Presentation on theme: "Unit 13 The Light of Depression Contents A. Text one I. Pre-reading:I. Pre-reading (I) Warm-up questions (II) Background information II. While-reading:"— Presentation transcript:
Contents A. Text one I. Pre-reading:I. Pre-reading (I) Warm-up questions (II) Background information II. While-reading: Text Analysis (I) Structure analysis (II) Comprehension questions (III) Language points (IV) Difficult sentences III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items (II) Translation Exercises (III) Oral activities (IV) Writing practice B. Text two （ I ） Questions for text comprehension （ I ） Questions for text comprehension （ II ） Language points （ II ） Language points
A. text one I. Pre-reading: (I) warm-up questions Have you ever felt depressed, hopeless, frustrated or sad? On what occasion? How did you handle it? Pre-reading: (I) warm-up questions
(II). Background Information 1. Depression Some people say that depression feels like a black curtain of despair coming down over their lives. Many people feel like they have no energy and can't concentrate. Others feel irritable all the time for no apparent reason. Most people who have gone through one episode of depression will, sooner or later, have another one. The symptoms vary from person to person, but if you feel "down" for more than two weeks, and these feelings are interfering with your daily life, you may be clinically depressed.
The common symptoms including: ＊ poor concentration and memory ＊ withdrawal from social situations and activities ＊ an inability to experience pleasure in activities that were formerly enjoyed ＊ preoccupied with thoughts and feelings of worthlessness, helplessness, self-hatred, etc. ＊ thoughts of death or suicide, etc. Learning to recognize these early triggers or symptoms and working with your doctor will help to keep the depression from worsening. There are many forms of treatment that can help you cope with depression, including medications, psychotherapy or counseling.symptomspsychotherapy
II. While-reading: Text Analysis 1-3: the background : the writer, her family and her problem. 4-10: the writer’s experiences with deep depression. 11: the writer’s understanding of the suffering. While-reading: (I) Structure analysis
(II) Comprehension questions 1. The writer stresses at the very beginning that when her sister was suffering from juvenile diabetes, her father cried bitterly for the first time. When do you think her father cried for the second time? (Paragraph 2) It is not difficult to infer that the writer’s father cried for the second time when the writer was diagnosed with clinical depression. 2. Would you describe the writer’s personality as a child before she was seized with depression? (Paragraph 3) As a child, the writer had a great passion for life and enjoyed being alive. The simplest of pleasures brought her great joy. She seldom demonstrated a melancholic personality. Any reason for celebration would find her in great excitement. While-reading: (II) Comprehension questions
3. Why was the day the writer checked into the hospital considered to be one of the hardest days of her mother’s life?(Paragraph 4) Leaving her daughter behind at the hospital, the author's mother was seized with extreme sadness, feeling heart-broken. She wondered why her daughter was experiencing so much pain and couldn’t get over it this time. 4. What is the main idea of Paragraph 6? Illustrate or exemplify it. (Paragraph 6) Paragraph 6 proves how deep the writer's depression had been before she was admitted into the hospital. While driving home from work before she was ill, she wished that she weren’t alive. When she arrived home, she had hoped to sleep and escape life because it hurt to breathe. While-reading: (II) Comprehension questions
5. Which part in Paragraph 9 is a sentence fragment? Why is it separated from the previous sentence? (Paragraph 9) "Lives I would have once felt pity for or wanted to distance myself from" is a sentence fragment. It is separated from the foregoing sentence for emphasis. 6. What do you know about other patients from whose worn lives the writer was learning? (Paragraphs 9-10) They were the ones who possessed strength and courage and had suffered abuse, neglect, addiction and illnesses. They felt misplaced and forgotten. They shared their suffering with the writer. Also, they helped the writer get a truer sense of who she was, see through deception and realize and grasp the truth.
