Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 - Style Group Members: Helen 9310001A Stan 9310003A Sally 9310021A General 9310026A Judy 9310036A Peggy 9310032A."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 8 - Style Group Members: Helen 9310001A Stan 9310003A Sally 9310021A General 9310026A Judy 9310036A Peggy 9310032A
8a – Aim for a readable style Clear Thought: know and understand your topic A readable style + mastery of content = EXCELLENT paper
8 a-1 Understand your sources Reread the difficult part until you totally understand. Do not pretend to understand!!!!! Never quote something you ’ re not clear. Paraphrasing author's idea is a useful way to test your understanding.
8a-2 Be accurate Names, dates, and statistics (numbers) Ex. The United Nations (UN) officially was founded on 24 October 1945, increasing its member states to 192 until 28 June 2006.
8a-3 Be exact Know well about your topic Without being vague or fuzzy Use the correct technical terms
8a-3 Be exact Ex. The European Union (UN) is a political and economical community, which was founded together by six founding members in 1957. Revised. After WWII, in order to guarantee its lasting peace, the European Union (UN) was founded as a political (intergovermental co-operation and abolition of border control ) and economical (single market: freedom of movement of people, goods, services) community together by its six founding members : Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands in 1957.
8a-4 Be concise Condense a lot of information in few words. Ex. The development level of public transportation in European countries is high. Revised. public transportation is highly developed in European countries.
8a-4 Be concise Redundant expressions Ex. A bald-headed baby boy asked an extra added egg for breakfast at 7:30 a.m. in the morning.
8a-4 Be concise Meaningless words or phrases Ex. In actual fact, they were introduced for the first time yesterday.
8a-4 Be concise Snobbish diction Ex. A person desiderative of love is usually a solitariness and hollowness person. This kind of person will chase love without judgment, so we had better recommend him/her to ascertain other focus in his/her life.
8a-4 Be concise Ex. A person who pursues love is usually loneliness and emotional emptiness. This kind of person will chase love blindly, so we had better recommend him/her to find out other focus in his/her life.
8a-5 Vary your sentences Bad writers – Write the same kinds of sentences again and again. → Prepare going to hell!!! Good writers – Combine some sentences or beginning some others with a different words. → Mavis will love you FOREVER!!!
8a-5 Vary your sentences Ex. (BAD ONE) Sam comes from America. He will stay in Taiwan for 15 days. He said this is his second time to visit Taiwan. He plans to visit his friends here. He can not speak Chinese. He still desires to visit different cities in Taiwan. He is so exciting. He can not wait for this trip.
8a-5 Vary your sentences Ex. (GOOD ONE) Sam comes from America, and he will stay in Taiwan for 15 days. Besides, he said this is his second time to visit Taiwan, so he plans to visit his friends here. Although he can not speak Chinese, he still desires to visit different cities in Taiwan. In fact, he is so exciting, and he can not wait for this trip.
8a-5 Vary your sentences Learn to juxtapose short and long sentences. Ex. Hualien is the place I like most. It's a middle-sized city located in eastern Taiwan. People are lucky to appreciate a lot of seashore scenes due to its location. At the same time, people can enjoy the breeze that blew across the surface of the ocean.
8a-5 Vary your sentences Learn to subordinate. Ex. Coordinate: I read a book. Suddenly a man rushed in. Subordinate: Suddenly a man rushed in when I read a book.
8a-5 Ways to vary your sentences Learn to use parallel constructions. Ex. Not parallel: The old man sit on the sofa. Then he started reading the newspaper. Later he also drank a cup of coffee. Parallel: The old man sat on the sofa, read the newspaper, and drank a cup of coffee. *Note: All verbs are active and in the past.
8a-6 Use the active voice active passive Don ’ t use passive voice because Objective – myth Textbookish Stilted Avoid sexism Verbs
Passive The most influential theory in 20 th century, Relativity, is proposed by Einstein. And the development of new energy, nuclear power was influenced by this theory.
Active Einstein proposed the most influential theory in 20 th century, Relativity. And this theory had influenced the development of new energy which is nuclear power.
8a-6 2 exceptions call for the passive voice For an occasional change of pace For the sake of focus Tip: Using active voice tends to reduce wordiness.
8a-7 Use an appropriate point of view In the past, most instructors insisted that research papers be written only from the third-person point of view, and keep the writing objective.
Today many prestigious journals have relaxed their rules. Authors routinely use the “ I ’ or “ we ” point of view to report research data or draw attention to their findings.
First point of view: use “ I ”, “ we ”, and “ my ” those kind of words in your research paper. Ex. In my research I found that the most extreme negative criticism of Jefferson Davis places the full weight of the southern defeat on his head. What’s first-person point of view and third-person point of view?
Third-person point of view: use kind of “ objective ” words in sentences. Ex. Research indicates that the most extreme negative criticism of Jefferson Davis places the full weight of the Southern defeat on his head.
Use first-person point of view re third-person point of view? Ask you instructor Expressing your personal comment or judgment first-person
8a – Aim for a readable style 8a-8 Avoid sexist language In writing, watch for language that reflects the values and biases of a male-dominated society. ex. A doctor should always look after the best interest of his patients. his their
Use plural nouns and pronouns A doctor should always look after the best interest of his patients. their his or her A doctor should always look after the best interest of patients.
avoid the use of gender-biased words mankind, chairman, congressman, poetess, woman surgeon, actress. human or humankind, chair, member of congress, poet, surgeon,or actor.
“ thon ” - sort for “ that one ” use in place of he or him when the person ’ s gender is not identified. Example: when a police officer comes, I will ask him. when a police officer comes, I will ask thon.
Use passive voice Original passage: As soon as the doctor arrives, the nurse will notify him. passive voice : Upon arrival, the doctor will be notified by the nurse.
8b - Make your introduction clear Clearly explain what your paper proposes to argue, assert, or do.
8b-1 Strategies for lively introductions A. Use a quotation B. Ask a question C. Present an illustration
a. Use a quotation Help readers to plunge into the topic. Applicable to the topic Ex. "Liberty means responsibility. That is why most men dread it." (George Bernard Shaw)George Bernard Shaw
b. Ask a question Attract your reader into your topic. Ex. Would you have more children because of the welfare?
c. Present an illustration Use anecdotes or examples to let your readers willing to read your paper. Arouse readers desire of reading. Ex. P.150
8c. Write an effective conclusion 1. Summarize your main point 2. Suggest what the reader should do 3. End rather than stop
8c-1 Summarize your main points Review the major ideas in your paper Avoid more explanation, last- minute asides, and detail analysis
8c-2 Suggest what the reader should do Ex. We have to educate our younger because when we put the idea of how to help the environment, when they grow up, they will have a different thinking. We need to put three ideas in our mind, reuse, reduce and recycle. As we have these three ideas in mind, we can do a lot more to help our environment.
8c-3 End rather than stop To stop is simply to place a period at the end of your paper Ex. So, as you have read in this paper, the television footage of combat was simply inadequate. Revise. Because time constraints allowed only a tiny part of the action associates with combat in Vietnam to be aired on television; because the mechanics of television reporting (need for camera, sound equipment, film) handicapped field reporting; and because Americans refused to watch scenes depicting battlefield suffering, what Americans saw on television during the Vietnam War was cinema, not reality.