5 Psychological Disorders Mood DisordersMajor Depressive DisordersBipolar DisorderMood Disorder ExplanationSchizophreniaSymptoms of SchizophreniaSubtypes of Schizophrenia
6 Psychological Disorders SchizophreniaUnderstanding SchizophreniaPersonality DisordersRates of Psychological Disorders
7 Psychological Disorders I felt the need to clean my room … spent four to five hour at it … At the time I loved it but then didn't want to do it any more, but could not stop … The clothes hung … two fingers apart …I touched my bedroom wall before leaving the house … I had constant anxiety … I thought I might be nuts.Marc, diagnosed withobsessive-compulsive disorder(from Summers, 1996)
8 Psychological Disorders People are fascinated by the exceptional, the unusual, and the abnormal. This fascination may be caused by two reasons:During various moments we feel, think, and act like an abnormal individual.Psychological disorders may bring unexplained physical symptoms, irrational fears, and suicidal thoughts.
9 What behaviors do we consider to be abnormal? Evaluate examples. What basis did you use to determine if the behavior was abnormal?Anne Case Study:- What is abnormal?- Why is each abnormal?
10 Psychological Disorders To study the abnormal is the best way of understanding the normal.William James ( )There are 450 million people suffering from psychological disorders (WHO, 2004).Depression and schizophrenia exist in all cultures of the world. Significance?
11 Defining Psychological Disorders Mental health workers view psychological disorders as persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions (dysfunctional) that are disturbing and interfere with normal day-to –day life (maladaptive)A syndrome that is marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotional regulation or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological or developmental processes underlying mental functioning is considered a mental disorder(APA, 2013).OBJECTIVE 1| Identify criteria for judging whether behavior is psychologically disordered.
12 ALTERNATIVE TERMINOLOGY Deviant = Atypical different from other people’s behavior that it violates a normDistressful = Disturbing A behavior which is troublesome to other people or to person*Dysfunctional = Maladaptive Destructive to oneself or others; can’t live a normal life (loss of house, job, family)
13 DEFINING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Standards for deviant behavior vary by culture and context. Examples?Standards for deviant behavior also vary with time. Examples?Deviance alone is not enough to label behavior as abnormal. Why?
14 DEFINING ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR Deviant and Distressful behavior must generally also be judged Dysfunctional to be considered abnormal.Use of term psychopathologyJudy Smith Case Study
15 Understanding Psychological Disorders Ancient Treatments of psychological disorders include trephination, exorcism, being caged like animals, being beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, or transfused with animal’s blood. See transparency for other treatments.OBJECTIVE 2| Contrast the medical model of psychological disorders with the biopsychosocial perspective on disordered behavior.John W. VeranoTrephination (boring holes in the skull to remove evil forces)
17 Medical ModelWhen physicians discovered that syphilis led to mental disorders, they started using medical models to review the physical causes of these disorders. Implies behavior is an illness.Etiology: Cause and development of the disorder.Diagnosis: Identifying (symptoms) and distinguishing one disease from another.Treatment: Treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital.Prognosis: Forecast about the disorder.
18 Biopsychosocial Perspective Assumes that biological, socio-cultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.
19 BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGIES Assumptions that disorders are influenced by:Genetic predispositionsPhysiological statesInner psychological dynamicsSocial and cultural circumstances.
20 Classifying Psychological Disorders The American Psychiatric Association rendered a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) to describe psychological disorders.The most recent edition, DSM 5 (2013)Following slides credited toJeff NevidProfessor of Psychology and Director of Clinical PsychologySt. John’s UniversityOBJECTIVE 3| Describe the goals and content of the DSM-IV.
21 A Short History of the DSM (J.N.) The DSM-1 (1952), 106 disorders across several major categories, reflecting a psychodynamic perspective on etiologyDSM II (1968), 182 disorders, similar framework as DSM-1; like DSM-1, it lacked specification of specific symptoms of many disorders; distinguished among disorders at broader levels of neurosis, psychosis, and personality disturbanceDSM-III (1980) and DSM-III-R (1987), which focused on standardization of diagnostic categories by linking them to specific criteria or symptom clusters, expressed in colloquial language; included 265 diagnoses in DSM-III and 292 in DSM-III-R, which changed some of the diagnostic criteriaDSM-IV (1994) and DSM-IV-TR (2000), 297 disorders, relatively minor changesDSM- 5 (2013) 20 categories- 250 disorders, major changes
22 Goals of DSMDescribe / Classify disorders.Determine how prevalent the disorder is.Disorders outlined by DSM are reliable. Therefore, diagnoses by different professionals are similar.Others criticize DSM for “putting any kind of behavior within the compass of psychiatry.”
