Presentation on theme: "Abnormal Psychology A.K.A. Psychological Disorders A “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable."— Presentation transcript:
Abnormal Psychology A.K.A. Psychological Disorders A “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable. psychology.htm
DSM IV Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: the big book of disorders. DSM will classify disorders and describe the symptoms. DSM will NOT explain the causes or possible cures.
3 Multiaxial Classification Are Psychosocial or Environmental Problems (school or housing issues) also present? Axis IV What is the Global Assessment of the person’s functioning? Axis V Is a General Medical Condition (diabetes, hypertension or arthritis etc) also present? Axis III Is a Personality Disorder or Mental Retardation present? Axis II Is a Clinical Syndrome (cognitive, anxiety, mood disorders [16 syndromes]) present? Axis I
Two Major Classifications in the DSM Neurotic Disorders Distressing but one can still function in society and act rationally. Psychotic Disorders Person loses contact with reality, experiences distorted perceptions. John Wayne Gacy
Anxiety Disorders a group of conditions where the primary symptoms are anxiety or defenses against anxiety. the patient fears something awful will happen to them. They are in a state of intense apprehension, uneasiness, uncertainty, or fear. m/Book/AbmormalPsych/anxi etydis.htm m/Book/AbmormalPsych/anxi etydis.htm
Phobias A person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread. Must be an irrational fear. Phobia List
Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD An anxiety disorder in which a person is continuously tense, apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. The patient is constantly tense and worried, feels inadequate, is oversensitive, can’t concentrate and suffers from insomnia.
Panic Disorder An anxiety disorder marked by a minutes- long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking and other frightening sensations.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder Persistent unwanted thoughts (obsessions) cause someone to feel the need (compulsion) to engage in a particular action. Obsession about dirt and germs may lead to compulsive hand washing.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder a.k.a. PTSD Flashbacks or nightmares following a person’s involvement in or observation of an extremely stressful event. Memories of the even cause anxiety.
Somatoform Disorders Occur when a person manifests a psychological problem through a physiological symptom. Two types…… gy.com/Book/Abmorm alPsych/somatoformdi s.htm gy.com/Book/Abmorm alPsych/somatoformdi s.htm
Hypochondriasis Has frequent physical complaints for which medical doctors are unable to locate the cause. They usually believe that the minor issues (headache, upset stomach) are indicative are more severe illnesses.
Conversion Disorder Report the existence of severe physical problems with no biological reason. Like blindness or paralysis. Pol Pot
Dissociative Disorders These disorders involve a disruption in the conscious process. Three types…. ology.com/Book/Abm ormalPsych/dissociat ivedis.htm ology.com/Book/Abm ormalPsych/dissociat ivedis.htm
Psychogenic Amnesia A person cannot remember things with no physiological basis for the disruption in memory. Retrograde Amnesia NOT organic amnesia. Organic amnesia can be retrograde or anterograde.
Dissociative Fugue People with psychogenic amnesia that find themselves in an unfamiliar environment.
Dissociative Identity Disorder Used to be known as Multiple Personality Disorder. A person has several rather than one integrated personality. People with DID commonly have a history of childhood abuse or trauma.
Personality Disorders Well-established, maladaptive ways of behaving that negatively affect people’s ability to function. Dominates their personality. y.com/Book/AbmormalPs ych/personalitydis.htm y.com/Book/AbmormalPs ych/personalitydis.htm
Obsessive –Compulsive Personality Disorder Overly concerned with certain thoughts and performing certain behaviors. Not as extreme as OCD anxiety. Perfectionists Preoccupied with details, rules, schedules Serious and formal Cannot express tender feelings
Antisocial Personality Disorder Lack of empathy. Breaks rules and laws Takes advantage of other people for personal gain Feels little remorse or guilt Appears friendly and charming on the surface Often intelligent
Histrionic Personality Disorder Needs to be the center of attention. Whether acting silly or dressing provocatively. Overly dramatic; attention seekers; easily angered; seductive; vain; shallow and manipulative Displays intense, but often false emotions
Dependent Personality Disorder Rely too much on the attention and help of others. Over-reliance on others that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation The submissive behaviors arise from feeling unable to cope without the help of others
Borderline Personality Disorder Self image is distorted, making the person feel worthless and fundamentally flawed. Their anger, impulsivity and frequent mood swings may push others away, even though they desire loving relationships. Very unstable relationships Erratic emotions and self-damaging behavior Impulsive; unpredictable Aggressive and sexual behavior Easily angered
Narcissistic Personality Disorder Having an unwarranted sense of self- importance. Thinking that you are the center of the universe. Crave admiration of others Feel they are privileged and special Expects favors from others Emotions are NOT erratic
Mood Disorders Experience extreme or inappropriate emotion. alPsych/mooddis.htm alPsych/mooddis.htm
Major Depression Unhappy for at least two weeks with no apparent cause. 5 signs: 1. lethargy 2. feelings of worthlessness 3. loss of interest in family 4. loss of interest in friends 5. loss of interest in activities
Seasonal Affective Disorder Experience depression during the winter months. Based not on temperature, but on amount of sunlight. Treated with light therapy.