（ III ） Language points abuse: n. （ u, plural ） ill-use; mistreatment; offensive words 滥用；虐 待 ; 辱骂 Social abuses 社会陋习 personal abuse 人身攻击 Drug abuse and child abuse, as well as abuse of privilege and authority, are common problems in modern society. While-reading: （ III ） Language points
alter: vt. change or make sb./sth. change; The city centre has altered beyond recognition If it rains we'll have to alter our plan for the picnic.
apathy: n. (u.) indifference; nonchalance; lack of interest, enthusiasm or concern Antonym: sympathy The campaign failed because of public apathy. She heard the story with apathy. There is nothing worse than apathy. 哀莫大于心死 ~ to / toward food/ politics The child’s apathy toward mathematics worries his parents. 孩子对数学不感兴趣，这让他父母很担心。
diagnose: v. 1) find out the nature of an illness by observing its symptoms The illness was diagnosed as heart disease She was diagnosed with breast cancer. 2) find out what the cause of a fault is, after doing tests, examinations, etc. The book diagnoses our present economic problems, explaining what is wrong with the economy.
distort: vt. 1)make sth. unnatural or unclear; twist; 使失真 His face is distorted with rage. Tall buildings can distort radio signals. 2) report sth. in a way that is not completely true or correct 歪曲 ; 曲解 deliberately ~ the truth/ facts/ motives/ views His account was badly distorted by the press.
drift: v. 1) move slowly on water or in the air The rubber raft drifted out to sea. Let the past drift away with the water. 2) move, change, or do sth. without any plan or purpose; hang around 漂泊，游荡 Jenny spent the year drifting around (in) Europe.
rummage: vt./ vi. turn things over or disarrange them while searching for sth. else 翻找 rummage the drawer Mother was rummaging around in the attic for an old family album. I rummaged through all the boxes but still could not find his passport.
numb: adj. without the power to feel or move; (fig) emotionally incapable of thinking 麻木，失去知觉；呆了 My fingers were so numb that I could hardly write. be numb with cold/ grief/ terror
passion: strong desire; emotion 激情， 热情 Great/ intense passion for sb./ music/ sports/ adventure Arouse / awake one’s passion In the first year, I devoted myself to the teaching work with passion.
Seep: flow slowly Blood was seeping slowly from the wound. 血正慢慢从伤口渗出。 Rain seeped into my shoes.
remedy: vt. repair; cure; rectify; set right 补救；纠正 The government should have taken steps to remedy the situation. If the social abuses are not remedied, the society will probably go down/ collapse. If I made a mistake, I will try to remedy it. n. a remedy for your disease. The mistake is beyond remedy.
Strip: take off cloths ~ the child/ oneself Strip off one’s clothes/ mask/ He was stripped of all his possessions/ rights/ titles/ authority. 剥夺了他的全部财产.
transcend: vt. (fml) go beyond ; be much better or greater than sb./sth.; surpass His theory has transcended my understanding/ knowledge. Let's transcend time and space all along with music to comprehend its deep and profound meaning. She far transcends the others in beauty and intelligence.
(IV) Difficult sentences While-reading: (IV) Difficult sentences 1. At a time in my life when the world was supposed to be opening up to me, I found myself retreating. Apathetic, uncaring, tired, and with no particular vision for any future, I drifted into a world without hope. (Paragraph 2) Paraphrase: At an age when I expected the world should be opening its arms to welcome me, I found myself drifting away. Uninterested in anything, tired of life and having lost any purpose in life, I was unconsciously developing a mental illness in which I experienced deep hopelessness and worthlessness. Translation: 曾几何时，世界向我敞开怀抱，可我却退缩了。冷 漠、麻木、疲惫，看不见未来，我漂浮在一个没有希望的世界。 2...., I was dropped into a world where wearing my own skin was foreign and ill-fitting. (Paragraph 3) Paraphrase:..., I suffered from a terrible illness in which I was even suspicious of my own identity. Translation: …… ，我落到了一个世界，在这里坚持自我却显得 与周围格格不入。
While-reading: (IV) Difficult sentences 3.I was numb, trying to see through a haze that had settled upon what once was vivid and bright. All color had seeped from a life that used to hold such joy. (Paragraph 5) Paraphrase: I was unable to feel anything, trying to understand what had changed my promising life completely. I had gradually lost interest in a life that used to bring such happiness and pleasure. Translation: 我已经麻木，试图去看透笼罩在那些曾经生动、明 快事物上的阴霾。所有的色彩已经从那曾经充满快乐的生命中渗 尽了。 4.But I wasn’t just dealing with apathy toward routine. I couldn’t remedy being sick with a strenuous run, a good movie, or simply the passing of time. Depression transcended my circumstances and invaded my soul. (Paragraph 5) Paraphrase: Yet I wasn’t just coping with my lack of interest in daily activities. I couldn’t hope to recover from my mental illness by taking vigorous exercise, watching a good movie, or simply doing something to pass the time. Depression caused not only physical weakness but it went deep into my mind, affecting the way I felt and thought.