23 DSM-5In a given year, about 26.2 percent of American adults over age 18 suffer from a mental disorderonly about 5.8 percent suffer from a severe mental disordercommon to suffer from more than one disorder at a time
24 Major Changes (J. Nevid) CommentElimination of multiaxial system and GAF (Global Assessment Functioning)Clinicians wanted simplified, diagnosis-based system; distinctions between Axis I and Axis II disorders were never clearly justified; clinicians can still specify external stressors; new assessment measures will be introducedEstablishes 20 diagnostic classes or categories of mental disordersCategories based on groupings of disorders sharing similar characteristics; some categories represent spectrums of related disordersRoman numerals dropped: DSM-5, not DSM-VAllows for easier nomenclature for midcourse revisions, 5.1, 5.2, etc.
25 DSM-5 Controversies (J.Nevid) Point of ControversyConcernsExpansion of diagnosable disordersNet result of diagnostic inflation may be to greatly expand the numbers of people labeled as suffering from a mental disorder or mental illness; e.g., Mild Neurocognitive Disorder may pathologize mild cognitive changes or everyday forgetting in older adults; e.g., Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder may pathologize repeated temper tantrums in childrenChanges in classification of mental disordersCritics question whether changes in classification are justified and might lead to greater diagnostic confusion; parents of Asperger’s children are concerned their children may not qualify for the new ASD diagnosis and associated treatment benefits
26 DSM-5 Controversies (J.Nevid) Point of ControversyConcernsChanges in diagnostic criteria for particular disordersCritics contend that many of the changes in the diagnostic criteria have not been sufficiently validated. Particular concerns are raised about the substantial changes made in the set of symptoms used to diagnose Autism Spectrum Disorders, which may have profound effects on the numbers of children identified as suffering from these disordersProcess of developmentCritics claim development of the DSM-5 was shrouded in secrecy, that it failed to incorporate input from many leading researchers and scholars in the field, and that changes to the diagnostic manual were not clearly documented based on an adequate body of empirical research
27 Labeling Psychological Disorders Critics of the DSM argue that labels may stigmatize individuals. Describe the Rosenhan study.OBJECTIVE 4| Discuss the potential dangers and benefits of using diagnostic labels.Elizabeth Eckert, Middletown, NY. From L. Gamwell andN. Tomes, Madness in America, Cornell University Press.Asylum baseball team (labeling)
28 Labeling Psychological Disorders Labels may be helpful for healthcare professionals when communicating with one another and establishing therapy.What stereotypes are caused or supported by the media?Labels can be self-fulfilling prophesies. Explain.
29 Labeling Psychological Disorders 3. “Insanity” labels raise moral and ethical questions about how society should treat people who have disorders and have committed crimes. (We will cover when we do antisocial personality disorder.)Elaine Thompson/ AP PhotoTheodore Kaczynski(Unabomber)
32 Labeling StigmasStudies show a clear bias against people diagnosed with mental disorders. Say DSM contributes to that.
33 Anxiety DisordersCharacterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety..Generalized anxiety disordersPhobiasPanic disordersObsessive-compulsive disordersPost traumatic stress disorderOBJECTIVE 5| Define anxiety disorder, and explain how this condition differs from normal feelings of stress, tension, or uneasiness.
34 Generalized Anxiety Disorder (free floating anxiety) SymptomsPersistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension.2. Autonomic arousal.Inability to identify or avoid the cause of certain feelings.Often accompanied by depressionOBJECTIVE 6| Contrast the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder.
35 Panic Disorder Symptoms Minutes-long episodes of intense dread which may include feelings of terror, chest pains, choking, or other frightening sensations.Anxiety is a component of both disorders. It occurs more in the panic disorder, making people avoid situations that cause it.
36 PhobiaMarked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that disrupts behavior.OBJECTIVE 7| Explain how a phobia differs from fears we all experience.
