Presentation on theme: "Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe postclassical."— Presentation transcript:
Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe postclassical
Section 1: Byzantium Western Roman Empire crumbled in the 5th century due to invading Germanic tribes Constantine moved the capital east to Byzantium- where he could respond to the dangers of the Germanic tribes as well as close in on the rich trade going through Byzantium He renamed the city, Constantinople and made it his new capital As the western Empire began to decline, the eastern part became independent-Byzantine Empire (modern day Istanbul) Empire divided in 395 AD Justinian succeeded his uncle as ruler of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantium The emperor Justinian temporarily restored the fortunes of the Byzantine state Justinian mounted a reconquest of parts of the empire lost to the Germanic tribes The generals Belisarius and Narses took back northern Africa from the Vandals, Italy from the Ostrogoths, and a part of Spain from the Visigoths. The enormous expense of Justinian's ambitious military policy was passed on in taxes to the residents of the empire. The Hagia Sophia
Byzantium Justinian held absolute power Justinian is also credited with codifying the Roman legal system, and his code has provided the model for many European legal systems- Justinian Code Code regulated whole areas of Byzantine life from marriage to inheritance Empire lasted for 900 years Justinian began a large public building project- repaired the fortifications of the city: 14 mile stone wall, deep moats, 3 walls- inner most 25 feet thick Also built churches like the Hagia Sohpia His wife, Empress Theodora aided him in his rule Education was very important to the Byzantines, who sent their children to be educated at public schools or by tutors
Byzantium Byzantium suffered from some setbacks: the plague (10,000 a day died at its height), attacks by Lombards, Avars, Slavs, Bulgars, Arabs, and Russians mid 7 th century Arab attacks start 717-718 Arab advances beaten back due to Greek fire! Wars with Muslims added new economic burdens! Taxation Arab pressures continued Arabs conquered Crete in 9 th century Muslim active in Mediterranean trade Problems with Bulgaria settle via military and marriage. Bulgarian king called himself tsar (10 th century from Caesar). By 11 th century Byzantine emperor Basil II, Bulgaroktonos, slayer of Bulgarians, defeated them in 1014 (blinding as many as 15,000)
Greek fire Greek Fire was the secret weapon of the Eastern Roman Emperors (673 AD). The "liquid fire" was hurled on to the ships of their enemies from siphons and burst into flames on contact. As it was reputed to be inextinguishable and burned even on water, it caused panic and dread. Both Arab and Greek sources agree that it surpassed all incendiary weapons in destruction. The secret behind the Greek fire was handed down from one emperor to the next for centuries. The exact composition, however, remains unknown. http://www.greece.org/Romiosini/greek_fire.html
Basil II Bulgaroktonos Miniature of Basil II Bulgaroktonos (the Bulgar Slayer) wearing military uniform and crown and holding a sword, from an early 11th century Psalter, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice. http://www.macedonian-heritage.gr/HellenicMacedonia/en/img_D21a.html
Byzantium’s religion began to diverge from Roman Catholicism-developed into Eastern Orthodox Church Patriarch Michael asked must bread be baked without yeast and he attacked celibacy of priests. 2 Churches couldn’t resolve the problems. The Pope excommunicated the patriarch and his followers! So the patriarch excommunicated all Roman Catholics! Byzantium sent missionaries to spread their religion- reached out to Slavs and developed the Cyrillic alphabet (includes Russian) from the missionary Cyril and Methodius Byzantine Empire similar to China: emperor was divine and head of state and church Emperor appointed bishops and passed religious and secular laws! Importance of education and bureaucrats! Could come from any level of society. Provincial governors, use of spies, and carefully military organization Used Roman system of recruiting locally and rewarding soldiers with land. Sons started inheriting important positions in the military and displaced bureaucrats.
Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed or St. Basil's Cathedral) is a multi-tented church on the Red Square in Moscow. The cathedral was commissioned by Ivan the Terrible and built between 1555 and 1561 in Moscow.
Religion and Art Italian (Spoleto) The Last Supper and the Agony in the Garden, about 1300
Fra Filippo Lippi. Madonna and Child with Angels. 1457- 1465. Tempera on panel. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy Renaissance
The Mother of God of Vladimir 11-12 th Century Russia
Byzantine Empire Decline After split between eastern and western churches the decline started Muslim Turkish invaders pressuring eastern border By late 11 th century Turkish troops (Seljuks) seized Asiatic provinces. Lost battle of Manzikert in 1071 and army never recovered. Leaders appealed to Europe for help and they were largely ignored! Italian cities began to prosper and were granted special privileges in Constantinople Constantinople was raided by Western European knights who pillaged the city in 1204 on their way to fight against the Turks in the Crusades! Constantinople fell in 1453 to the Ottoman Turks By 1461 the Turks had conquered the remaining pockets of Byzantine control. Bring Islamic power into Eastern Europe.
