2Neurotic DisordersNeurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders have common historical origin with the concept of neurosis and association of a substantial proportion of these disorders with psychological causation.Mixtures of symptoms, especially anxiety and depressive ones are common in these disordersAbout one fourth of the population in developed countries will suffer from neurotic disorders during its lifetime course.With the exception of social phobia their frequency is higher in women than in men.
3Neurotic, Stress-Related and Somatoform Disorders (F40-F48) F40 Phobic anxiety disordersF41 Other anxiety disordersF42 Obsessive-compulsive disorderF43 Reaction to severe stress, and adjustment disordersF44 Dissociative [conversion] disordersF45 Somatoform disordersF48 Other neurotic disorders
4F40 Phobic anxiety disorders F40.0 AgoraphobiaF40.1 Social phobiasF40.2 Specific (isolated) phobiasF40.8 Other phobic anxiety disordersF40.9 Phobic anxiety disorder, unspecified
5Phobic Anxiety Disorders In agoraphobia, social and specific phobias, anxiety is evoked predominantly by certain well-defined situations or objects, which are external to the individual and are not currently dangerous.As a result, these situations or objects are characteristically avoided or endured with dread.Phobic anxiety fluctuates from mild uneasy to terror. The individual’s concern may focus on individual symptoms such as palpitations or feeling faint and is often associated with secondary fears of dying, losing control, or going mad.The anxiety is not relieved by the knowledge that other people do not regard the situation in question as dangerous or threatening.
6Agoraphobia „Agoraphobia“ - the fear from marketplace. Agoraphobia includes various phobias embracing fears of leaving home: fears of entering shops, crowds, and public places, or of traveling alone in trains, buses, underground or planes.The lack of an immediately available exit is one of the key features of many agoraphobic situations.The avoidance behaviour causes sometimes that the sufferer becomes completely housebound.Most sufferers are women. Onset - early adult life.The lifetime prevalence - between 5—7%.High co-morbidity with panic disorder; depressive and obsessional symptoms and social phobias may be also present.
8Social PhobiasClinical picture - fear of scrutiny by other people in comparatively small groups leading to avoidance of social situationsThe fears may bediscrete - restricted to eating in public, to be introduced to other people, to public speaking, or to encounters with the opposite sexdiffuse - social situations outside the family circle.Direct eye-to-eye confrontation may be stressful.Low self-esteem and fear of criticism.Symptoms may progress to panic attacks.Avoidance - almost complete social isolation.Usually start in childhood or adolescence.Estimation of lifetime prevalence - between %.It is equally common in both sexes.Secondary alcoholism.
10Specific (Isolated) Phobias Fears of proximity to particular animalsspiders (arachnophobia)insects (entomophobia)snakes (ophidiophobia)Fears of specific situations such asheights (acrophobia)thunder (keraunophobia)darkness (nyctophobia)closed spaces (claustrophobia)Fears of diseases, injuries or medical examinationsvisiting a dentistthe sight of blood (hemophobia) or injury (pain —odynophobia)the fear of exposure to venereal diseases (syphilidophobia) or AIDS-phobia.Usually arise in childhood or early adult life and can persist for decades if they remain untreated.Lifetime prevalence - between 10-20%.
11F41 Other Anxiety Disorders F41.0 Panic disorder (episodic paroxysmal anxiety)F41.1 Generalized anxiety disorderF41.2 Mixed anxiety and depressive disorderF41.3 Other mixed anxiety disordersF41.8 Other specified anxiety disordersF41.9 Anxiety disorder, unspecified
12Other Anxiety Disorders Manifestations of anxiety are also the major symptoms of these disorders, however, it is not restricted to any particular environmental situation.
13Panic DisorderThe essential features are recurrent attacks of severe anxiety (panic attacks) which are not restricted to any particular situation or set of circumstances.Typical symptoms are palpitations, chest pain, choking sensations, dizziness, and feelings of unreality (depersonalisation or derealization).Individual attacks usually last for minutes only. The frequency of attacks varies substantially.Frequent and predictable panic attacks produce fear of being alone or going into public places.The afflicted persons used to think that they got a serious somatic disease.The course of panic disorder is long-lasting and is complicated with various comorbidities, in half of the cases with agoraphobia.The estimation of lifetime prevalence moves between 1-3%.