5. Clinical depression painted my world black while screaming quietly that I was worthless. (Paragraph 5) Paraphrase: Clinical depression deprived me of any hope and made me feel that I was a totally useless person. Translation: 临床忧郁症将我的世界涂得漆黑一片， 它无声地呐喊着我的卑微。 6.I wanted to escape life because it hurt to breathe. (Paragraph 6) Paraphrase: I wanted to stay away from other people, and even to commit suicide, because even just existing seemed too painful to bear. Translation: 我想逃离生命因为呼吸就是痛苦。 While-reading: (IV) Difficult sentences
7. It was the kindness, sympathy, love and truth demonstrated in the hospital that began unlocking my wounds, hurts and distorted thinking. I was learning from the worn lives around me. (Paragraph 9) Paraphrase: In the hospital I experienced kindness, compassion, love and knowledge about the illness. All this enabled me to begin to discover the causes of my illness, my emotional pain and irrational thinking. I was learning from other patients around me to find ways to deal with my own problem. Translation: 在医院里，那些友善、同情、爱和真诚开始解释我 的伤痛和扭曲的思想。我开始从身边那些病友身上学习。 8.Getting help and getting rid of the junk cluttering my mind were part of getting better. (Paragraph 10) Paraphrase: Enjoying help and doing away with the symptoms of a nervous breakdown were part of my recovery. Translation: 寻求帮助和除去那些堵塞我思想的垃圾成为恢复的 一部分。 While-reading: (IV) Difficult sentences
III. Post-Reading (I) Grammatical items: 1. The infinitive and the –ing participle as object1. The infinitive and the –ing participle as object III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items
1. The infinitive and the –ing participle as object There are verbs that can be followed either by an –ing form or by an infinitive. With some of these verbs, the choice between the two makes no difference in meaning; with others, however, different choices result in different interpretations. Here, the infinitive and the –ing participle are used as object. Verbs that are followed by –ing participle include: admit, fancy, delay, miss, involve, postpone, finish, imagine, avoid, deny, risk, practise, consider, enjoy, etc. Verbs that are followed by the infinitive include: decide, hope, pretend, deserve, promise, attempt, offer, agree, plan, aim, afford, manage, threaten, refuse, learn, fail, etc. 1) Either infinitive or –ing participle without change of meaning Verbs that can take either an infinitive or an –ing participle as object include attempt, begin, can’t bear, continue, deserve, dread, hate, intend, like, loathe, love, need, neglect, omit, plan, prefer, require, start, etc. Following these words, an infinitive or an –ing participle can alternate without change in basic meaning. There are cases, however, where the transforms are not in free variation. III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items
a) After process verbs such as begin, cease, continue, start and emotive verbs such as can’t bear, deserve, dread, hate, intend, like, loathe, love, need, neglect, omit, plan, prefer, require, the infinitive is commonly used to refer to a specific act while the – ing participle is used to refer to a general act. e.g. I can’t bear living alone. I can’t bear to see the child so badly treated. Phil prefers doing it that way. He prefers to go by train this evening. b) After need, want, require, deserve, an active -ing participle can be used to denote a passive meaning which can also be expressed by a passive infinitive. e.g. This letter needs signing by the manager. = This letter needs to be signed by the manager. The house wants rewiring. = The house wants to be rewired. III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items
c) After begin and start, either infinitive or –ing form is possible, but when the infinitive is a stative verb, or when begin/start is in the progressive, we use the infinitive form. e.g. We began to see what he meant. It’s beginning to rain. 2) Either infinitive or –ing participle with different meanings The verbs such as forget, go on, leave off, mean, regret, remember, stop, etc. that can take an infinitive or an –ing participle with different meanings fall into five sub-classes: a) After remember, forget and regret, the infinitive refers to the next action that follows the first, and the –ing participle to a previous event. e.g. Can’t you remember telling me the story last night? = You told me the story last night. Can’t you remember it? You must remember to tell him all that. = You must tell him all that. Don’t forget it.
