5Theories of Death Anxiety Freud suggests that it is quite impossible for us to imagine what it is like to be dead.He says that whenever we try to do this ‘we survive as spectators’ because deep down everyone thinks they are immortal.
6Death – A Universal Phenomenon ‘We are all travelling on different roads to the same destination…… All roads lead not to Rome but to the grave’(Pojman 1992, p29)
7Perspectives of death There are so many diverse views of death There is the cold body on the slab or the freeing of the soulAlthough we are confronted with the cold harsh reality of death (which the first picture portrays) this may not be the image we carry around with us. As thinking feeling human beings (unlike many animals) we have the knowledge that one day we are going to die yet we need to get on with living without being dominated by an ever present sense of foreboding….Perhaps therefore we develop a more emotionally acceptable way of viewing death that holds a degree of reality without leaving us with a huge sense of dread with our every waking moment. Perhaps therefore we develop more etherial and spiritual ways of viewing death
8Attitudes towards Death Death integral part of human existenceConsequently a subject of anguish & concern at some stage in our livesIndividual attitudes varyCollective view based on a variety of world eventsInterplay between the two
9What causes anxiety about death? Unknown nature of what lies beyondIndiscriminateHuman knowledge & science have failed to stop death which makes death ill-understoodWhen we fail to understand a phenomenon we construct our own image of it which tends to be negative & destructive
10What causes anxiety about death? (cont’d) Terrifying – it is ever present & brutally impartialMonstrous invisible presenceThreatening to take away everything we care about in an instantInevitabilityLoss of control
11Some amusing quotes on death He would make a lovely corpse ~ Charles DickensWe all have to die someday…if we live long enough ~ Dave FarberDeath is just nature’s way of telling you to slow down – Dick SharplesThey say such nice things at funerals that it makes me sad that I am going to miss mine by just a few days ~ Garrisson KeillerI don’t mind dying it’s just that you feel so bloody stiff the next day ~ George AxelrodLife is pleasant death is peaceful it’s the transition that is troublesome ~ Isaac AsimovA dead atheist is someone who is all dressed up with nowhere to go ~ James DuffecyDeath is a very dull, dreary affair, and my advice is to have nothing to do with it ~ Somerset MaughanI don’t want to achieve immortality through my work but through not dying ~ Woody Allen
12Definition of Death Anxiety ‘Death anxiety (thanatophobia) is defined as a feeling of dread, apprehension or solicitude (anxiety) when one thinks of the process of dying, or ceasing to be or what happens after death. Death is defined as the state of non-being, the termination of biological life’ (Bond 1994,p4)
13Theories of Death Anxiety That death anxiety is the most intense and pervasive phobiaThat other phobias are based on death anxietyMuch of people’s daily behaviour consists of attempts to deny death & thereby keep their basic anxiety under controlFunction of society is to strengthen individual defences against death anxiety (Ernest Becker, 1973)
14Defenses against Death Anxiety (Yalom) Belief in Personal SpecialnessCompulsive HeroismBelief in an Ultimate RescuerSpecialness ‘while we believe that we will die at some point that this rational understanding may be met by a more powerful belief that whereas others are doomed to die we are som
15Death AcceptanceNeutral – neither fearing nor welcoming the event but acceptance of inevitability of deathApproach – based on belief of life after deathEscape – welcome alternative to a life that is full of misery (Wong 2002)
16Coping with Death Anxiety Symbolic immortalityBiological – living through children grandchildrenReligious & spiritual – believing in an afterlife – transition of soul to another dimensionCreative – living through one’s works. Being remembered because of our accomplishments
17Coping with Death Anxiety Natural – through the survival of nature itself. When we die we return to nature which lives forever.Cultural – through identification with an institution or tradition, which transcends our own death. (Wong, 2002)
18Life Extension Movement who wage war on death Calorie minimizers – who consume little food - pale cold & lacking vitalitySupplementarians – obsessed with physical health & ignore spiritual psychological dimensionsCryonists – preserving bodiesCalorie minimizers – who consume as little food as possible lower the body temperature and slow down the human metabolismA walking death – pale cold and lacking vitalityThey want to prolong existence at the expense of joy of livingDoctor if I ….will I live longer?SupplementariansWho consume a wide variety of supplements to slow down the process of ageing, from vitamin pills to Chinese herbalism – they are obsessed with their physical health and ignore the psychological and spiritual dimensions of deathThe cryoniists, who pay large amounts of money to have their heads or entire bodies frozen in a tank of liquid nitrogen until science finds a way to resurrect them. They invest their money and hope in fantasy and science faction.
19Desairology!A strong contender for Book of the Month is published in America. Noella Papagno, a Florida hairdresser who specialises in corpses, is the author of Desairology: Hairstyling for the Deceased.“If people knew this service existed,” says Ms Papagno, sagely, “they wouldn’t find dying so difficult.”The Guardian 17th November 1999
20Going back to Our RootsSweden's new funeral rite - bodies freeze-dried, powdered and made into tree mulch By Kate Connolly in BerlinThe technique was conceived by a Swedish biologist, Susanne Wiigh-Masak, 49, who said: "Mulching was nature's original plan for us, and that's what used to happen to us at the start of humanity - we went back into the soil.