15General Anxiety Disorder The essential feature is anxiety lasting more than 6 months, which is generalized and persistent but not restricted to, or even strongly predominating in, any particular environmental circumstances.Symptoms: continuous feelings of nervousness, trembling, muscular tension, sweating, lightheadedness, palpitations, dizziness, and epigastric discomfort.Fears that the patient or a relative will shortly become ill or have an accident are often expressed, together with a variety of other worries and forebodings.The estimation of lifetime prevalence moves between 4-6 %.This disorder is more common in women, and often related to chronic environmental stress.Its course uses to be fluctuating and chronic connected with symptoms of frustration, sadness and complicated with abuse of alcohol and other illicit drugs.
16Mixed Anxiety and Depressive Disorder Symptoms of both anxiety and depression are present, but neither of symptoms, considered separately, is sufficiently severe to justify a diagnosis of depressive episode or specific anxiety disorder.Some autonomic symptoms, such as tremor, palpitations, dry mouth, stomach churning, must be present.Individuals with this mixture of comparatively mild symptoms are frequently seen in primary care.
17Etiology of Anxiety Disorders The etiology of anxiety disorders is not exactly known.Genetic factors were found to play a role.Nongenetic factors, such as various stressful life events during early or later stages of ontogenesis were thought to be even more important.Several different neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in these disorders, including the noradrenergic, GABA, and serotoninergic systems in some parts of the brain.The role of CO2 in the etiology of panic disorder is seriously discussed.
18Clinical Management of Anxiety Disorders Treatment of anxiety disorders:various psychotherapeutic techniquescognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT)psychodynamic approachespsychopharmacotherapybenzodiazepines (alprazolam, clonazepam) - for several weeks (potential for abuse, development of tolerance and addiction)Buspirone - little abusive potential; especially GAD, not effective in panic disorder; longer use is necessarybeta-blocking drugs - for the short treatment of performance anxiety, especially somatic symptoms like tremorantihistaminicsvarious types of antidepressants - SRIs (clomipramine, citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetitle, sertraline), MOAIs (tranylcypromifle), RIMA (moclobemide) and SNRI (venlafaxine); well tolerated, no abuse potentialRecommendation: to start the treatment with a brief course of benzodiazepines as well as with antidepressants for a longer period and to combine the drug treatment with various types of psychotherapy.
19Commonly Used Anxiolytics DrugCommonly used dosage (mg)Elimination halftime (hours)Alprazolam0,5-612-15Bromazepam3-1512Diazepam5-3024-72Chfordiazepoxied10-5024-100Clobazam20-3020Clonazepam1-834Clorazepate15-6060Lorazepam1-411-13Medazepam10-3029Oxazepam30-904-20Tofizopam50-3006Buspirone2-11Hydroxyzine12-20
20F42 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) F42.0 Predominantly obsessional thoughts or ruminationsF42.1 Predominantly compulsive acts (obsessional rituals)F42.2 Mixed obsessional thoughts and actsF42.8 Other obsessive-compulsive disordersF42.9 Obsessive-compulsive disorder, unspecified
21Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Obsessional thought are ideas, images or impulses that enter the individual’s mind again and again in a stereotyped form.They are recognized as the individual’s own thoughts, even though they are involuntary and often repugnant. Common obsessions include fears of contamination, of harming other persons or sinning against God.Compulsions are repetitive, purposeful, and intentional behaviours or mental acts performed in response to obsessions or according to certain rule that must be applied rigidly. Compulsions are meant to neutralize or reduce discomfort or to prevent a dreaded event or situation.Autonomic anxiety symptoms are often present.There is very frequent comorbidity with depression (about 80%) - suicidal thoughts. Obsessive-compulsory symptoms may appear in early stages of schizophrenia.The life time prevalence: 2 - 3%. Equally common in men and women. The course is variable and more likely to be chronic.