37 Kinds of Phobias Agoraphobia Phobia of open places. Acrophobia Phobia of heights.ClaustrophobiaPhobia of closed spaces.HemophobiaPhobia of blood.
38 Intense fear of being scrutinized by others. SOCIAL PHOBIAIntense fear of being scrutinized by others.Severe shyness.
39 Your morning routine:Describe your typical morning routine from the time you get up in the morning until you leave for school.Raise your hand if:your routine the same every dayit would cause you tension if someone changed or intruded on it
40 Routine, superstition, or OCD? You make the call (Wade Boggs) 2pm - chicken dinner3pm - leaves apartment3:30 - dresses at locker4pm - sits in dugout4:10 - warms-up arm4: ground ballsSteps on 3rd-2nd-1st-baseline-2 steps through coaches box-4 steps to dugoutDrink, then jogs to centerfield to meditateBatting practice7:17 wind sprintsApplies pine tar, doughnut, resin to batDraws a Chai in the dirt
41 When does a routine become obsessive-compulsive?
42 OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER Listen to the description of one compulsive person. Decide what the difference is between her behavior and your morning routine:
43 OBSESSIVE/COMPULSIVE She dresses in black from head to toe every day. On her way to each class, she invariably takes exactly the same route every day, changing it for nothing or no one. Not only does she avoid stepping on cracks in the floor, but also she walks on the same floor tiles and she counts every footfall.
44 OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVEOnce in class, she sits in exactly the same seat as the day before, and she places her book bag on the exact spot on the floor. Whenever the teacher moves to the right side of the room, the girl makes a mark in her notebook. Whenever the teacher moves to the left, the girl nods her head.
45 OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVEIf the teacher is on the left side of the room when the class is dismissed, the girl is confident that she has learned well. The girl has no friends because her behavior is so bizarre and absorbs too much of her energy to allow her to be responsive to others. Also, people are threatening to her, since they may interfere with the demands of her self-imposed rituals.
46 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Persistence of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions) that cause distress.OBJECTIVE 8| Describe the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
47 OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER How do obsessions and compulsions become linked?The compulsions originate to reduce the anxiety brought on by the obsession.Ritualized behavior carries out the compulsionThe person then becomes anxious about the ritual.Example: video clip on flashdrive
48 EXAMPLESObsession: A young woman is continuously terrified by the thought that cars might careen onto the sidewalk and run over her. Compulsion: She always walks as far from the street pavement as possible and wears red clothes so that she will be immediately visible to an out-of-control car.
49 EXAMPLESObsession: A college student has the urge to shout obscenities while sitting through lectures in classes.Compulsion: Carefully monitoring his watch, he bites his tongue every sixty seconds in order to ward off the inclination to shout.
50 EXAMPLESObsession: A young boy worries incessantly that something terrible might happen to his mother while sleeping at night.Compulsion: On his way up to bed each night, he climbs the stairs according to a fixed sequence of three steps up, followed by two steps down in order to ward off danger.
51 EXAMPLESObsession: A mother is tormented by the concern that she might inadvertently contaminate food as she cooks dinner for her family.Compulsion: Every day she sterilizes all cooking utensils in boiling water, scours every pot and pan before placing food in it, and wears rubber gloves while handling food.
53 Brain ImagingA PET scan of the brain of a person with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). High metabolic activity (red) in the frontal lobe areas are involved with directing attention.Brain image of an OCD
54 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Four or more weeks of the following symptoms constitute post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD):Haunting memories2. Nightmares3. Social withdrawalOBJECTIVE 9| Describe the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, and discuss survivor resiliency.4. Jumpy anxietySleep problemsDose response relationshipBettmann/ Corbis
55 Resilience to PTSDOnly about 10% of women and 20% of men react to traumatic situations and develop PTSD.Holocaust survivors show remarkable resilience against traumatic situations.All major religions of the world suggest that surviving a trauma leads to the growth of an individual. (“Post-Traumatic Growth”)
56 Explaining Anxiety Disorders Freud suggested that we repress our painful and intolerable ideas, feelings, and thoughts, resulting in anxiety. PSYCHODYNAMICOBJECTIVE 10| Discuss the contributions of the learning and biological perspectives to our understanding of the development of anxiety disorders.
