2Exposition: character, setting, and basic situation. Ruben, Dad (Mr. Land), Davy and SwedeA small house in North Dakota; winter 1962Ruben and his family are poor and without a mother. The family works hard together but they are happy until Davy decides to take the law into his own hands.
3Flashback: A scene that takes place in the past Ruben’s birth to Helen and Jeremiah land in Ruben tells us about his birth at the beginning of the story. He tells the story of his birth as it was told to him by his father.
4Two local bullies Israel Finch and Tommy Basca corner Davy’s Girl in the gym. Mr. Land saves Dolly and beats the boys. They began to harass the family. Finch and Basca take paint the family’s door with tar and then kidnap Swede. Davy breaks the windows in Finch’s car to tempt them back to the house. He is waiting for them with a gun and shoots them when they enter the house. Both boys die and he goes to trial but escapes prison. The family starts a journey to search for Davy. Mr. Anderson, a federal agent, is also looking for him.Conflict: a struggle between forces; conflict usually occurs during rising action
5Atmosphere: mood or feeling of the story The setting is winter in the woods which is a cold and desolate place. There is lots of references to cold and death in this story. This creates an atmosphere of dread and foreboding.
6Foreshadowing: a hint or clue that something is going to happen “When Dad had switched on the porch light, revealing the door, my stomach jumped. I wanted to puke. I’d been standing by Davy and felt waves ofof something spooky come off him; I felt straight off that a piece of your lives had changed, as certainly as our cheerful green door had gone to black.This foreshadows the change in Davy that results in the murder of Finch and Basca as well as the change in the family’s situation.
8Protagonist: the main character-Antagonist: against the main character Protagonist: AmirAmir is the protagonist because the story is told by his point of view. It is his storyAntagonist: AssefAssef is the antagonist because he torments Amir and Hassan throughout their childhood and later Amir has to rescue Hassan’s son from him.
9Subordinate characters: Minor characters in the story. Dr. Kumar-the doctor that fixes Hassan’s hairlip.Ali-Hassan’s fatherRahim Khan-a friend of Amir’s. He tells him about Hassan’s son.Soraya-Amir’s wifeSohrab-Hassan’s son
10Motivation: the reasons behind a character’s actions Amir’s motivation to find and rescue Hassan’s son, Sohrab, is to free himself from the guilt he has carried with him since his childhood; over doing nothing while his friend Hassan was raped. It is also a way for him to finally make amends with Hassan.
11Flat character: is not fully developed Sanaubar-She is the mother of Hassan. She is in the story briefly at the beginning. She is portrayed as a stereotypical Jezebel; beautiful and cruel.
12Round character: is fully developed Baba-Amir’s father. He is a father and a man. We see his good qualities as well as his faults. He showed bravery by getting his family out of Kabul. He showed his selfishness by having an affair with Sanaubar and fathering Hassan.
13Dynamic character: changes during the story. Hassan and AmirBoth boy’s lives are changed forever when Hassan is raped. Their friendship is strained over the guilt that Amir feels.
14Static Character: does not change during the story. Assef is the same cruel sociopath that he is in the beginning of the story as well as at the end of the story.
15The loyalty and cruelty of the Circus in Water for Elephants
16Narrator: the teller of the story Point of view: Omniscient 1st person, or third person limited The narrator of our story is Jacob JanowskiThis story is told from the first person point of view. We see everything from Jacob’s eyes. We only get to know what Jacob is thinking.
17Tone: The writer's attitude toward the subject This author has a great love of the circus. This is evident by the writers diction and voice.Diction: The author has carefully researched her subject. She uses the language of the circus: Rube>non-circus people, First of May>new to working in the circus, rostabout> circus worker
18Subject: the topic of a work of literature The subject of this story is the realities of circus life
20Situational irony: contrary to what you expect to happen At the beginning of the book Pi says, “Richard Parker has stayed with me. I have never forgotten him.” Pi talks of Richard Parker as if he is human so as a reader you believe he is; and do not realize it is a tiger until further on in the book. Finding out that Richard Parker is actually a tiger is situational irony.
21Verbal Irony: the opposite of what you mean “Mr. Okamoto: ‘Very Interesting.’ Mr. Chiba: ‘What a story” (Martel, 291). Both men don’t really mean the story is interesting. They believe that Pi is lying. This is verbal irony.
22Dramatic Irony: the audience knows what happens but the character doesn’t know “So the explosion, if there was one, was not a new noise. It was an irregular noise” (Martel, 191). We the audience know the ship is about to sink but young Pi only believes it is just ship noises.
23Ambiguity: A quality that allows something to be interpreted in several different ways The Life of Pi has an ambiguous ending. Pi tells two stories to the Japanese men. One is the story he tells the narrator about the animals in the life boat. The other story has no animals, only humans. It is never clear which story is the “real” story. It is left up to the reader to decide.
24Women bought and sold in The Girl with a Pearl Earring
25Symbol: something that stands for more than itself. The Pearl earring can stand for the life that Griet can never have with Vermeer.
26Allegory: A story that stands for something more than itself. The story is a representation of the painting by Johannes Vermeer. The author uses it as an inspiration for her fictional story.
27Imagery: Language that appeals to the one or more of the 5 senses. “ A woman stood in front of a table, turned towards a mirror on the wall so that she was in profile. She wore a mantle of rich yellow satin trimmed with white ermine, and a fashionable five-pointed red ribbon in her hair. A window t hr from the left, falling across her face and tracing the delicate curve of her forehead and nose. She was tying a string of pearls around her neck, holding the ribbons up, her hands suspended in the air” (Chevalier, 36). This appeals to the sense of sight and it describes one of Vermeer’s paintings.
28Simile: compares two unlike things using like or as. “His eyes came to rest on me like a butterfly on a flower and I could not keep from blushing” (Chevalier, 40). This is simile. The writer compares his eyes to a butterfly.
29Metaphor: compares two unlike things without using like or as. “His blond hair was long and thick with curls, framing a face that made me think of apricots” (Chevalier, 40). This is a metaphor. The author compares his face to an apricot as if to suggest he had smooth skin colored like an apricot.