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Age of Ideologies Lecture #2 The Ideologies!. Was the Congress of Vienna Successful? Metaphor Time Water = Traditional Conservative Europe Fire = Liberal.

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Presentation on theme: "Age of Ideologies Lecture #2 The Ideologies!. Was the Congress of Vienna Successful? Metaphor Time Water = Traditional Conservative Europe Fire = Liberal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Age of Ideologies Lecture #2 The Ideologies!

2 Was the Congress of Vienna Successful? Metaphor Time Water = Traditional Conservative Europe Fire = Liberal Enlightenment Ideas First Bubbles- French Revolution Rolling Boil- Napoleonic Wars- Bring Rev. to the Rest of Europe

3 Was the Congress of Vienna Successful? Congress of Vienna Holy Alliance Carlsbad Decrees Censorship, etc

4 Congress of Vienna Holy Alliance Carlsbad Decrees Censorship, etc French Revolution Industrial Revolution

5 An Explosion of Ideologies Liberals, aka Classical Liberals, still existed after the French Revolution Classical Liberals v Modern Liberals Their basic tenets are basically unchanged Liberty – representative gov’t, checks on power, etc. Equality- no class system or legal discrimination However, these ideas lost their appeal for many. Why? Didn’t go far enough Failed in French Revolution Classical Liberals want economic liberalism/free market capitalism. In the new industrial age, this helps the bourgeoisie but not the working class. Ricardo, Malthus, and Smith are used by the bourgeoisie as justifications of self-interested policies Classical Liberalism is tied to the moderate middle class Many desire more radical reform

6 The Central Ideologies of the Age Utopian Socialism Scientific Socialism ‘Old-style’ Nationalism Romanticism

7 Utopian Socialism “The future, with industrial advancement will be perfect!” However, many thinkers rejected Utopian Socialism because it was impractical –The utopian socialists never got anything done!

8 Marxian, or ‘Scientific’ Socialism Marx saw that early (Utopian) Socialism was too ‘fanciful’ –not firmly grounded in theory or reality –begged the bourgeoisie for concessions they would never grant Inspired by (and teamed up with) Friedrich Engels (The Condition of the Working Class in England) Wrote the Communist Manifesto –Argued for a ‘scientific’ form of Socialism

9 Marx’s Basic Points history is the story of class struggle –bourgeoisie had recently replaced the feudal nobility Political and economic systems protect the class in power –Conservatism protected the aristocracy –Capitalism and Liberalism protect bourgeois exploitation of the proletariat + class consciousness = VIOLENT revolution –Why was class consciousness already growing? Believed that labor was the source of all economic value but that private property allowed capitalists to steal this value from workers After proletarian revolution, abolish private property… end of historical class struggle

10 Marxian Socialism – A More Complicated Look Idea of history as a dialectical process from German philosopher Hegel –Dialectic process means all of history was constant tension leading to constant, predictable, change Hegel argued that there was always a dominant societal model and an alternative model –The two fought it out until a new synthesis was formed and the whole process repeated. Marx added an engine to this dialectic: economics –Abolish private property and you end the dialectical process

11 Marx’s Impact Secular religion –included all of the dominant strains of thought of the time period: German philosophy, Utopian Socialism, and Classical Economics (Capitalism) it replaced religion –‘opiate of the masses’ Little noticed at first, but will become HUGE!

12 Marxian Socialism Is Highly Radical Fills Conservatives and even Classical Liberals with special dread. Why? “Let the Ruling Classes Tremble at a Communist revolution. The Proletariat have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE!”

13 Nationalism After 1 st Hundred Years War- France and England after 2 nd HYW- rest of Europe –Why? Largely a reaction against the French dominance of the continent of Europe. “I don’t know who ‘we’ are, but I know we aren’t ‘them’! Definition  hope to turn ethnic boundaries (defined especially by language) into political boundaries Most early nationalists were liberals or moderate socialists. Why does this make sense? –Liberalism- freedom and equality of an individual –Nationalism is the freedom and equality of a people…each people must be able to make their pure voice heard Why few conservative nationalists? –Conservative monarchs rule over empires– if these people get nationalist ideas, then you’ve got some problems

14 Nationalism (cont.) Nationalism’s Dark Underbelly –If we are prideful in our ethnicity, then … ??? –Later, we will be introduced to conservative nationalists and the will hit the fan –National Socialism  Nazism  equality of condition, but only for our people

15 Romanticism “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling recollected in tranquility”

16 German and English, which means it is religiously attached to … Sturm and Drang Movement

17 Born out of Rousseau Johann Wolfgang Goethe Francisco Goya William Wordsworth Lord Byron Mary Shelley Victor Hugo Alexander Pushkin Washington Irving Ludwig van Beethoven Liszt Richard Wagner