57 The Learning Perspective -BEHAVIORAL Learning theorists suggest that fear conditioning leads to anxiety. This anxiety then becomes associated with other objects or events (stimulus generalization) and is reinforced. Review behavioral studies, esp neg reinforcement.John Coletti/ Stock, Boston
58 The Learning Perspective - BEHAVIORAL Investigators believe that fear responses are inculcated (taught to you) through observational learning. Young monkeys develop fear when they watch other monkeys who are afraid of snakes.
59 The Biological Perspective Natural Selection has led our ancestors to learn to fear snakes, spiders, and other animals. Therefore, fear preserves the species. Predisposition (vulnerability, diasthesis)Grooming, territorialism, washing up lead to ?Twin studies suggest that our genes may be partly responsible for developing fears and anxiety. Twins are more likely to share phobias.
60 The Biological Perspective Generalized anxiety, panic attacks, and even OCD are linked with brain circuits like the anterior cingulate cortex(esp for OCD).Fear circuits also in amygdala.Antidepressants can help.S. Ursu, V.A. Stenger, M.K. Shear, M.R. Jones, & C.S. Carter (2003). Overactive actionmonitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychological Science, 14,Anterior Cingulate Cortexof an OCD patient.
61 Give out Causes ChartFill out first row for Anxiety Disorders using the persectives
62 Dissociative Disorder Conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.SymptomsHaving a sense of being unreal.OBJECTIVE 11| Describe the symptoms of dissociative disorders, and explain why some critics are skeptical about dissociative identity disorder.2. Being separated from the body.Watching yourself as if in a movie.Fugue: amnesia with flight (wander off)
63 DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER CAUSES Abuse, often sexualDissociation or separation from trauma: conscious awareness become separated from painful memories, thoughts, and feelingsPresumes existence of repressed memories (controversial)Psychoanalytic and learning theory: a way of dealing with extreme anxietyA cultural phenomenon – a disorder created by therapists in a particular social context?
64 Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) Is a disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities, formerly called multiple personality disorder. This is NOT schizophrenia.Lois Bernstein/ Gamma LiasonChris Sizemore (DID)
65 Dissociative Identity Disorder Used to be called “Multiple Personality Disorder”Very rare
67 DID CriticsCritics argue that the diagnosis of DID increased in the late 20th century. DID has not been found in other countries.Critics’ ArgumentsRole-playing by people open to a therapist’s suggestion.2. Learned response that reinforces reductions in anxiety.
69 Mood Disorders (Affective Disorders) Emotional extremes of mood disorders come in two principle forms.Major depressive disorder – prolonged lethargy and hopelessnessBipolar disorder – alternate between depression and mania formerly called manic depressive disorder.OBJECTIVE 12| Define mood disorders, and contrast major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.
70 Major Depressive Disorder Depression is the “common cold” of psychological disorders. In a year, 5.8% of men and 9.5% of women report depression worldwide (WHO, 2002).Blue moodMajor Depressive DisorderGasping for air after a hard runChronic shortness of breath
71 Major Depressive Disorder Depression is often a response to past and current loss.It is a type of psychic hibernation: slows us down, defuses aggression, and restrains risk taking. Rumination (define) can be adaptive: reassess, redirect energy
73 Dysthymic DisorderDysthymic disorder lies between a blue mood and major depressive disorder. It is a disorder characterized by daily depression lasting two years or more.Major DepressiveDisorderBlueMoodDysthymic
75 Inability to make decisions Bipolar DisorderFormerly called manic-depressive disorder. An alternation between depression and mania signals bipolar disorder.Depressive SymptomsManic SymptomsGloomyElationWithdrawnEuphoriaInability to make decisionsDesire for actionTiredHyperactiveSlowness of thoughtMultiple ideas
76 Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder Note:The DSM 5 will likely reduce the number of child & adolescent bipolar diagnoses, by classifying as D.M.D.D.
77 Bipolar DisorderMany great writers, poets, and composers suffered from bipolar disorder. During their manic phase creativity surged, but not during their depressed phase.WhitmanWolfeClemensHemingwayGeorge C. Beresford/ Hulton Getty Pictures LibraryEarl Theissen/ Hulton Getty Pictures LibraryThe Granger CollectionBettmann/ Corbis
78 BIPOLAR DISORDER Mild form of bipolar disorder: cyclothymia Maladaptive symptoms of manic phaseGrandiose optimism and self-esteemReckless behaviorLoud, flighty, hard to interrupt speech
79 Subsets of Bipolar Disorder Bipolar I: manic episodes may alternate with periods of deep depression or sometimes periods of relatively normal mood separate these extremes (also called manic depression).Tends to be very rareBipolar II: major depressive episodes alternate with episodes known as hypomania, which are less severe than the manic phases seen in bipolar I disorder.Cyclothymic Disorder: the bipolar equivalent of dysthymia; it involves episodes of depression and mania, but the intensity of both moods is less severe than in cases of bipolar I disorder.