b) After stop, leave off, go on, the –ing participle functions as object, while the infinitive as adverbial of purpose. e.g. They stopped watching TV at 9:30. = At 9:30 they did not watch TV any more. He left off writing the book. = He stopped writing the book. He left off to write the book. He left some place in order to write the book. c) After try, mean, can’t help, the choice between an infinitive and an – ing participle depends on the meaning of the preceding verb itself. e.g. Your plan would mean spending hours. I didn’t mean to make you angry. d) After agree, decide, there is a choice between the infinitive and “preposition + -ing”. e.g. They agreed to share the remuneration. They agreed on sharing the remuneration. e) After encourage, permit, allow, recommend, advise, authorise, either the –ing participle or the infinitive with an expressed logical subject can be used. e.g. She doesn’t allow smoking here. She doesn’t allow us to smoke here. III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items
1.Our teacher has promised (help) us (prepare) for the examinations which he has put off (hold) till next week. 2. I must remember (remind) him that the garden needs (water). 3. I’ve always loved (act). I’d love (see) you (wear) a Roman toga and (recite) Shakespeare. Consolidation Activities- Grammar10 Practice Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing participle or the infinitive. (to) prepare ______________ to help ________ to remind ___________ watering / to be watered ___________________________ holding ________ acting _______ to see _______ wearing ________ reciting ________ III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items
4. I’ve never been able to understand how (operate) the machine. 5. If your back still hurts, try (rub) some of the lotion on it. 6. I’m sorry. I didn’t mean (insult) your friends. Consolidation Activities- Grammar11 to operate ____________ rubbing _________ to insult _________ III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items
（ II ） Translation Exercises 1. 机场当局要求每位乘客要管好自己的随身物 品。 (belongings) The airport authorities request that every passenger keep an eye on his/her own belongings. 2. 虽然被诊断换上了胃癌，但是他对生活还是 很乐观。（ diagnose) Although he was diagnosed with stomach cancer, he still took an optimistic attitude toward life. 3. 他的老师劝他不要吃那么多垃圾食品。 (junk) His teacher advised him not to eat so much junk food. III. Post-Reading: （ II ） Translation Exercises
4. 凭着高度的责任感，那位老师为了救学生牺牲 了自己。 (responsibility) With a high sense of responsibility, the teacher gave his life in order to save his students. 5 他的同志们想尽一切办法，成功地将他从牢狱 中解救了出来。（ release from ） His comrades did whatever they could fir his release from the prison, and they succeeded. 6. 突如其来的金融海啸让不少人丧失了财产。 (strip of) The sudden financial tsunami has stripped quite a number of people of their property. III. Post-Reading: （ II ） Translation Exercises
7. 我的秘书整天在找东西，因为她总是把东 西放错地方。（ misplace ） My secretary is looking for this ro that all the time, for she is always misplacing her things. 8. 他信步走进小树林，对眼前的景色大感惊 讶。 (drift into) After drifting into the woods, he was greatly amazed at the scene in front of him. III. Post-Reading: （ II ） Translation Exercises
9. 到目前为止，还没有找到解决网瘾的有效 办法。（ addiction ） So for no effective remedy for the addiction to the Internet has been found. 10. 面对严峻的就业形势，有不少大学生自 愿到遥远的内地去工作。 (voluntarily) In view of the serious employment situation, many university graduates voluntarily go and work in the remote areas. III. Post-Reading: （ II ） Translation Exercises
(III) Oral activities Having a discussion Have a discussion in a group of four or five students on the increasing occurrence of psychological problems among students in universities and even middle schools as well. Try to find out the causes and suggest some remedies. III. Post-Reading: （ III ） Oral activities
For your reference: You could probably list some psychological problems among college students as follows: —Freshmen tend to be depressed and aimless. —Some college students are likely to have examination anxiety, and when they fail in the exam, they easily get frustrated. —Some find it hard to experience the heavy academic burden. —Some have trouble in establishing harmonious interpersonal relationship. —Some are so dependent on the Internet. You may list some possible causes as follows: —Being the only child in their family and long spoiled by their family, they are less able to bear pressure. —The great pressure comes from the competitive world, especially from the employment pressure. —Some find difficulty in shifting in their roles as students from high school to collage. You may list some possible resolutions as follows: —They should learn to face up to their problems and be strong. —Schools should give regular lectures or courses on psychological therapy, or establish a psychological therapy center. —The whole society should attach great importance to the problem and try to establish a healthy network among school, family and individual.