22Etiology of OCDThe neurobiological model has received widespread support in the past decade. OCD occurs more often in persons who have various neurological disorders, including cases of head trauma, epilepsy, Sydenham’s and Huntington’s chorea. OCD has also been linked to birth injury, abnormal EEG findings, abnormal auditory evoked potentials, growth delays, and abnormalities in neuropsychological test results. Recently, a type of OCD has been identified in children after a group A beta-streptococcal infection.The most widely studied biochemical model has focused on the neurotransmitter serotonin because SRIs are effective in treating patients with OCD.Brain imaging studies have provided some evidence of basal ganglia involvement in persons with OCD.
23Clinical ManagementThe treatment of OCD has traditionally been viewed as difficult and unsatisfactory. Recent developments have changed this picture substantially.Pharmacotherapyantidepressants influencing the central serotoninergic system (clomipramine and SSRIs); higher doses of the drugs are required to treat OCD than depression, and response is often delayed.Cognitive-behaviour therapyFamily therapyPatient support groupsPsychosurgery (e.g. stereotactic cingulotomy)
25F44 Dissociative (Conversion) Disorders F44.0 Dissociative amnesiaF44.1 Dissociative fugueF44.2 Dissociative stuporF44.3 Trance and possession disordersF44.4 Dissociative motor disordersF44.5 Dissociative convulsionsF44.6 Dissociative anaesthesia and sensory lossF44.7 Mixed dissociative (conversion) disordersF44.8 Other dissociative (conversion) disordersF44.9 Dissociative (conversion) disorder, unspecified
26Dissociative (Conversion) Disorders The common theme shared by dissociative disorders is a partial or complete loss of the normal integration between memories of the past, awareness of identity and immediate sensations, and control of bodily movements. There is normally a considerable degree of conscious control over the memories and sensations that can be selected for immediate attention, and the movements that are to be carried out.The term “conversion hysteria” should be avoided, because it is confusing and stigmatizing.The prevalence is not exactly known (up to 10%) .Sudden onset and termination of dissociative states.There are several forms of dissociative syndromes.
27Dissociative AmnesiaThe main feature is loss of memory, usually of important recent event, which is not due to organic mental disorder and is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness or fatigue.The amnesia is usually centered on traumatic events, such as accidents, combat experiences, or unexpected bereavements, and used to be partial and selective.The amnesia typically develops suddenly and can last from minutes to days.Differential diagnosis: complicated; it is necessary to rule out all organic brain disorders as well as various intoxications. The most difficult differentiation is from conscious simulation - malingering.
28Dissociative StuporThe individual suffers from diminution or absence of voluntary movement and normal responsiveness to external stimuli such as light, noise, and touch.The person lies or sits largely motionless for long periods of time.Speech and spontaneous and purposeful movement are completely absent.Muscle tone, posture, breathing, and sometimes eye-opening and coordinated eye movements are such that it is clear that the individual is neither asleep nor unconscious.Positive evidence of psychogenic causation in the form of either recent stressful events or prominent interpersonal or social problems.
29Trance and Possession Disorders There is a temporary loss of both the sense of personal identity and full awareness of the surroundings. The individual can act as if taken over by another personality, spirit, deity, or “force”. Repeated sets of extraordinary movements, postures, and utterances can be observed.
30Dissociative Disorders of Movement and Sensation There is a loss of or interference with movements or loss of sensations (usually cutaneous). Mild and transient varieties of these disorders are often seen in adolescence, particularly in girls, but the chronic varieties are usually found in young adults.Dissociative motor disordersDissociative convulsionsDissociative anaesthesiaGanser’s syndrome – „approximate” or grossly incorrect answersMultiple personality disorder means the apparent existence of two or more distinct personalities within an individual, with only one of them being evident at a time (Mr. Jekyl and Mr. Hyde). Each personality is complete, with its own memories, behaviours, and preferences, but neither has access to the memories of the other and the two are almost always unaware of each other’s existence. Change from one personality to another is in the first instance usually sudden and closely associated with traumatic events.