21Diamonds are ForeverThe LifeGem® is a certified, high-quality diamond created from the carbon of your loved one as a memorial to their unique life.
22Handsets get taken to the grave More people than ever are asking to be buried or cremated with their mobile phones when they die, say researchers.(BBC News March 2006)
23Terror Management Theory Assumes humans spend a great deal of psychological energy to manage/deny subconscious terrorDefences include - Cognitive immortality (attachment to institutions, traditions, symbols) - Self esteem enhancementWhen these beliefs are threatened we resort to anger/violence to bolster our sense of security & protect our illusion of immortality (Greenberg et al 1997)
24How can TMT impact on HCPs? Defences may be threatened by encounter with a person with serious illnessWestern societies promote ideal standards of physical appearance & beautyA person with physical illness may fail to conform to the physical expectations of world views (Mosher & Danoff-Burg 2007)
25How can TMT impact on HCPs? Exposure to another person’s illness or disability evokes fear of suffering the same fate & psychological distancing.Thus observing vulnerability in others may impair defences against death awarenessThis can result in greater death anxiety & social avoidance of affected individuals
27Things that give some people meaning AltruismBeautySelf-actualization/CreativityRelationships (Wong 2002)
28Personal Meaning of death: the philosophical perspective Integrity Versus DespairRegret Theory(Erikson,1963)Erikson (1963) states that in order for individuals in the final stages to reconcile themselves with death, they need to resolve the crisis of integrity vs despairIntegrity refers to the state of mind relates to the firm belief that life is worthwhile and meaningful.There is also an acknowledged acceptance of the differences between the reality of that lived life and what would have been the ideal. The differences between the two are reconciled.Despair refers to individuals who feel that they have frittered away the years without true investment in their life and are likely to feel a sense of despair and in this case will fear deathFrankl (1965) suggest that finding a meaning in life helps to negate a person’s sense of fear of death.
29Meaning management model We are born with innate need for meaning but it may lie dormant because of our preoccupation with business of livingDeath & suffering awaken in us an urgent need to search for meaning & purpose for life and deathWe can discover and create meaning in every situation even in the face of death
30Meaning management model Helps to deepen our faith & spirituality helps us construct useful psychological & spiritual models that helps to protect us against fear of death & dyingMotivates us to embrace life to engage in the business of living regardless of our physical condition & present circumstancesHelps us to re-think our values, beliefs and meaning systems (Wong 2002)
31Self Preservation vs Forming Close Relationship ‘ a possible paradox may arise between the need …to develop a close relationship (with the patient) and the increased risk of emotional damage by becoming closely involved’(Farley, 2004: 75)The nurse wrestles with the need to engage in a strong meaningful relationship while conscious of the simultaneous need for self preservation.
32Death Anxiety in Staff‘part of a well established tradition that has recently begun to be questioned is the idea that somehow, somewhere in the education of hcps, something magichappens to free them from the personal reaction of pain, mutilation, and death’ (Foy, 1990:1024)
33The Effects of Death Anxiety on Staff Terminal patients of physicians with high death anxiety survive longer during final hospital stay than terminal patients of physicians with low death anxiety.Physicians high in death anxiety seem to be less willing to accept patient’s terminality & use heroic measures (Schultz & Aderman1978)
34Death Anxiety & Comfort Levels during Communication (Death & Dying) Comfort levels of the nurse adversely affected by in Nurse’s death anxietyPositively affected by communication education (Deffner & Bell 2005)
35The Need for Death Education Death anxiety seen as a contributory factor with regard to occupational stress that is associated with cancer and palliative care (Llewallyn & Payne, 1995)The way in HCPs experience death and the general public is vastly different therefore the traditional grief models do not apply (Papadatou, 2000)
36The Need for Death Education HCPs who work in hospices have lower Death Anxiety than colleagues in other settingsFactors that correlate strongly with scores on Death Attitude Index were: - Death Education - Sacred Value system(Carr & Merriman, 1996)
37Death Education for HCPs We are embedded in our time and culture…each generation contends with presence of death – raging against it, embracing it, attempting to domesticate it Feifel (1982)Although we are more knowledgeable & realistic about death there is a persisting avoidance
38Death Education ‘How can we know death if we don’t know how to live’ (Confucius)However Wong (1994) suggests‘How can we know how to live if we don’t understand death’
39Death Education‘To solve the problem of death, one must first solve the problem of life, living life. If one is able to do that, to live a truly human life, then there is nothing to be feared by the experience of death, because the experience of death is a natural part of life’Dennis Yoshikawa – Shin Buddhist
40Summary We care for the dying The dying look to us for comfort & solaceWe can provide this more effectively if we have an openness & self awareness of our own mortality.Death Education allow us to explore a range of issues & raise our sense of self awarenessDeath Education can help us to develop effective coping strategies