Presentation on theme: "Jeremiah’s “Confessions” in 11-20 You, Yahweh, are like a deceitful brook, like waters that fail 15:18 If you, Jeremiah, repent, I’ll restore you to serve."— Presentation transcript:
Jeremiah’s “Confessions” in 11-20 You, Yahweh, are like a deceitful brook, like waters that fail 15:18 If you, Jeremiah, repent, I’ll restore you to serve me once more 15:19 They have dug a pit for my life; deliver their children to famine; deal with them, God, while you are still angry 18:18-23
Another Confession 20:7-12 Jeremiah accuses God of violating him. Yahweh has forced him to prophesy. All my close friends want me to fail. Yahweh is with me like a dread warrior! 20:13 Sing to the Lord: he has delivered the life of the needy from the hand of evildoers 20:14-18 Damn the day on which I was born!
The Family of Shaphan Shaphan took the book of the law to Josiah (2 Kings 22) Ahikam (Shaphan’s son) saved Jeremiah from execution after temple sermon (Jer 26:24) Elasah (Shaphan’s son) conveyed the letter to the exiles (29:3) Gemariah (Shaphan’s son)--Baruch read Jeremiah’s scroll in his temple chamber; urged Jehoiakim not to burn scroll. Gedaliah (Shaphan’s grandson, through Ahikam) was governor after the fall of Jerusalem (39:14) and was asked to protect Jeremiah after Babylonian victory (40:5). Later he was assassinated (41:2)
Shaphan (Book of Law) Ahikam (saved Jeremiah after Temple sermon) Gedaliah (governor) Elasah (letter to the exiles) Gemariah (Don’t Burn the scroll)
Gemariah the son of Shaphan Jer 36:10-12, 26 urged Jehoiakim not to burn scroll whyrmgl !pv ![b]
Temple Sermon--609 Chapter 7 C word; Chapter 26 B word Relationship to Deuteronomic reform? “Temple of Yahweh”—an empty slogan Steal, murder, commit adultery, swear falsely (Why this order?) Has this house become a den of robbers? Go to my place at Shiloh
Temple Sermon--609 Chapter 26 B word Jeremiah is threatened with death; saved because of precedent of Micah who had said: “Zion shall be plowed like a field” At that time Hezekiah prayed and God changed his mind Was Micah unduly pessimistic, even wrong? Uriah killed by Jehoiakim (26:23); per contra Jeremiah, who was saved by Ahikam son of Shaphan (26:24)
“Belonging to Ahikam the son of Shaphan” Ahikam saved Jeremiah from execution after temple sermon Hilkiah the priest tells Shaphan: “I have found the book of the law” djos2.jpg @~qyxal !pv !b
Jeremiah’s Letter to the exiles 29:1-9 Communication took place between exile and the land Build, marry, have children--seek shalom of the city Worship (without temple and sacrificial cult) is possible in an unclean land Praying for Babylon is in Israel’s self-interest—in its welfare you will find your welfare. Praying for the enemy
Another letter to the exiles 51:59- 64 Delivered by Seraiah the son of Neriah (brother of Baruch) Listed disasters that would come on Babylon Private rather than public Dealt with future not present Read it and cast it into Euphrates--thus shall Babylon sink, no more to rise. cf. 51:34
Jer 51:59 whyrfl whyrn To Seriah (the son of) Neraiah Seriah.jpg
Jeremiah’s Life (37-38) Kings: Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, Zedekiah, (Gedaliah) Rescued by Ebed-melech, the Cushite Jeremiah: If you, Zedekiah, surrender, your life will be spared. 38:17 Zedekiah begs Jeremiah not to tell others of the disastrous fate that awaits the king 38:24
Jeremiah’s Life (39-41) Zedekiah captured, witnesses murder of his sons, and is blinded. 39:1-10; 52:4-16 Jeremiah entrusted to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan. 39:11-14 Word of deliverance for Ebed-melech because he trusted in Yahweh and pulled Jeremiah from a cistern. 38:7-13; 39:15-17 Baalis king of the Ammonites sends Ishmael to assassinate Gedaliah 40:13-41:3
Gedaliah servant of the king = Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan gedal.jpg $lmh db[ whyldgl
Baalis king of the son(s) Ammon Jeremiah 40 Baalis dr.jpg !m[ !b $lm [vyl[b
Jeremiah’s Life (42-44) Jeremiah advises against going to Egypt Jeremiah and Baruch forcibly taken to Egypt. Jeremiah: Nebuchadrezzar will invade Egypt. Jeremiah denounces worship of the queen of heaven
Baruch in 605 36 Baruch wrote words of first scroll and read it in the temple. 36 Baruch also wrote a second scroll. 45 Baruch given his life as a prize of war. The story of Baruch in 36 and 45 frames the story of “Jeremiah and the peril of the word of God” in 37-44
Berekiah (Baruch) son of Neriah the scribe rpsh whyrn !b whykrbl baruch.jpg