31Clinical ManagementPsychotherapy is a method of choice of treatment of dissociative disorders (e.g. psychodynamic programs, hypnosis).Medications have no proven value with exception of sodium amobarbital interview.
32F43 Reaction to Severe Stress, and Adjustment Disorders F43.0 Acute stress reactionF43.1 Post-traumatic stress disorderF43.2 Adjustment disordersF43.8 Other reactions to severe stressF43.9 Reaction to severe stress, unspecified
33Reaction to Severe Stress, and Adjustment Disorders This category differs from others in that it includes disorders identifiable not only on grounds of symptomatology and course but also on the basis of one or other of twoCausative influences:an exceptionally stressful life event (e.g. natural or man-made disaster, combat, serious accident, witnessing the violent death of others, or being the victim of torture, terrorism, rape, or other crime) producing an acute stress reactionsignificant life change leading to continued unpleasant circumstances that result in an adjustment disorderStressful event is thought to be the primary and overriding causal factor, and the disorder would not have occurred without its impact.
34Acute Stress ReactionA transient disorder of significant severity, which develops in an individual without any previous mental disorder in response to exceptional physical and/or psychological stress.Not all people exposed to the same stressful event develop the disorder.The symptoms: an initial state of „daze”, with some constriction of the field of consciousness and narrowing of attention, inability to comprehend stimuli, and disorientation. This state may be followed either by further withdrawal from the surrounding situation (extreme variant - dissociative stupor), or by agitation and overactivity.Autonomic signs - tachycardia, sweating or flushing, as well as other anxiety or depressive symptoms.The symptoms usually appear within minutes of the impact of the stressful event, and disappear within several hours, maximally 2—3 days.
35Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) PTSD is a delayed and/or protracted response to a stressful event of an exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature.The three major elements of PTSD includereexperiencing the trauma through dreams or recurrent and intrusive thoughts (“flashbacks”)showing emotional numbing such as feeling detached from othershaving symptoms of autonomic hyperarousal such as irritability and exaggerated startle response, insomniaCommonly there is fear and avoidance of cues that remind the sufferer of the original trauma. Anxiety and depression are commonly associated with the above symptoms. Excessive use of alcohol and drugs may be a complicating factor.The onset follows the trauma with a latency period, which may range from several weeks to months, but rarely more than half a year.The lifetime prevalence is estimated at about 0.5% in men and 1.2% in women.
36Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Acute Reaction on TraumaFlashbackTrauma
37Clinical Management Pharmacological approach: antidepressant medicationshort-term benzodiazepines trialsmood stabilizers (carbamazepine, valproate)antipsychoticsPsychotherapy is also of importance - CBT using education and exposure techniquesGroup therapy, family therapy and self-help groups are widely recommended.
38Adjustment DisordersAdjustment disorder comprises states of subjective distress and emotional disturbance arising in the period of adaptation to a significant life change or to the consequences of a stressful life event, such as serious physical illness, bereavement or separation, migration or refugee status.The clinical picture: depressed mood, anxiety, worry, a feeling of inability to cope, plan ahead, or continue in the present situation, and some degress of disability in the performance of daily routine.Onset - within 1 month; duration - below 6 months.More frequently women, unmarried and young persons.Psychotherapy is the first line treatment of this disorder. Symptomatic treatment may comprise short trial of hypnotics or benzodiazepines.
40F45 Somatoform Disorders Somatoform disorders - multiple, recurrent and frequent somatic complaints requiring medical attention without association with any physical disorder are prominent.The medical history of multiple contacts with primary care and specialized health services is typical before the patient is referred to psychiatric care.Characteristics of somatoform disorders:somatic complains of many medical maladies without association with serious demonstrable peripheral organ disorderpsychological problems and conflicts that are important in initiating, exacerbating and maintaining the disturbance
41F45.0 Somatization Disorder Diagnostic Guidelines A definite diagnosis requires the presence of all of the following:at least 2 years of multiple and variable physical symptoms for which no adequate physical explanation has been found,persistent refusal to accept the advice or reassurance of several doctors that there is no physical explanation for the symptoms,some degree of impairment of social and family functioning attributable to the nature of symptoms and resulting behavior.
