningfully understanding their worlds and experiences Constructivists say that all knowledge is invented or "constructed" in the minds of people.
Constructivism Implications In psychotherapy, for example, this frame could translate into a therapist asking questions that confront a client's world-view in an effort to expand his or her meaning making habits. The assumption here is that clients encounter problems not because life is inherently problematic or because they have a mental disease but because of the way the client languages their problems.psychotherapy