82 Explaining Mood Disorders Since depression is so prevalent worldwide, investigators want to develop a theory of depression that will suggest ways to treat it.Lewinsohn et al., (1985, 1995) note that a theory of depression should explain the following:OBJECTIVE 13| Discuss the facts that an acceptable theory of depression must explain.Behavioral and cognitive changes, including symptoms of other disorders such as delusionsCommon causes of depression
84 Theory of Depression Depressive episodes usually self-terminate. Stressful events often precede depression.Depression is increasing, especially in the teens. Gene penetrance (define) or comfort level with reporting?Desiree Navarro/ Getty Images
85 SuicideThe most severe form of behavioral response to depression is suicide. Each year some 1 million people commit suicide worldwide.National differencesRacial differencesGender differencesAge differencesOther differencesSuicide Statistics
86 Biological Perspective Genetic Influences: Mood disorders run in families. The rate of depression is higher in identical (50%) than fraternal twins (20%).Linkage analysis and association studies link possible genes and dispositions for depression.OBJECTIVE 14| Summarize the contribution of the biological perspective to the study of depression, and discuss the link between suicide and depression.Jerry Irwin Photography
87 Neurotransmitters & Depression A reduction of norepinephrine and serotonin has been found in depression.Drugs that alleviate mania reduce norepinephrine.Pre-synapticNeuronSerotoninNorepinephrinePost-synapticNeuron
88 Biology and Depression Depressed people have lower levels in their diet and blood of a “good” fat: omega-3 fatty acid that enhances brain function
89 The Depressed BrainPET scans show that brain energy consumption rises and falls with manic and depressive episodes.Courtesy of Lewis Baxter an Michael E.Phelps, UCLA School of Medicine
90 Social-Cognitive Perspective/SELIGMAN The social-cognitive perspective suggests that depression arises partly from self-defeating beliefs and negative explanatory styles.OBJECTIVE 15| Summarize the contribution of the social-cognitive perspective to the study of depression, and describe the events in the cycle of depression.
91 Depression Cycle Negative stressful events. Pessimistic explanatory style. May arise from learned helplessness.Hopeless depressed state.These hamper the way the individual thinks and acts, fueling personal rejection.
92 Explanatory style plays a major role in becoming depressed. ExampleExplanatory style plays a major role in becoming depressed.
93 RISE OF DEPRESSION EXPLAINED BY SELIGMAN Due to epidemic hopelessness (preexisting pessimism encountering failure).Hopelessness due to:rise of individualismdecline of commitment to religion and familyresulting self-blame with nothing to fall back on
94 Women and Depression Women are more likely to suffer from depression Women tend to think, often overthink (ruminate) when trouble arisesDifferences in emotional memory (more vivid recall of bad experiences)
95 * Is not Dissociative Identity Disorder SchizophreniaIf depression is the common cold of psychological disorders, schizophrenia is the cancer.Nearly 1 in a 100 suffer from schizophrenia, and throughout the world over 24 million people suffer from this disease (1%)(WHO, 2002).Schizophrenia strikes young people as they mature into adults. It affects men and women equally, but men suffer from it more severely than women.* Is not Dissociative Identity Disorder
96 Symptoms of Schizophrenia AP: Diagnostic Categories andTheir SymptomsPOSITIVE- not present in normal people - ACTIVENEGATIVE - PASSIVEExcesses of, or additions to, normal behaviorDelusions: Unshakeable, false beliefsDelusions of persecutionDelusions of referenceDelusions of influenceDelusions of grandeurHallucinations: Seeing or hearing things that don’t existLess than, or an absence of, normal behaviorPoor attentionFlat affect: A lack of emotional responsivenessPoor speech productionMastering12.25
97 Symptoms of Schizophrenia The literal translation is “split mind.” A group of severe disorders characterized by the following:Disorganized and delusional thinking.Disturbed perceptions (hallucinations).Inappropriate emotions (flat affect) and actions.Psychotic: the break away from an ability to perceive what is real and what is fantasy (psychosis)OBJECTIVE 16| Describe the symptoms of schizophrenia, and differentiate delusion and hallucinations.