42F45.0 Somatization Disorder Differential Diagnosis Medical conditions may be confused with somatoform disorder especially early in their course (multiple sclerosis, brain tumor, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, lupus erythematosus).Further investigation or consultation should be considered in long-term somatization disorder if there is a shift in the emphasis or stability of the physical complaints. This change in symptoms suggests possible development of physical disease.Affective (depressive) and anxiety disorders accompany somatization disorders but need not be specified separately unless they are sufficiently marked and persistent.
43F45.0 Somatization Disorder Therapy and Prognosis Chronic relapsing condition starting in adolescence or even as late as the third decade of life.New symptoms during the emotional distress.Typical episodes last 6 to 9 months; quiescent time of 9 to 12 months.Management strategies:the trusting relationship between the patient and one (if possible) primary care physicianset up regularly scheduled visits every 4 or 6 weekskeep outpatient visits brief-perform at least a partial physical examination during each visit directed at the organ system of complaintunderstand symptoms as emotional message rather than a sing of new disease, look for signs of disease rather than focus on symptomavoid diagnostic tests, laboratory evaluations and operative procedures unless clearly indicatedset a goal to get selected somatization patients referral- ready for mental health careGroup therapy (time limited, behavior oriented and structured group).
44F45.1 Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder The diagnosis should be considered if the complete and typical clinical picture of somatization disorders has not been fulfilled.No physical basis of the symptoms presented remains the basis for the diagnosis.Differential diagnosis:frequently occur in major depression and schizophrenia.chronic history of multiple somatic complaintsbegin before the age of 30adjustment disorder with unexplained somatic complaints should last by definition less than 6 mothsTherapy and prognosis:chronic and relapsing but some cases experience only one episodetreatment approaches – as in somatization disorder
45F45.2 Hypochondriacal Disorder The disorder is characterized by a persistent preoccupation and a fear of developing or having one or more serious and progressive physical disorders.Patients persistently complain of physical problems or are persistently preoccupied with their physical appearance.The fear is based on the misinterpretation of physical signs and sensations.Physician physical examination does not reveal any physical disorder, but the fear and convictions persist despite the reassurance.
46F45.2 Hypochondriacal Disorder Diagnostic Guidelines Presence of both of the following criteria:persistent belief in the presence of at least one serious physical illness underlying the presenting symptom or symptoms, even thought repeated investigations and examinations have not identified any adequate physical explanation, or a persistent preoccupation with presumed deformity or disfigurementpersistent refusal to accept the advice and reassurance of several different doctors that there is no physical illness or abnormity underlying the symptomsIncludes: Body dysmorphic disorder, Dysmorphophobia (non delusional), Hypochondriacal neurosis, Hypochondriasis, Nosophobia
47F45.2 Hypochondriacal Disorder Differential Diagnosis Basic - ruling out underlying organic disease.The main somatoform disorder that need to be differentiated from hypochondriasis is somatization disorder.Hypochondriasis needs to be distinguished from factitious disorder with predominantly physical signs and from malingering.
48F45.2 Hypochondriacal Disorder Therapy and Prognosis The illness is usually long-standing, with episodes lasting months or years. Recurrences occur frequently after psychosocial distress.Higher socio-economic status, presence of other treatable condition, anxiety and depression, an acute onset, absence of personality disorder or comorbid organic disease predict better outcome.No evidence-based treatment has been described.Patients strongly refuse the mental health care professionals and remain in primary health care.Similar management and group therapy strategy as in somatization disorder may be useful.
49F45.3 Somatoform Autonomic Dysfunction The symptoms are presented as physical disorder of system or organ largely or completely under controlled by autonomic innervation, i.e. the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or respiratory system and some aspects of genitourinary system.The symptoms are usually of two types:complaints based on objective signs of autonomic arousal (palpitation, sweating, flushing, tremor)idiosyncratic, subjective, non-specific (fleeting aches and pains, burning, heaviness, tightness, sensation of being bloated or distended)These symptoms patients refer to a specific organ or system.In many cases there is evidence of psychological stress or current problems related to the disorder.
