Abnormal Psychology Types of Disorders Older Terms: Neurosis, Psychosis DSM-IV-TR = Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4 th Edition, Text Revision) gives objective, measurable criteria for diagnosing psychological disorders Does not suggest therapies or treatments Does not discuss possible causes
Anxiety Disorders Anxiety disorders – persistent, excessive or unrealistic anxiety and fearfulness that impairs normal functioning includes maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety (e.g., alcohol and drug use) Menu
Anxiety Disorders Generalized anxiety disorder “ Free-floating,” unrealistic anxiety, chronic worrying lasting over 6 months -Persistent high autonomic nervous system arousal -May involve physical problems such as diarrhea -Panic disorder Recurrent discrete episodes or attacks of extremely intense terror or dread (“I feel like I’m dying”) - Many physical symptoms such as chest pains, choking - Panic attacks - Can be triggered by specific phobias or can be spontaneous
Anxiety Disorders Phobia - an irrational, persistent fear of a specific object, situation, or social activity. Example: phobia of dogs entails immediate terror in virtually every encounter with any dog
Anxiety Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Persistent, uncontrollable, repetitive thoughts (obsession) and the need to perform some action to relieve the obsessive thoughts (compulsion) Examples: Excessive cleaning, checking OCD’s cannot disengage attention from the obsession Very high frontal lobe activity (red)
Causes of Anxiety Disorders Behaviorist Perspective - assumes they are learned by associative learning processes –e.g., you are bitten by a dog bite = UCS, dog = CS –Problems: Anxiety disorders can emerge without trauma Traumatic experiences don’t always produce anxiety disorders
Causes of Anxiety Disorders Biological Perspective – Anxiety disorders arise from physical problems and genetic influences –chemical imbalances, in particular serotonin and GABA systems.
Causes of Anxiety Disorders Psychoanalytic explanations Repressed urges and desires trying to come into consciousness, creating anxiety that is controlled by the abnormal behavior. –e.g., shame of sexual urges may be expressed through agoraphobia, obsessive cleaning, etc.
Causes of Anxiety Disorders Cognitive: Illogical, irrational thought processes –Magnification - the tendency to interpret situations as far more dangerous, harmful, or important than they actually are. –All-or-nothing thinking - the tendency to believe that one’s performance must be perfect or the result will be a total failure. –Overgeneralization - the tendency to interpret a single negative event as a never-ending pattern of defeat and failure. –Minimization - the tendency to give little or no importance to one’s successes or positive events and traits.
Dissociative Disorders Dissociative disorders – Break in conscious awareness, memory, or sense of identity, usually as a result of extreme stress. –Psychogenic Amnesia –Dissociative Fugue – fleeing home and “coming to” with amnesia for the trip and possible amnesia for personal information. –Depersonalization Disorder –the person feels detached and disconnected from themselves, their bodies, and their surroundings. Menu
Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Identity Disorder Rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities Formerly called multiple personality disorder, or “split personality” Reaction to overwhelming stress? Assumes repressed memories Recognized by DSM-IV, but not all clinicians believe in it
Mood Disorders Two Major forms of Mood Disorders Major Depression and Bipolar Disorder characterized by emotional extremes Prolonged, disabling disruptions in emotional state Note that functioning is almost always severely impaired
Mood Disorders Major Depressive Disorder mood disorder in which a person, for no rational reason, experiences persistent depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
Mood Disorders - Depression Depression –Accompanied by negative cognitions Cause or effect? –Often accompanied by anxiety and/or substance abuse –Women’s risk of depression is double that of men’s –Depression rates are increasing, especially in young
Mood Disorders Manic Episode hyperactive, elated, wildly irrational optimistic or irritable state Reckless investments, spending sprees, unsafe sex Bipolar Disorder Rarer mood disorder, alternate between hopelessness & lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania formerly called manic-depressive disorder
Schizophrenia 1 in 100 young adults develop schizophrenia a group of severe disorders characterized by: Disorganized thinking and communicating Psychosis An inability to distinguish fantasy from reality Disturbed perceptions (usually auditory) Delusions - Believing things that are not real (conspiracy, Jesus- complex) Hallucinations - Hearing or seeing things that are not there Inappropriate emotions and actions Flat affect
Schizophrenia 2 major divisions or categories Chronic (process) Slow developing Usually negative symptoms (absence of appropriate behaviors) Absence of emotion (flat affect) Absence of movement (catatonia) Absence of social interaction (withdrawal) Low recovery rates Acute (reactive) Sudden onset Usually positive symptoms (presence of inappropriate behaviors) Presence of hallucinations, delusions Better recovery rate
Personality Disorders Personality Disorders characterized by chronic and enduring behavior patterns that begin very early in life and impair social functioning persistent, rigid, and maladaptive pattern of behavior that interferes with normal social interactions. usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions Tend to be especially ingrained and inflexible and hard to treat
Personality Disorders –Borderline personality disorder - maladaptive personality pattern in which the person is moody, unstable, lacks a clear sense of identity, and often clings to others. –Has no coherent sense of self, instead becomes skilled at pretending to be whoever they perceive they need to be at the time –Evidence for unstable “fear circuit” Menu
Personality Disorders Antisocial Personality Disorder Impulsive personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, including toward friends and family members Antisocial personality disorder - disorder in which a person has no morals or conscience and often behaves in an impulsive manner without regard for the consequences of that behavior. may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist Formerly called psychopath or sociopath Shows little or no respect for social laws, customs or norms Has little fear, regret, or feeling about anything Many commit crimes, spend time in jail Genetic basis – relatives are more likely to develop the disorder Low levels of stress hormones, less frontal lobe tissue and activity
What is “abnormal?” Psychological Disorder a “harmful dysfunction” where behavior is: *Emotionally distressing (maladaptive): Leads to personal distress or harm, or harm to others Interferes with a person’s ability to function and adapt to the stresses and everyday demands of life. *Unjustifiable: no identifiable and reasonable external cause
DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Version IV, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) – the guidebook of psychological disorders and their symptoms. gives objective, measurable criteria for diagnosing psychological disorders -Does not suggest therapies or treatments -Does not discuss possible causes Menu
Causes of Schizophrenia Psychoanalytic theories see schizophrenia as resulting from a severe breakdown of the ego, which has become overwhelmed by the demands of the unconscious id and results in childish, infantile behavior. Behaviorists focus on how reinforcement, observational learning, and shaping affect the development of the behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia. Cognitive theorists see schizophrenia as severely irrational thinking.
Causes of Schizophrenia Biological explanations focus on dopamine, structural defects in the brain, and genetic influences in schizophrenia. Bio-psycho-social model - explanation of disorder that assumes a biological sensitivity, or vulnerability, to a certain disorder will develop under the right conditions of environmental or emotional stress. Menu
Insanity as a Legal Defense Insanity : A legal term defined as inability to understand that certain actions are wrong at the time of a crime Under this definition, people with recognized disorders may be judged legally sane Famous cases where insanity defense succeeded : John Hinckley Jr., Lorena Bobbitt, Deanna Laney Where insanity defense did NOT succeed : Jeffrey Dahmer, Andrea Yates -Should we blame the person or nature/nurture? -Insanity defense is used in less than 1% of criminal felony cases, despite public perception that it is common (what heuristic is this?)