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Social Psychology David Myers 10e Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies1.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Psychology David Myers 10e Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Psychology David Myers 10e Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies1

2 Chapter Two The Self in a Social World 2

3 Spotlights and Illusions Spotlights – Spotlight effect Belief that others are paying more attention to one’s appearance and behavior than they really are Illusions – Illusion of transparency Illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others 3

4 Research Close-Up: Being Nervous about Looking Nervous Examples of interplay between our sense of self and our social world – Social surroundings affect our self-awareness – Self-interest colors our social judgment – Self-concern motivates our social behavior – Social relationships help define our self 4

5 Self-Concept: Who Am I? A person’s answers to the question, “Who am I?” – Take time to answer this question… Are your answers more relational (collectivist) or about self (individualist)? 5

6 At the Center of Our Worlds: Our Sense of Self Schema – Mental templates by which we organize our worlds Self-schema – Beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information 6

7 At the Center of Our Worlds: Our Sense of Self Possible Selves – Images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future Oprah Winfrey 7

8 Development of the Social Self What Determines Our Self-Concept? – Roles we play – Social identities we form – Comparisons we make with others – Our successes and failures – How other people judge us – Surrounding culture 8

9 Development of the Social Self Roles We Play – New roles begin as play-acting then become reality Social Comparisons – We compare ourselves with others and consider how we differ We tend to compare upward Can diminish satisfaction 9

10 Development of the Social Self Success and Failure – Our daily experiences cause us to have empowerment or low self-esteem Other People’s Judgments – Looking-glass self How we think others perceive us as a mirror for perceiving ourselves 10

11 Self and Culture Individualism – Concept of giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications Independent self Western cultures 11

12 Self and Culture Collectivism – Giving priority to the goals of one’s groups and defining one’s identity accordingly Interdependent self Asian, African, and Central and South American cultures 12

13 Self and Culture Culture and Cognition – Richard Nisbett’s The Geography of Thought (2003) Contends that collectivism results in different ways of thinking – Asians tend to think more in relationships than Americans 13

14 Self and Culture Culture and Self-Esteem – In collectivist cultures Self-concept is context-specific rather than stable Conflict takes place between groups – In individualistic cultures Self-esteem is more personal and less relational Conflict takes place between individuals – Crime – Divorce 14

15 Self-Knowledge Explaining Our Behavior Predicting Our Behavior – Planning fallacy Tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task 15

16 Self-Knowledge Predicting Our Feelings – Studies of “affective forecasting” reveal people have the greatest difficulty predicting the intensity and the duration of their future emotions Impact bias – Overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events Immune neglect – Tendency to neglect the speed and strength of the “psychological immune system” which enables emotional recovery and resilience after bad things happen 16

17 Self-Knowledge The Wisdom and Illusions of Self-Analysis – Dual attitude Automatic implicit attitudes regarding someone or something often differ from our consciously controlled, explicit attitudes 17

18 Self-Esteem Our overall self-evaluation or sense of self- worth – Specific self-perceptions have some influence – Feedback is best when it is true and specific 18

19 Self-Esteem Motivation Self-esteem maintenance Self-esteem threats occur among friends whose successes can be more threatening than that of strangers 19

20 The “Dark Side” of Self-Esteem Narcissism – Delroy and Williams (2002) “The Dark Triad” of negative traits – Narcissism – Machiavellianism (manipulativeness) – Antisocial psychopathology 20

21 Perceived Self-Control Effortful self-control depletes our limited willpower reserves – Our brain’s “central executive” consumes available blood sugar when engaged in self-control 21

22 Self-Efficacy How competent we feel on a task – Leads us to set challenging goals and to persist 22

23 Locus of Control Extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts and actions or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces 23

24 Learned Helplessness versus Self- Determination Learned Helplessness – Hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated or bad events Martin Seligman Self-Determination – Development of self-discipline in one area of your life may cause self-control in other areas as well 24

25 Excess Freedom The Costs of Excess Choice – Too many choices can lead to dissatisfaction with our final choice – People tend to be generally happier with decisions when they can’t undo them 25

26 Self-Serving Bias Tendency to perceive oneself favorably – Explaining Positive and Negative Events Self-serving attributions – Tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself and negative outcomes to other factors » Contribute to marital discord, worker dissatisfaction, and bargaining impasses 26

27 Self-Serving Bias Can We All Be Better than Average? – Most people see themselves as better than the average person on the following dimensions Subjective Socially desirable Common 27

28 Self-Serving Bias Areas in which we believe we are above average Ethics Professional competence Virtues Intelligence Tolerance Parental support Health Insight Attractiveness Driving 28

29 Self-Serving Bias Unrealistic Optimism – Is on the rise – Illusory optimism increases our vulnerability Defensive Pessimism – Adaptive value of anticipating problems and harnessing one’s anxiety to motivate effective action 29

30 Self-Serving Bias False Consensus Effect – Tendency to overestimate the commonality of one’s opinions and one’s undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors False Uniqueness Effect – Tendency to underestimate the commonality of one’s abilities and one’s desirable or successful behaviors 30

31 Self-Serving Bias Explaining Self-Serving Bias – Self-serving bias is a by-product of how we process and remember information about ourselves Self-Serving Bias may be – Adaptive Protects people from depression – Maladaptive Group-serving bias 31

32 Self-Presentation Wanting to present a desired image both to an external audience (other people) and to an internal audience (ourselves) – Self-Handicapping Protecting one’s self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure – Self-Monitoring Tendency to act like social chameleons 32

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