Jeremiah’s Messiah 23:5-6 righteous or legitimate “branch” –I am going to bring my servant the branch (Zech 3:8; 6:12) He shall rule as king and act wisely; he shall practice justice and righteousness (Per contra: Zedekiah) Judah will be saved and Israel dwell securely: a reunited nation “Yahweh is the source of our vindication.” Zidqiyahu (Zedekiah) replaced by Yahweh sidqenu
Deuteronomistic Phraseology in chapter 23 and related passages Shepherds scatter sheep 23:1-2 You (shepherds) drove them away 23:2 You did not supervise (attend to) them 23:2 I, Yahweh, will scatter them 9:16 I drove them away 23:3, 8 Behold I will supervise (punish) you 23:2
Deuteronomistic Reversals in Jeremiah Yahweh says: I will gather the remnant that has been scattered 23:3 I will bring them back from the place where I have driven them 23:3 I will carry out a saving visit of you who have been “visited” with punishment 29:10
Jeremiah 30 1-4 Write it down! I will restore the fortunes of my people 5-11 While Israel will experience deserved chastisement, Israel will be saved from the land of their captivity. 12-17 Zion though chastised is still the object of Yahweh’s affection. All who prey on you will be made a prey 18-24 I will restore the fortunes of Jacob. You shall be my people and I will be your God
Jeremiah 31 1-6 I have loved you with an everlasting love. One day Ephraim will say, Let us go up to Zion, to Yahweh our God. 7-14 A grand homecoming, witnessed by the nations. Yahweh will ransom and redeem 15-26 Rachel weeps for her lost children, but they will come back! Ephraim: Let me come back, for you are Yahweh my God. 27-30 “The parents ate sour grapes and the children’s teeth are set on edge.” No, each generation will be accountable for itself.
A Step beyond the Deuteronomistic History Deut 28:63 and Josh 23:15: God’s bad word is as certain as his previous good word. Just as the Lord took delight in making you prosperous, so the Lord will take delight in bringing you to ruin. Jer 31:28; 32:42 God’s good word is as certain as his previous bad word. Just as I have watched over them to pluck up and break down, so I will watch over them to build and to plant.
A Reinterpretation of the Messiah, 33:14-16 God promises to establish the previous word (=23:5-6) Judah will be saved and Jerusalem (not Israel) dwell securely (a diminished vision) Her (not his; hence the pronoun refers to Jerusalem not the messiah) name = “Yahweh is the source of our vindication” 33:14-26 lacking in the Septuagint
Later reinterpretation of this passage vv. 17-18 Future Davidic dynasty, not just an individual king; Levitical priests also = “dynastic” vv. 19-22 the covenant with Davidic and Levitical lines will be unbreakable. vv. 23-26 Yahweh has an unbreakable covenant with Jacob and with David. One of David’s descendants will reign over seed of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
Ancestral and Sinai Covenants Genesis 15 Covenant with Abram and Sarai Genesis 17-- Everlasting Covenant with Abraham and Sarah Deuteronomy--ancestral covenant Fulfilled in David who ruled from Nile to Euphrates and in covenant with David Genesis 17 = ancestral covenant an end in itself Fulfilled on Horeb/Sinai/ and renewed in Jeremiah
The New Covenant--Jer 31:31-34 It’s an oracle of Yahweh! vv. 31, 32, 33, 34 Both kingdoms--Israel and Judah “New” or “renewed” covenant? Even though I was their husband? their baal? Ytl[b
More on the New Covenant God’s law written on heart (cf. gift of a new heart in Ezekiel); God’s law is not optional equipment What does it mean to “know” Yahweh? –[Josiah] judged the cause of the poor and needy….Is not this to know me? 22:15-16 Theological basis for new covenant I will forgive their iniquity I will not remember their sin anymore
Oracles against the Nations A prophet over nations and kingdoms 1:10 Egypt attempts to deter Nebuchadnezzar from invading Palestine 46:2-12 A Babylonian attack and the defeat of Egypt 46:13-26 Yahweh’s vengeance will come against Babylon; arrogant Babylon becomes the object of Yahweh’s assault ch. 51
Jeremiah 30-33 Book of Consolation 31:2-6 Israel will plant vineyards in Samaria; 31:9 Yahweh a father to Israel. 31:15 Rachel weeping for children…but her children will come back 31:29 parents have eaten sour grapes and children’s teeth are set on edge 32 Jeremiah bought field in Anathoth 33:10-13 future worship in the temple; future wedding celebrations in towns that are desolate