Bipolar Disorder Formally manic depression. Involves periods of depression and manic episodes. Manic episodes involve feelings of high energy (but they tend to differ a lot…some get confident and some get irritable). Engage in risky behavior during the manic episode.
Schizophrenic Disorders About 1 in every 100 people are diagnosed with schizophrenia. Symptoms of Schizophrenia 1.Disorganized thinking. 2.Disturbed Perceptions 3.Inappropriate Emotions and Actions
Disorganized Thinking The thinking of a person with Schizophrenia is fragmented and bizarre and distorted with false beliefs. Disorganized thinking comes from a breakdown in selective attention.- they cannot filter out information.
Positive v. Negative Symptoms Positive Symptoms Presence of inappropriate symptoms Negative Symptoms Absence of appropriate ones.
The symptoms of schizophrenia fall into three broad categories: Positive symptoms – easy-to-spot behaviors not seen in healthy people and usually involve a loss of contact with reality Negative symptoms – reductions in normal emotional and behavioral states – Lack of important abilities Cognitive symptoms – difficulties with concentration and memory Schizophrenia
Delusions ◦ Delusions are false personal beliefs that are not part of the person's culture and do not change, even when other people present proof that the beliefs are not true or logical Hallucinations ◦ "Voices" are the most common type of hallucination in schizophrenia Disorganized speech / Thought disorder ◦ Word salads (jumbled, unconnected words) ◦ Neologisms (words that have meaning only to the individual) ◦ Ongoing disjointed or rambling monologues ◦ Thought blocking (stopping abruptly in the middle of a thought Disorders of movement / Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior Positive symptoms
Delusions (false beliefs) Delusions of Persecution Delusions of Grandeur
◦ Delusions of persecution People are out to “get” you ◦ Delusions of reference People are talking about you Messages are being sent through radio, TV, etc. ◦ Somatic Delusions A terrible illness exists Something foreign is inside or passing through your body ◦ Delusions of grandeur You are very special or have special powers or abilities “Napoleon” etc. Must distinguish between delusions that everyone experiences from time to time and severe delusions Delusions
Hallucinations can take many forms – Visual – seeing things that others don’t – Auditory – hearing things – Tactile – feeling things others don’t feel or feeling that something is touching your skin that isn’t there – Olfactory – smelling things – Gustatory – tasting things Must distinguish between hallucinations that everyone experiences from time to time and severe hallucinations Hallucinations
Disturbed Perceptions hallucinations- sensory experiences without sensory stimulation.
Alogia or poverty of speech Flat affect ◦ immobile facial expression, monotonous voice ◦ reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression, including facial expression, voice tone, eye contact Avolition ◦ reduction, difficulty, or inability to initiate and persist in goal-directed behavior ◦ diminished ability to initiate and sustain planned activity Inappropriate social skills and/or social isolation Negative symptoms
Inappropriate Emotions and Actions Laugh at inappropriate times. Flat Effect Senseless, compulsive acts. Catatonia- motionless Waxy Flexibility
Poor "executive functioning" (the ability to absorb and interpret information and make decisions based on that information), Inability to sustain attention Problems with "working memory" (the ability to keep recently learned information in mind and use it right away) Difficulties in – Understanding – Expressing thoughts – Integrating thoughts, feelings, and behavior Cognitive symptoms
Types of Schizophrenia
Disorganized Schizophrenia disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion. Clang associations "Imagine the worst Systematic, sympathetic Quite pathetic, apologetic, paramedic Your heart is prosthetic"
Paranoid Schizophrenia preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations. Somebody is out to get me!!!!
Catatonic Schizophrenia Flat effect Waxy Flexibility parrot like repeating of another’s speech and movements
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia Many and varied Symptoms.
Other Disorders Paraphilias (pedophilia, zoophilia, hybristophilia) Fetishism sadist, masochist Eating Disorders Substance use disorders ADHD
The Rosenhan Study Rosenhan’s associates were Malingering symptoms of hearing voices. They were ALL admitted for schizophrenia. None were exposed as imposters. They all left diagnosed with schizophrenia in remission. What are some of the questions raised by this study?