98 Disorganized & Delusional Thinking This morning when I was at Hillside [Hospital], I was making a movie. I was surrounded by movie stars … I’m Marry Poppins. Is this room painted blue to get me upset? My grandmother died four weeks after my eighteenth birthday.”(Sheehan, 1982)This monologue illustrates fragmented, bizarre thinking with distorted beliefs called delusions (“I’m Mary Poppins”).Other forms of delusions include, delusions of persecution (“someone is following me”) or grandeur (“I am a king”).
99 DELUSIONS Delusions are NOT hallucinations! Types: Delusions of grandeurDelusions of persecutionDelusions of referenceDelusions of influence
100 Disorganized & Delusional Thinking Many psychologists believe disorganized thoughts occur because of selective attention failure (fragmented and bizarre thoughts).
101 Disturbed Perceptions A schizophrenic person may perceive things that are not there (hallucinations). Frequently such hallucinations are auditory and lesser visual, somatosensory, olfactory, or gustatory.Photos of paintings by Krannert Museum, University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignAugust Natter, Witches Head. The Prinzhorn Collection, University of HeidelbergL. Berthold, Untitled. The Prinzhorn Collection, University of Heidelberg
102 Inappropriate Emotions & Actions A schizophrenic person may laugh at the news of someone dying or show no emotion at all (apathy or “flat affect”).Patients with schizophrenia may continually rub an arm, rock a chair, or remain motionless for hours (catatonia).
103 Additional Symptoms of Schizophrenia Disruptions of language:word salads,neologisms (invent new words),clang associations (rhyming rather than meaning for word choice)2) Disruptions of thinking:a) thought blockingb) thought insertion3) Personal hygiene often suffers.OBJECTIVE 17| Distinguish the five subtypes of schizophrenia, and contrast chronic and reactive schizophrenia.
104 Types - Chronic and Acute Schizophrenia When schizophrenia is slow to develop (chronic/process) recovery is doubtful. Such schizophrenics usually display negative symptoms.When schizophrenia rapidly develops (acute/reactive) recovery is better. Such schizophrenics usually show positive symptoms. Respond better to meds.
105 Understanding Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a disease of the brain exhibited by the symptoms of the mind.Brain AbnormalitiesDopamine Overactivity: Researchers found that schizophrenic patients express higher levels of dopamine D4 receptors (6x) in the brain.OBJECTIVE 18| Outline some abnormal brain functions and structures associated with schizophrenia, and discuss the possible link between prenatal viral infections and schizophrenia.
106 Abnormal Brain Activity Brain scans show abnormal activity in the frontal cortex, thalamus, and amygdala of schizophrenic patients. Adolescent schizophrenic patients also have brain lesions.Paul Thompson and Arthur W. Toga, UCLA Laboratory of NeuroImaging and Judith L. Rapport, National Institute of Mental Health
107 Abnormal Brain Morphology Schizophrenia patients may exhibit morphological changes in the brain, like enlargement of fluid-filled ventricles.Both Photos: Courtesy of Daniel R. Weinberger, M.D., NIH-NIMH/ NSC
108 Other risk factors Low birth weight Maternal diabetes Older paternal ageOxygen deprivation during deliveryFamine exposure
109 Occurs in 2% of pregancies where mother had the flu virus Viral InfectionSchizophrenia has also been observed in individuals who contracted a viral infection (flu) during the middle of their fetal development.Occurs in 2% of pregancies where mother had the flu virus
110 Figure Genetics and Schizophrenia This chart shows a definite pattern: The greater the degree of genetic relatedness, the higher the risk of schizophrenia in individuals related to each other. The only individual to carry a risk even close to that of identical twins (who share 100 percent of their genes) is a person who is the child of two parents with schizophrenia. Based on Gottesman (1991).
111 Genetic FactorsThe following shows the prevalence of schizophrenia in identical twins as seen in different countries.
