Presentation on theme: "Abnormal Psychology A.K.A. Psychological Disorders A “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable."— Presentation transcript:
Abnormal Psychology A.K.A. Psychological Disorders A “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable. Not deviant behavior. Must cause stress to the individual (most times)
Early Theories Abnormal behavior was evil spirits trying to get out. Trephining was often used.
Perspectives and Disorders Psychological School/PerspectiveCause of the Disorder Psychoanalytic/PsychodynamicInternal, unconscious drives HumanisticFailure to strive to one’s potential or being out of touch with one’s feelings. BehavioralReinforcement history, the environment. CognitiveIrrational, dysfunctional thoughts or ways of thinking. Socio-culturalDysfunctional Society Biomedical/NeuroscienceOrganic problems, biochemical imbalances, genetic predispositions.
DSM V Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: the big book of disorders. DSM will classify disorders and describe the symptoms. Allows for treatment and medication DSM will NOT explain the causes or possible cures. DSM 5 new names mental retardation now intellectual disability Also new categories hoarding and binge-eating disorder
The Rosenhan Study- A criticism of labeling Rosenhan’s associates were Malingering symptoms of hearing voices. They were ALL admitted for schizophrenia. None were exposed as imposters. They all left diagnosed with schizophrenia in remission. What are some of the questions raised by this study? Problems: people viewed differently with a label Leads to self-fulfilling prophecies from others
Two Major Classifications in the DSM Neurotic Disorders Distressing but one can still function in society and act rationally. Psychotic Disorders Person loses contact with reality, experiences distorted perceptions. John Wayne Gacy
Anxiety Disorders a group of conditions where the primary symptoms are anxiety or defenses against anxiety. the patient fears something awful will happen to them. They are in a state of intense apprehension, uneasiness, uncertainty, or fear. 2/3 are women
Physiological Symptoms of Anxiety Increased heart rate Dry mouth Nauseau Intestinal distress Frequent urination Possible fainting Shaking Twitching Can lead to real physical problems
Phobias A person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread. Must be an irrational fear. Phobia List
Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD An anxiety disorder in which a person is continuously tense, apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. The patient is constantly tense and worried, feels inadequate, is oversensitive, can’t concentrate and suffers from insomnia. Free-floating Person cannot identify the cause therefore cannot deal with or avoid it
Panic Disorder An anxiety disorder marked by a minutes- long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking and other frightening sensations.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder Persistent unwanted thoughts (obsessions) cause someone to feel the need (compulsion) to engage in a particular action. Obsession about dirt and germs may lead to compulsive hand washing. Persons know the rituals are irrational More common among teens and young adults Classified separately in the DSM V
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder a.k.a. PTSD Flashbacks or nightmares following a person’s involvement in or observation of an extremely stressful event. 1/10 women and 1/20 men develop PTSD after trauma Active limbic system Overtaxed autonomic system Memories of the event cause anxiety. A lot of activity in the Right temporal lobe Can lead to post-traumatic growth- increased personal strength Classified separately in the DSM V
Understanding Anxiety Disorders Learning Perspective: a conditioned response 2 types of learning processes can add to anxiety: stimulus generalization- bit by dog = fear all dogs, reinforcement- maintain out fears and anxieties, washing your hands relieves anxiety so always wash hands when anxious Observational learning- transmit anxiety to our children Cognitive- your thinking about the event ex: a creaky door becomes an intruder wielding a knife. People become hypervigilant Biological – evolutionary, but out of control grooming gone wild = pull out hair. Hard to extinguish fears that were evolutionary relevant Genetic- runs in families possible anxiety gene that regulates serotonin or glutamate Brain- creates a mental hiccup and redo the behaviors
Somatoform Disorders Occur when a person manifests a psychological problem through a physiological symptom. Two types……
Hypochondriasis Has frequent physical complaints for which medical doctors are unable to locate the cause. They usually believe that the minor issues (headache, upset stomach) are indicative are more severe illnesses. In DSM V now categorized as Somatic Symptom Disorder
Conversion Disorder Report the existence of severe physical problems with no biological reason. Like blindness or paralysis. Pol Pot
Dissociative Disorders These disorders involve a disruption in the conscious process. Three types….
Psychogenic Amnesia A person cannot remember things with no physiological basis for the disruption in memory. Retrograde Amnesia NOT organic amnesia. Organic amnesia can be retrograde ( prior memories gone but can create new ones)or anterograde (long term memory in tact but inability to create new memories.)
Dissociative Fugue People with psychogenic amnesia that find themselves in an unfamiliar environment.