Russia Slavs from the north began trade with Constantinople Russian culture grew out of the blending of Greek Byzantine and Slavic ideas 3 rivers connected the early territory of Russia: Dnieper, Don, and Volga The forests in this area where inhabited by Slavic farmers and traders There were also bands of adventurers: Vikings Vikings built forts and settled along the rivers Legend says that the early Russians invited the Viking prince to become their king: Rurik 862 Rurik became king of Novgorod Rurik was from the Varangian tribe called the Rus. After his death the land expanded and Rus princes lent their name. 855 Kievan Rus-state that formed from Novgorod…incorporated Kiev and Rurik’s descendants ruled and made Kiev new capital…it facilitate trade between Novgorod and Constantinople. Lasted until Mongols Travel with the Viking raiders and see what areas they pillagedTravel with the Viking raiders and see what areas they pillaged
Russia Merchandise they brought to Constantinople included timber, fur, wax, honey, and slaves (Slavs) Kiev grew into a powerful state ruled by the descendants of Rurik 957 Princess Olga converted to Christianity (Eastern Orthodox) Vladimir (grandson) converted entire country to Christianity in 989 –due to studies Kiev and its surroundings were Russia 1 st important unified territory Vladimir expanded the state 1019 Yaroslav the Wise (son of Vladimir): led Kiev to even greater glory by expanded territory, creating marriage alliances, and creating a legal code (Truth of Rus). Decline of Kiev began with the death of Yaroslav in 1054 He dividing up his realm among his sons instead of passing it to the eldest. His sons tore the state apart fighting for the choicest territories and this practice only continue among their successors!-weakened state Additionally, Russian trade was undermined during the Crusades!
Mongols/ Tatars in Russia Mongol attacks began in 1200 AD led by Chinggis Khan-the most feared warrior of that time Mongols were savage killers. After the death of Chinggis his sons/grandsons continued to expansion 1240 attacked demolished a weakened Kiev (by Batu Khan) Mongols ruled southern Russia for over 200 years where they set up tribute systems as well as Khanates (territories) Russians were aloud to follow their own customs/ beliefs
Kiev’s destruction In 1240 Mongols demolished Kiev under Batu Kahn (Chinggis Khan’s grandson). So many inhabitants were slaughtered that a Russian historian stated “no eye remained to weep”. Five years later a Roman Catholic bishop traveling through Kiev wrote “When we passed through that land, we found lying in the fields countless heads and bones of dead people” Mongols ruled all of southern Russia following the fall of Kiev for over 200 years! The official name for the Mongol empire in Russia was Khanate of the Golden Horde =Khanate from the Mongol word for kingdom =Golden b/c gold was the royal color of the Mongols =Horde from the Mongol work for camp
Russia Mongols very tolerant and allowed Russians to keep their traditions so long as there was no sign of rebellions. They wanted obedience and massive amounts of tribute! Russia became increasingly unified under Mongols and Moscow rose to prominence. Prior it had really been a collection of small independent principalities while under the Mongols it was one. Moscow –founded in 1100s and located along 3 important rivers (Volga, Don, and Dnieper) Moscow’s prince, Ivan I, was liked by the Mongols and for his services in crushing revolts against Mongol rule, Ivan I got to collect tribute in all Slavic lands conquered- nickname “Ivan Moneybags”. He became the most powerful Russian prince. Mongols gave him the title “Great Prince” Moscow central seat of Russian power. Ivan even convinced the patriarch to move from Kiev to Moscow. He and his successors expanded Moscow.
Russia Ivan III (1462-1505)-married the niece of the last Byzantine Emperor –called himself czar (russian for caesar) and claimed Russia the 3 rd Rome. (Was 13yrs old when Constantinople fell to Ottoman Turks). He claimed that Russia was the 3 rd Rome. 1480 broke with the Mongols and refused to pay tribute. Resulted in a stand off between the Russians and Mongol armies…but no one wanted to fight so they went home-bloodless standoff marked Russia’s liberation!
Turks Turks began migrating into the Muslim Abbasid Empire At first the Turks were slaves trained as soldiers and employed as bodyguards called mamelukes (Remember Egypt) The Abbasids were starting to lose territory and in 945 the Persian armies moved into Baghdad and put an end to the caliph’s political powers After this event more Turks migrated Sekjuks were a large group that had migrated in and had converted to Islam 1055 the captured Baghdad from the Persians 1071 marched against the Byzantines in the Battle of Manzikert and crushed them Turks went on to occupy most of the Anatolia
Turks Turks were very nice to the conquered Persians and even placed them in important government offices like vizier-prime minister Looked to Persians for both cultural and religious guidance Seljuk rulers were called shahs The most famous Seljuk sultan was Malik Shah Malik beautified cities throughout his great empire Turks preference for Persian caused Arabic language to almost disappear After Malik died no strong ruler followed and this caused the Seljuk empire to fall into kingdoms At this point is when the West launched the Crusades 1 st by Pope Urban II-1095- recover Jerusalem Under Saladin Muslims recovered Jerusalem Popes called for more crusades, but they were weak Mongols-Hulagu-took Baghdad. Killed caliph- scared way Mongols lost power due to administration problems Ottomans rose up and took back control