18 Characteristics Emotion Spontaneity Love of nature Desire to know the unknowable Fascinated with the bizarre and exotic Anti-materialist Intensely individualist ‘bohemian’

19 A Break With Classicism Rejects Industrialization

20 Beethoven’s Ode to Joy

21

22 Closely connected to Nationalism Why? –Because Romanticism argues for intense individualism –Nationalism is like individualism of a collective group (nationality/culture) –the unique essence of each culture Europe as a ‘concert’ where each culture must play their instrument Brother’s Grimm and other folktales

23 Possibly Wagner- Flight of the Valkeryies Here

24 HansenName ____________________ AP Euro Period _________ The Age of Ideologies Lecture #2 ‘ The Ideologies’ Note-Taking Guide) An Explosion of Ideologies –Liberals, aka Classical Liberals, still existed after the French Revolution Classical Liberals v Moderate Liberals _____ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ –Their basic tenets are basically unchanged Liberty – ______________________________________ Equality- ______________________________________ –However, these ideas lost their appeal for many. Why? ___________________________________ Classical Liberals want __________________________ _______________________. In the new industrial age, this helps the bourgeoisie but not the working class. –Ricardo, Malthus, and Smith are used by the bourgeoisie as justifications of self-interested policies Classical Liberalism is tied to the moderate middle class –______________________________ The Central Ideologies of the Age –______________________ - ________________________ Utopian Socialism –“The future, with industrial advancement __________!” –However, many thinkers rejected Utopian Socialism because it was _____________ The utopian socialists never _________________! Marxian, or ‘Scientific’, Socialism –Marx saw that early (Utopian) Socialism was too ‘fanciful’ ____________________________________________ begged the bourgeoisie for concessions ______________ __________________________ –Inspired by (and teamed up with) _______________ (The Condition of the Working Class in England) –Wrote _____________________________________ Argued for a _______________________________ –Marx’s Basic Points history is the story of __________________ –_____________________________________ _____________________________________ Political and economic systems ____________________ –Conservatism protected the ___________ Capitalism and Liberalism _________________ –exploitation of the proletariat + class consciousness = __________________________ –Why was class consciousness already growing? ______________________________________ ______________________________________ Believed that _________________________________ but that private property allowed capitalists to steal this value from workers After proletarian revolution, ______________________ … end of historical class struggle –Marxian Socialism- a More Complicated Look Idea of history as a ___________________ from German philosopher Hegel –Dialectic process means all of history was _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Hegel argued that there was always a dominant societal model and an alternative model –______________________________________ ______________________________________ Marx added an engine to this dialectic: ___________ –Abolish private property and you __________ _____________________________________

25 –Marx’s Impact _____________________ –included all of the dominant strains of thought of the time period: German philosophy, Utopian Socialism, and Classical Economics (Capitalism) it replaced religion –‘opiate of the masses’ - ___________________ _______________________________________ Little noticed at first, but will _________________! –Marxian Socialism is __________________ Fills Conservatives and even Classical Liberals with special dread. Why? “Let the Ruling Classes Tremble at a Communist revolution. The Proletariat have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE!” In other words __________________________________ _____________________________________________ Nationalism –After 1 st Hundred Years War- France and England –after 2 nd HYW- ______________________ Why? Largely a reaction against the _______________ _______________________________. “I don’t know who ______ are, but I know we aren’t __________! –Definition  hope to turn ___________________ (defined ______________________________) into political boundaries –Most early nationalists were liberals or moderate socialists. Why does this make sense? Liberalism- freedom and equality of an individual Nationalism is the freedom and equality ____________ ______________________ people must be able to make their ______________________________ –Why few conservative nationalists? Conservative monarchs rule over empires– if these people ________________________________________ ______________________________________________ –Nationalism’s ___________________ If we are prideful in our ethnicity, then … ??? Later, we will be introduced to conservative nationalists and the ________________________________ National Socialism  Nazism  __________________ ___________________________________ Romanticism –“the spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling recollected in tranquility” –German and English, which means it is religiously attached to _________________________ –Sturm and Drang Movement- __________________________ –Characteristics –Emotion, Spontaneity, Love of nature, Desire to know the unknowable, Fascinated with the _____________, ________________, _________________, ‘bohemian’ –A break with Classicism Rejects Industrialization –Closely Connected to Nationalism Why? –Because Romanticism argues for intense individualism –Nationalism is like ______________________ _____________________________________ –the unique essence of each culture »Europe as a ‘concert’ where _______ ______________________________ »Brother’s Grimm and other folktales - _______________________________ _______________________________


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