Dissociative Identity Disorder Used to be known as Multiple Personality Disorder. A person has several rather than one integrated personality (alters). People with DID commonly have a history of childhood abuse or trauma. Constructive memory- create memories to fill the gaps of lost time. Therapists cautious not to ask leading questions lest they give someone the idea they have been abused or have DID
Mood Disorders Experience extreme or inappropriate emotion.
Major Depression A.K.A. unipolar depression Unhappy for at least two weeks with no apparent cause. Depression is the common cold of psychological disorders.
Symptoms of Depression and Systhemia Dysthemia Persistent depressive disorder Adults who experience mild depressed mood for at least 2 years Also display 2 or more of the depressive symptoms Symptoms: of Depression 5 signs last 2 or more weeks Problems regulating appetite Problems regulating sleep Low energy Difficulty concentrating and making decisions Feelings of hopelessness
Seasonal Affective Disorder Experience depression during the winter months. Based not on temperature, but on amount of sunlight. Treated with light therapy.
Bipolar Disorder Formally manic depression. Involves periods of depression and manic episodes. Manic episodes involve feelings of high energy (but they tend to differ a lot…some get confident and some get irritable). Engage in risky behavior during the manic episode.
Bipolar Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sl95tsiLv yM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sl95tsiLv yM Famous People with Bipolar: Tim Burton, Mark Twain, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Virginia Wolf
Understanding Mood Disorders Causes behavioral and cognitive changes Widespread Women twice as vulnerable Most major episodes terminate on their own Stressful events can precede depression: work, marriage, death With each new generation depression hitting earlier. Highest rates in developed countries Perspectives Biological- Tends to run in families but is it observed behavior. Identical twins studies 50% chance if one twin suffers depression Less brain activity during depressed states Hippocampus is vulnerable
Other Causes Biochemical: norepinephrine increases arousal and mood low when depressed, high when manic, Serotonin- scarce during depression Social- Cognitive Negative thoughts and negative moods Depression high in people who overthink and ruminate Also stable locus of control- lasts forever Internal- my fault
Schizophrenic Disorders About 1 in every 100 people are diagnosed with schizophrenia. Hits in late teens early 20s Symptoms of Schizophrenia 1.Disorganized thinking. 2.Disturbed Perceptions 3.Inappropriate Emotions and Actions
Disorganized Thinking The thinking of a person with Schizophrenia is fragmented and bizarre and distorted with false beliefs. Disorganized thinking comes from a breakdown in selective attention.- they cannot filter out information.
Delusions (false beliefs) Delusions of Persecution Delusions of Grandeur
Disturbed Perceptions hallucinations- sensory experiences without sensory stimulation.
Inappropriate Emotions and Actions Laugh at inappropriate times. Flat Effect Senseless, compulsive acts. Catatonia- motionless Waxy Flexibility
Disorganized Schizophrenia disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion. Clang associations "Imagine the worst Systematic, sympathetic Quite pathetic, apologetic, paramedic Your heart is prosthetic"
Paranoid Schizophrenia preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations. Somebody is out to get me!!!! Considered most dangerous
Possible Causes of Schizophrenia Increase in dopamine receptors- 6X which causes schizophrenic symptoms Glutamate an excitatory neurotransmitter may also be a cause Abnormal brain activity Over activity in thalamus when patients heard voices or saw images Maternal viral infection that may impair fetal brain development Genetic- see twin studies
Personality Disorders Disruptive, inflexible, and enduring patterns of behavior Dominates their personality.
Antisocial Personality Disorder= sociopath or psychopath Lack of empathy. Little regard for other’s feelings. Lack of conscience View the world as hostile and look out for themselves. Mostly males Intelligent, manipulative
Why? Increased risk if relatives display antisocial behavior Some detection at 3-4 years old: impulsive, uninhibited, low anxiety Channeled correctly good qualities Lack a sense of responsibility a killer is born At risk for substance abuse Scans show reduced activity in frontal lobes Respond less to facial cues- fear Reduced autonomic activity Lack of arousal may lead people to act fearlessly- criminal behaviors ANS is a warning to the rest of us that we are doing something wrong More disorganized, impulsive all traits associated with frontal lobe activity Biosocial causes
Therapy It used to be that if someone exhibited abnormal behavior, they were institutionalized. Because of new drugs and better therapy, the U.S. went to a policy of deinstitutionalization.
Psychoanalytic Therapy Psychoanalysis (manifest and latent content through…. hypnosis free association, dream, interpretation). Unconscious Transference Other therapies will result in symptom substitution.
Humanistic Therapy Client-Centered Therapy by Carl Rogers These are non-directive therapies and use active listening. Self-actualization, free- will and unconditional positive regard. Gestalt Therapy by Fritz Perls encourage clients to get in touch with whole self.