(IV) Writing Write a short essay on the following topic in about 150 words. People do many different things to stay healthy. What do you do for good health? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. III. Post-Reading: (IV) Writing
An example Our health is the only thing we really have in the world. You can take away our money, our house, or our clothes and we can survive. Take away our health and we will die. That is why I eat healthfully, exercise regularly, and keep up my social life. Eating healthfully is important to maintain one's health. I try to avoid foods high in fat like French fries or cookies. I also try to limit the amount of animal protein I consume. I never eat more than a few ounces offish or chicken a day and I rarely eat meat. I eat a lot of vegetables and fresh fruit which are full of fiber and vitamins. It is important to know how to cook these foods so the nutrients are not lost in the cooking process. Your muscles must continue to be strong to support your body as it grows older. III. Post-Reading: (IV) Writing
Exercise helps the bones build density and helps you maintain your posture. A regular exercise program of cardiovascular training and weight training is an important part of keeping you healthy. Friends are an important part of one's health. Studies have shown that people with a wide range of social contacts get fewer colds and have fewer complaints than those who don't. Laughing is also an important part of health. Hike to laugh with my friends and I always feel better when I am with them than when I am alone. By eating properly and exercising regularly, I can keep my body at an appropriate weight and can maintain my health. By spending time with my friends, I can keep my mind as well as my body happy. It's all apart of my recipe for healthful living. III. Post-Reading: (IV) Writing
B. Text two (I) Questions for text comprehension 1. How do some people suffering from chronic illness feel about themselves? 2. Why does the writer quote the cases of Judy and Mari? 3. How can people with chronic illness make their life transition easier? 4. What is the social need that people with chronic illness should satisfy for rebuilding their lives? 5. According to the passage, how can people with chronic illness return to normal, productive lives? Text two: (I) Questions for text comprehension
Key to Questions for discussion 1. Chronic illness may seriously affect a person’s thoughts, emotions, personality, or behavior. Some people with chronic illness often experience pessimistic feelings. They may interpret a minor failing on their part as a sign of incompetence or minor criticism as condemnation. 2. The writer quotes the cases of a breast cancer survivor and a Type 1 Diabetes patient to give emphasis to her argument that people with chronic illness can rebuild a meaningful life. 3. Chronic illness lasts a long time and cannot be cured. Therefore, people with chronic illness must be prepared for a long period of supervision, observation and treatment, and realize the importance of rebuilding their lives. They can also learn from other sufferers to deal with their own problems. Text two: (I) Questions for text comprehension
4. It is the need to interact socially and be accepted by those whose opinions and friendship they value. Pleasant relations with co-workers and active participation in social and professional activities with family and friends satisfy it. 5. They need to learn how to change their thinking patterns to deal with the psychological and social consequences of their illnesses. They need to eliminate negative and undesirable thoughts and actively participate in social activities to a normal level of functioning. Text two: (I) Questions for text comprehension
5. What is the author’s purpose of writing this passage? It encourages a society’s respect for human rights and fundamental freedom for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion. Text two: (I) Questions for text comprehension
(II) Language points 1. But, at some point, the emotions subside and you are faced with a harsh reality – you are no longer the person you once were. (Paragraph 1): But, at one time or another when your feelings become less strong, you are aware of the fact that your illness has seriously affected your thoughts, emotions and personality. 2. Do you even stand a chance of rebuilding a meaningful life? (Paragraph 1): Do you still have an opportunity to recreate a meaningful life? stand a chance: have an opportunity e.g. Without your help, I stood the least chance of finishing the task in time. Text two: (II) Language points
3. God has transformed a shy, quiet woman into one who shares His comfort and hope with chronic illness support groups throughout the United States. (Paragraph 3): God has completely changed a shy, quiet woman into one who shares God’s blessing with all the other Americans that are members of chronic illness support groups. 4. Many with chronic illness have rebuilt their lives and have gone on to launch new ministries, careers and friendships. (Paragraph 6): Many people with chronic illness have resumed their normal life and have started their careers with the government, entered their chosen professions, and made new friends. Text two: (II) Language points
5. Rebuilding your life requires that you explore unchartered territory. Sure, it might be scary to head back to college at age 35, but why not give it a shot? (Paragraph 12): Leading a normal life again requires that you explore your new life. Of course, it might be frightening to go back to college at age 35, but why not try to do it? 6. Learn to choose between our physical and emotional resources will limit your choices. (Paragraph 15): Learn to determine who and what helps you when you are in need of it. Being physically weak and deprived of joy and purpose in life will stop you from making a right decision. Text two: (II) Language points