112 Psychological Factors 1)Psychological and environmental factors can trigger schizophrenia if the individual is genetically predisposed (Nicols & Gottesman, 1983).2) Stress-vulnerability model: assumes a biological sensitivity, or vulnerability, to a certain disorder that will develop under the right conditions of environmental or emotional stressThe genetically identical Genainsisters suffer from schizophrenia. Two suffer more than the others, thus there are contributing environmental factors.OBJECTIVE 20| Describe some psychological factors that may be early signs of schizophrenia in children.Courtesy of Genain FamilyGenain Sisters
113 Early warning signs of schizophrenia include: 1.A mother’s long lasting schizophrenia.2.Birth complications, oxygen deprivation and low-birth weight.3.Short attention span and poor muscle coordination.4.Disruptive and withdrawn behavior.5.Emotional unpredictability.6.Poor peer relations and solo play.
115 SOMATOFORM DISORDERS (not in textbook) Somatoform disorder: psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical causeTwo types of somatoform disorderConversion disorderIllness Anxiety Disorder
116 SOMATOFORM DISORDERConversion Disorder: a rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found.Illness Anxiety Disorder (formally called Hypochondriasis): a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
117 Conversion Disorders differ from true physical disorders in 3 ways: Somatoform DisordersConversion Disorders differ from true physical disorders in 3 ways:1. usually appear under severe stress,2. allow person to reduce stress by avoiding unpleasant or threatening situations, and3. the person may show little concern about what apparently should be a serious problem.Tend to be very rare
118 Dissociative Disorder Conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.SymptomsHaving a sense of being unreal.OBJECTIVE 11| Describe the symptoms of dissociative disorders, and explain why some critics are skeptical about dissociative identity disorder.2. Being separated from the body.Watching yourself as if in a movie.Fugue: amnesia with flight
119 Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) Is a disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities, formerly called multiple personality disorder. This is NOT schizophrenia.Lois Bernstein/ Gamma LiasonChris Sizemore (DID)
120 DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER CAUSES Abuse, often sexualDissociation or separation from trauma: conscious awareness become separated from painful memories, thoughts, and feelingsPresumes existence of repressed memories (controversial)Psychoanalytic and learning theory: a way of dealing with extreme anxietyA cultural phenomenon – a disorder created by therapists in a particular social context?
121 Dissociative Amnesia (Dissociative Fugue now a characteristic of) Characterized by loss of identity and travel to a new locationTime- hours, days, weeks , months, yearsCaused by extreme stress
122 DID CriticsCritics argue that the diagnosis of DID increased in the late 20th century. DID has not been found in other countries. videoCritics’ ArgumentsRole-playing by people open to a therapist’s suggestion.2. Learned response that reinforces reductions in anxiety.
123 Eating Disorders Eating disorders –covered in Ch 12 Anorexia nervosa an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly (15 percent or more) underweight.Bulimia nervosa an eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use), excessive exercise, or fasting.Binge -eating disorder -significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia
124 Personality Disorders (AXIS II) Personality disorders are characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning. They are usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions.OBJECTIVE 21| Contrast the three clusters of personality disorders, and describe the behaviors and brain activity associated with antisocial personality disorders.
126 Antisocial Personality Disorder A disorder in which the person (usually men) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. Formerly, this person was called a sociopath or psychopath.
127 Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder Like mood disorders and schizophrenia, antisocial personality disorder has biological and psychological reasons. Youngsters, before committing a crime, respond with lower levels of stress hormones than others do at their age.
128 Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder PET scans of 41 murderers revealed reduced activity in the frontal lobes. In a follow-up study repeat offenders had 11% less frontal lobe activity compared to normals (Raine et al., 1999; 2000).Courtesy of Adrian Raine,University of Southern CaliforniaNormalMurderer
129 Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder The likelihood that one will commit a crime doubles when childhood poverty is compounded with obstetrical complications (Raine et al., 1999; 2000).
131 Rates of Psychological Disorders The prevalence of psychological disorders during the previous year is shown below (WHO, 2004).
132 INSANITY DEFENSE Read: “The Insanity Defense: A Closer Look” Skim over the John Hinckley packet.Determine why John Hinckley received the sentence of not guilty by reason of insanity. Summarize this view; include in your answer your understanding of paranoid schizophrenia. Do you agree with the sentence? Why or why not?Video clip:
133 Risk and Protective Factors Risk and protective factors for mental disorders (WHO, 2004).