50F45.3 Somatoform Autonomic Dysfunction Diagnostic Guidelines Symptoms of autonomic arousal such as palpitations, sweating, tremor, flushing which are troublesome and persistentAdditional subjective symptoms referred to specific organ or systemPreoccupation with the symptoms and possibility of serious (often non specified disorder). It does not respond to repeated explanations and reassurance of physiciansNo evidence of a significant disturbance of structure or function of the system or organ
51F45.3 Somatoform Autonomic Dysfunction Differential Diagnosis In comparison with generalized anxiety there is predominance of psychological component of autonomic arousal. In somatization disorders autonomic symptoms when they are present they are nor prominent nor persistent and symptoms are not so persistently attributed to one organ or system.Excludes: psychological and behavioural factors associated with disorders or diseases classified elsewhere (F54).The individual disorder may be classified by fifth character indicating the organ or system affected
52F45.3 Somatoform Autonomic Dysfunction Therapy and Prognosis Similar chronic relapsing condition as the somatization disorder.Patients report worse health than do those with chronic medical condition and their report of specific symptoms if they meet the severity criteria is sufficient and need not to be considered legitimate by the clinician.Treatment strategies will be similar stressing the importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration.
53F45.4 Persistent Somatoform Pain Disorder The predominant symptom is a persistent severe and distressing pain that cannot be explained fully by a physiological process of physical illness.Pain occurs in association with emotional conflicts or psychosocial problems.The expression of chronic pain may vary with different personalities and cultures.The patient is not malingering and the complaints about the intensity of the pain are to be believed.
54F45.4 Persistent Somatoform Pain Diagnostic Guidelines The clinical examination should focus onthe extend the patient is disabled by the painthe degree of complicating emotional factors and comorbid psychiatric conditionsIncludes: psychalgia, psychogenic backache or headache, somatoform pain disorder.
55F45.4 Persistent Somatoform Pain Differential Diagnosis Not included:pain presumed to be of psychological origin occurring during the course of depression or schizophreniapain due to known or inferred physiological mechanism such as muscle tension pain or migraine but still believed to have psychological cause are coded as P54the somatoform pain disorder has to be differentiated from histrionic behaviour in reaction to organic painExcluded backache NOS (M54.9), pain NOS (acute, chronic) (R52.-), tension type headache (G44.2).
56F45.4 Persistent Somatoform Pain Therapy and prognosis Once diagnosis is completed the outpatient treatment on regular basis by one interested physician has to be carried out.Patients have to be reassured that the treatment continues if there is some improvement.Those with pain-prone reaction to distress are described to have poor or transient improvement.Patients with comorbid depression may improve with antidepressant medication.Treatment with any type of the pain disorder subtypes needs to be multidisciplinary and multidimensional from the onset.
57F45.8 Other Somatoform Disorders In these disorders the presented complaints are not mediated through the autonomic nervous, and are limited to specific system of body part.Any other disorders of sensation not due to physical disorders which are closely associated in time with stressful event or problem and which results in significant increase of attention for the patient, personal or medical care should also be classified here.Swelling, movement on the skin and paraesthesias (tingling or/and numbness) are common.Disorders included in this category:“globus hystericuspsychogenic torticollis and other disorders of spasmodic movement (excluding Tourette’s syndrome)psychogenic pruritus but excluding specific skin lesions such as alopecia, dermatitis eczema, or urticaria of psychogenic origin
58F45.9 Somatoform Disorder, Unspecified Includes unspecified physiological or psychosomatic disorder in patients whose symptoms and associated disability do not fit the full criteria for other somatoform disorders. The treatment and the outcome however do not considerably differ.
59Other Neurotic Disorders F48 Other neurotic disordersF48.0 NeurastheniaF48.1 Depersonalization-derealization syndromeF48.8 Other specified neurotic disordersF48.9 Neurotic disorder, unspecified